#1. “In gaining knowledge, each area of knowledge uses a network of ways of knowing.” Discuss this statement with reference to two areas of knowledge.
With different areas of knowledge, different ways of knowing are used to gain knowledge. Those different areas of knowledge require certain ways of knowing in order to be understood. With the two areas of knowledge, natural sciences and arts, we can discuss different ways of knowing. With natural science, ways of knowing that helps to gain knowledge are language, sense perception, reason, intuition, and memory. Within the arts, the ways of knowing that helps us gain knowledge include sense perception, imagination, emotion, language and memory. All of these ways of knowing work together to help us to gain knowledge within natural sciences and the arts, however, there are people who use skepticism to question the validity.
Skepticism is the attitude of doubting or questioning knowledge claims set forth in various areas of knowledge. Skeptics have challenged the reliability of these claims by asking what principles they are based upon or what they actually establish. They have questioned whether some claims really are real or necessarily true, and they have challenged the rational or valid grounds of accepted assumptions. In day to day life, almost everyone is skeptical about some knowledge claims; but philosophical skeptics have doubted the possibility of any knowledge with any experiences. Within the arts and natural sciences, people use skepticism as a counter for the claim that in gaining knowledge, each area of knowledge uses a network of ways of knowing. They do this by saying, we don’t gain knowledge, because we can’t actually know anything and have no way of truly gaining knowledge. They question the findings and claims made for every experience. When skeptics make the claim, we don’t know anything and can’t truly know anything they are right in a sense. That claim is true, however the paradigm/world/reality that we live in forces us to use common sense and logic when analyzing experiences. Many philosophers think that common sense is the best way to view the world. We can understand this from a philosopher, G. E. Moore and observe that what’s most rational or logical to believe is what we have the most overall evidence for. Usually we have more overall evidence that we know something than we do for some premise of a skeptic’s argument, that if we can’t make them say ” I know this to be this way without any other possibilities,” then we don’t know and therefore a claim is invalid. When looking at a claim we need to use common sense to validate its truthfulness within our observable paradigm. For example, within the arts, skeptics ask how do we know beauty exists? This a very cynical questions that should be asked but should not disqualify the fact we use different ways of knowing in art like imagination, language and emotion in order to perceive and gain knowledge about beauty. It is logical and makes common sense because collective evidence suggests that in nature there is natural beauty that appeals to us. Another example skeptics will use in the natural sciences is that, we don’t know if scientific laws are real. They think our reality could just be a dream, that has certain scientific laws that don’t translate to actual reality. This argument again doesn’t make sense. We must think logically using common sense. We experience scientific laws within our own paradigm and the ways of knowing like sense perception, reason and memory provides us with evidence that the claim scientific laws exist are in fact true in our reality. All in all, skeptics like to say that we don’t actually know anything and therefore don’t gain knowledge however, if we use common sense and evidence provided within our own paradigm, we can logically conclude that in gaining knowledge within the arts and natural sciences we use a network of ways of knowing.
To continue, within art and the natural science we use a network of ways of knowing in order to gain knowledge. With the arts, the main ways of knowing we use in order to gain knowledge are sense perception, imagination, emotion, language and memory. These ways of knowing work to help use gain knowledge. When gaining knowledge within the arts, we use sense perception to gain personal knowledge. We then gain knowledge from other people via memory and language in order to understand the arts. After we use imagination and emotion to gain the greatest understanding of art. This seen when panting. We use the ways of knowing together to have a cohesive artistic experience and become more knowledgeable within the arts. Within the natural science we use similar ways of knowing in order to gain an understanding of it. Within the natural science we use language, sense perception, intuition, reason, and memory. These ways of knowing work together cohesively to create the most knowledge. In order to gain knowledge, we use sense perception to observe or surroundings and experiences and gain personal knowledge. We share that personal knowledge gained via language and memory. We then analyze the gained knowledge via intuition and reason to create a greater understanding. All of the ways of knowing are connected we see that when conducting a standard explement. We use all the ways of knowing in order to gain knowledge about a subject. The ways of knowing have to stay balanced. We create the correct connection need for balanced by reflecting on the knowledge gained by repetitive experimentation.
In conclusion, we gain knowledge in the areas of knowledge, arts and natural sciences, by a balanced connection of ways of knowing. In the arts we use sense perception, imagination, emotion, language and memory. In the natural sciences, we use language, sense perception, reason, intuition, and memory. Some skeptics try to say we don’t gain any knowledge because we can’t actually know anything however, if we use common sense and logics to view experiences from our paradigm, we can see that we do in fact gain knowledge from a connection of ways of knowing.
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Klein, Peter. “Skepticism.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, 8 Dec. 2001, plato.stanford.edu/entries/skepticism/.
“Educational Psychology Interactive: Measurement, Evalutation & Research: Ways of Knowing.” Educational Psychology Interactive: Operant Conditioning, www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/intro/wayknow.html.
“IB Diploma Programme.” Wake County Public School System, www.wcpss.net/Page/7359.