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Rock Street, San Francisco

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PCU
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Offshore Protection Engineering Co. (OPEC) ”
The Effect of Management Information System and their Relationship to the Quality of the Administrative Decisions
An Applied Study on
Offshore Protection Engineering Co. OPEC
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???? ??????? – ????? ??? ??? ????????/ ????? ????? ????
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???? ??????? – ????? ??? ???
2018

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????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????/ ???? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ????????.

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??? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??? ???????.

??? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ???????.

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????? ??????? ?
????? ??????? ?
????? ?????
?????? ????? ????? 1-26
1/1. ????? ????? 2
1/2. ????? ????? 4
1/3. ????? ????? 5
1/4.???? ????? 6
1/5.????? ????? 6
1/6.?????? ????? 7
1/7?????? ??????? ???????? 8
1/8. ????? ????? ????? 9
1/9. ???? ??????? 10
1/10. ??????? ??????? 10
1/11. ??????? ??????? 11
1/12. ???????? ??????? 14
????? ??????
??? ????????? ???????? 27-59
2/1. ????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? 29
2/2. ???????? 30
2/3.????????? 31
2/4.????? ????????? 31
2/5.????? ????? 32
2/6. ???? ?????? 39
2/7. ????? ??? ????????? 40
2/8. ??????? ???????? ???? ????????? 42
2/9.????? ??? ????????? ???????? 47
2/10.?????? ??? ????????? ???????? 56
2/11. ???? ????????? 58
????? ??????
???? ???????? ???????? 60-86
3/1. ????????? ?????? ???????? 62
3/2. ????? ????? ?????? 67
3/3. ??????? ??? ????????? 68
3/4. ????? ??? ??? ?????? 68
3/5. ???? ???????? 69
3/6. ???????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ???????? 70
3/7. ????? ???????? 71
3/8. ????? ????? ????? ?????? 76
3/9. ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? 85
3/10. ????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? 85
3/11. ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? 85
????? ??????
??????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ???????? 87-145
?????? ?????: ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? 88
4/1/1 ????? 89
4/1/2 ????? ????????? ????? OPEC 89
4/1/2/1 ???? ??????? 90
4/1/2/2 ????? ???? ??? ???????? 91
4/1/2/3 ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???????? 92
4/1/2/4 ????? ????? ??????? 93
4/1/2/5 ????? ??????? ??????????? 96
4/1/3 ???????? ????????? ????????? 97
?????? ??????: ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? 99
4/2/1 ????? 100
4/2/2 ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ??????? ???????????? 100
4/2/3 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ???????? ??????? 105
4/2/3/1 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? 106
4/2/3/1/1 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? 109
4/2/3/1/2 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????????? ????????? ??????? 111
4/2/3/1/3 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? 113
4/2/3/1/4 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????????? ???????? ??????? 114
4/2/3/1/5 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? 116
4/2/3/2 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? 118
4/2/4 ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? OPEC ??? ??????? ?????? 120
4/2/4/1 ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? 120
4/2/4/2 ?????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 121
4/2/4/3 ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? 123
4/2/4/3/1????? ?????? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? 125
4/2/4/3/2 ????? ?????? ????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? 127
4/2/4/3/3 ????? ?????? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? 128
4/2/4/3/4 ????? ?????? ????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? 130
4/2/4/3/5 ????? ?????? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? 132
?????? ??????: ??????? ???????? ????????? 135
4/3/1 ????? 136
4/3/2 ????? ????? ??????? 136
4/3/3 ?????? ??????? 142
4/3/4 ??????? ???????? ?????????? 143
??????? 146-155
??????? ?????? ??????? 147
??????? ?????? ?????????? 154
??????? 156-161
???? ???? ??? ???????? 157
???? ????????? 158
???? ??????? 162-166
???? ??????? ?????? ?????? 163
???? ??????? ?????? ?????????? 165
????? ???????
??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????
1 ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????????? 46
2 ????? ???? ??????? ??????????? 90
3 ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? 93
4 ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? 94
5 ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ???????? 96
6 ????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????? 101
7 ????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????? 102
8 ????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ??????? ???????? 103
9 ????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ?????? 104
10 ????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ??????? ??????? 104
11 ?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ?????? ??????? 106
12 ?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ??????? ??????? 107
13 ?????? (Sample T-1) ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? 108
14 ?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? 109
15 ?????? (Sample T-1) ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? 110
16 ?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????? 111
17 ?????? (Sample T-1) ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????? 112
18 ?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? 113
19 ?????? (Sample T-1) ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? 114
20 ?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? 115
21 ?????? (Sample T-1) ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? 115
22 ?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? 116
23 ?????? (Sample T-1) ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? 117
24 ?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) 118
25 ?????? (Sample T-1) ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? 119
26 ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? 123
27 ????? ????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? 124
28 ????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? 124
29 ????? ????? ??????? (ANOVA) ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? 124
30 ????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 125
31 ????? ???????? ??? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 126
32 ????? ????? ??????? (ANOVA) ??? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 126
33 ????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 127
34 ????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 127
35 ????? ????? ??????? (ANOVA) ??? ????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 128
36 ????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 129
37 ????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 129
38 ????? ????? ??????? (ANOVA) ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 130
39 ????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 131
40 ????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 131
41 ????? ????? ??????? (ANOVA) ??? ????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 131
42 ????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 132
43 ????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 133
44 ????? ????? ??????? (ANOVA) ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 133
45 ??? ??????? ???????? 144
????? ???????
??? ????? ????? ????? ??? ??????
1 ??????? ??????? 10
2 ???? ???????? ??? ??????? 34
3 ???? ??????? ????????? ???????? 51
4 ???? ??????? ????????? ???????? 53
5 ????? ????? 55
6 ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? 57
7 ????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????? 75
8 ????? ????? ????? ?????? 77
9 ????? ????? ???? ????? 78
10 ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? 79
11 ????? ???? ?????? 84
12 ????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ????? OPEC 90
13 ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? OPEC 94
14 ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????? OPEC 96
15 ????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????? 101
16 ????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????? 102
17 ????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ??????? ???????? 103
18 ????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ?????? 104
19 ????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ??????? ??????? 105
20 ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ?????? ??????? ??????? 108
21 ????? ??????? R2 ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? OPEC 134
????? ?????
?????? ????? ?????
1/1. ????? ?????
1/2. ????? ?????
1/3. ????? ?????
1/4.???? ?????
1/5.????? ?????
1/6.?????? ?????
1/7.?????? ??????? ????????
1/8. ????? ????? ?????
1/9. ???? ???????
1/10. ??????? ???????
1/11. ??????? ???????
1/12. ???????? ???????
1/1. ?????:
????? ???? Offshore Protection Engineering Co. (OPEC) ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????.

?????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ????? ? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????.

?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ????? ????????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????().
?????????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????().
?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????().
?? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? (???????? ??????? ????????? ???????) ???? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ?????.
??? ??? ???????? (Lamberton, 2000) ??? ??? ???? ???? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????: “?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ???????? ???? ????????? ???? ???? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??????().
?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ?????????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????().
?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ????????.
1/2. ????? ?????:
?? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ??????? ???? ????????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ????????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ????????().
????? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????().

??? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ?? ???? OPEC.
?? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????:
?? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? OPEC?
?????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????:
?? ???? ??? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? OPEC?
?? ???? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? OPEC?
?? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? OPEC?
?? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? OPEC?
?? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? OPEC?
1/3. ??? ?????:
???? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????.
?????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ???? OPEC.
????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? OPEC.
?????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? OPEC.
?????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ???? OPEC ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??????.
?????? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? OPEC.
????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ???????.
1/4. ???? ?????:
?? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ???????:
?? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? OPEC.

?????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??????:
????? ?????: ?? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? OPEC.
????? ??????: ?? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? OPEC.
????? ??????: ?? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? OPEC.
????? ??????: ?? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? OPEC.
????? ??????: ?? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? OPEC.
1/5. ????? ?????:
1/5/1. ??????? ???????:
???? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? OPEC ??? ????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ????????? ????????.
?????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???? OPEC.
??? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????.
????? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????.
1/5/2. ??????? ???????:
???? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???? OPEC ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ????????.
1/6. ?????? ?????:
?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??? ???:
???????? ???????: ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????:
????? ???????? ??????? ?????????.
??????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????????.
???????? ??? ???????.
????????.

???????? ???????.
??????? ?????????: ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ??????.
1/7. ?????? ??????? ????????:
??????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? SPSS? ????????? ???? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ??????:
????? ???????.
????? ???????: ?????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????.
???????? ????????: ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????.
????? ?????? ???????.
????? ???????? ??????.

??????? ????????: ????? ???? ???????
1/8. ????? ????? ?????:
????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????.

??????? ??????: ??????? ??????????? (??? ????? ???????? – ????? ???????)
??????? ??????: ??????? ????? (??? ????????? ????????– ??? ???????? ????????) ? ??????? ???????? (??? ??? ??????– ??? ??? ?????? ???????)
??????? ??????.

?????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ()
? = ? (1 – ?)
? (1 – ?) + (?)2
(?1) (? × ?)2
??? ??:
?1: ??? ????? ???????
?: ???? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? 50%.
?: ???? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? 5%.
? × ?: ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? 95% ????? ???? ?????? ????????? ???????? = 1.96
?: ??? ??????
1/9. ???? ???????:
?????? ????????: ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? OPEC.
?????? ???????: ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? (2015 – 2018)
??? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ???????? ????????.
1/10. ??????? ???????:
????????? ????????: ????? ????????? ????????.
??????? ??????: ???? ???????? ????????.
????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????:
-2286026035???? OPEC
??? ????????? ????????
?????? ?????: ?????/ ???????
?????/ ????? ??????/ ?????
??????? ????????
?????? ??? ?????????
???? ?????????:
?????/ ????????/ ???????
????????? ????????
??????? ??? ?????????
?????/ ??????
??????? ??????
???? ????????
????? ???????
????? ???????
??? ???????
?????? ?????? ??????
????? ??????
????? ???????
00???? OPEC
??? ????????? ????????
?????? ?????: ?????/ ???????
?????/ ????? ??????/ ?????
??????? ????????
?????? ??? ?????????
???? ?????????:
?????/ ????????/ ???????
????????? ????????
??????? ??? ?????????
?????/ ??????
??????? ??????
???? ????????
????? ???????
????? ???????
??? ???????
?????? ?????? ??????
????? ??????
????? ???????

??? ??? (1)
* ??????: ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????
1/11. ??????? ???????:
??? ??? ??????:
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????? ??? (Packer, 1999) ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ???????? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?? ????????.
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????? (?????? ?? ?????? 2002?)() ??????: ??? ????????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????????.
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????? ???? ?????? (2000): ????? ??????? ?????? “??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???”? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????????. ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? (??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????) ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????. ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ?? ????????? ????? ?????????.
????? (????? ????? 2000?)() ??????: ????? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????.
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????? (??? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ???????)() ????? ????? ???? ????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????????: ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ????????? 2000?.
???? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????.
????? ???? ???? ???? (1999): ?????? “???? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????”? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????: ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? (25) ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ?????????.

????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? (1995): ?????? “??? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ????????”? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? (????? ??????: ??? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??: ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????) ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ????????? (???????) ???? ???? ???? ??? ???????? (????????)? ??????? ???????? (66) ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ???????? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ???????? ????? ????????? ???? ?????? ???????? (????? ????? ????? ????????) ??????? ??????? ????? (????? ?????? ????? ????????) ??????? ????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ????????.
????? ???? ??????? (1993)() : ?????? “???? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????”? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??????? (????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????????) ?? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? (24) ????? ?? ??? ?????.
?????? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??? ???? ????? (72%)? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ???????:
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????? ????? ????????? ???? (1992)(): ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? “???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ????????”? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????.
????? ???? ???? ??????? (1983)() : ????? ??????? ?????? “????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????”? ???? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??? (63%) ?? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???? ????????? ??? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????.
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????? ( 2010 ) Poolad Dameshvar() :?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ????????? (???????? ???????: ???? (????)? 2010). ???? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ????????? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????.
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????? ?????? Attarana ( 2004)() :????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ????????? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ( ????? – ??? – ???? – ???????? ) ???? ???? ??? ????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ????????? ????????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?? ???????.

????? ??????? ?????? )2003(() :?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? (???????: ???? “????”? 2003). ???? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????.
????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? 16 ???? ?? ??? ??????. ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ????????? ??? 1060 ??? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? 323 ??????? ????.
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???? ????? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????.
4- ????? ?????????? ??????? ????? (2000)() : ?????? “??? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????” ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ??????: ???? ??? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???? ??????. ???? ?? ???? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ???????. ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????.
????? ????? ??? ????? ???? (1998)() : ?????? “??? ????????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????”? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ?????????? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????. ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ???? (????) ???? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ???? ??? ???????. ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ???????.
????? ???????? ???? (1998)() :?????? “??????? ????????? ?? ????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????”? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????? ??????? ??? 1460 ?? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ??????. ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ????????? ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????.
????? ????? ?. ????? (1980)() :?????? “????? ???? ??? ?????????”? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? (280) ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ???????? ???????:
???? ???????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ?????????.
????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????.
?????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????.
??????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????.
?????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????.
??????? ??? ???????? ???????:
??? ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ??????:
???? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ??????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????.
??? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????.
??? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?????.

?? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ???? Offshore Protection Engineering Co. (OPEC)???????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ???? Offshore Protection Engineering Co. (OPEC).

????? ??????
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2/1. ????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ????????
2/2. ????????
2/3.?????????
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2/6. ???? ??????
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2/10.?????? ??? ????????? ????????
2/11. ???? ?????????
?????:
???? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ????????.

???? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ??? (??? ?????? ????????) ?????? ????? ??? 20 ???? (??? ????? ???????????) ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? (????? ?????????) ?????????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ???????.

???? ????? ???? ???????? ??????? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????.

????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?? ???? ????? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ????? ????().

??? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ???? ???? ???????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ????????? ????????().

2/1. ????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ????????:
?? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ????? ? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ????????().

??????? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ???????().

???? ?? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????().

??? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???? ???????(). ????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ??????????.

2/2. ???????? Data:
??? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ????? (??????) ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?????.

????? ??? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?? ???? ????????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ???????.

2/3.????????? Information:
?? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????.

??? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ???.

??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???.

2/4.????? ?????????:
???? ?????: ????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ???.

???? ?????: ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ?????.

2/5.????? ?????:
????? ??????: ???? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ???????(). ?????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ????.

??? ?? ?????? () ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????.

?????? ??????: ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????:
???????? (inputs): ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ???.

?????????: (????????)? (???????) (operation, processing): ??? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? (????????) ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????.

???????? (out put): ????? ????? ?????? ??????: ??? ??????? ?? ????? ????????. ?? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?????????. ????????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ???? ???.

??????? ??????? (feedback): ????? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????? ? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????? , ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ? ?? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????? ? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ? ?????????.

??? ??? (2)
?????? ??????
??? ??? () ????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ??????:
????? ??????? (closed system): ?? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ???.

????? ???????? (open system): ??? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????????.

????? ??? ??????? (semi-enclosed system): ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ???????.

??? ???? ????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ???????():
????? ???????? ????????? (Natural and Manufacturing systems): ????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???????.

????? ??????? ?????? ???????? (Closed and open systems): ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ????.

????? ???????? ???????? (Tangible and Abstract systems): ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ????????? ???????.

????? ??????? ?????? ???????? (Fixed and variable systems): ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ????????.

???? ??????? ?????? ?????????? (Ideological and Social systems): ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????.

??? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ():
?????? ???????: ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????.

?????? ??????: ???? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ???????.

????? ???????: ??? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????.

????? ??? ???????: ??? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????.

??? ???? ????? ????? ?????():
?? ??? ??? ????????: ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????:
???? ??????? ???? (????) (Deterministic Information sysem): ??? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????: ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????.

???? ??????? ??? ???? (???????) (probabilistic system): ??? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????? ????? ??? ??????: ???? ????????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??.
?? ??? ??????? ???????: ???? ?? ???? ???? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????:
???? ??????? ???? (Closed Information system): ??? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????????.

???? ??????? ????? (open Information system): ??? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????????.

?? ??? ????? ????? ??????: ???? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????:
???? ??????? ???? (Formal Information system): ??? ???? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????: ???? ??????? ????????.

???? ??????? ??? ???? (Informal Information system): ??? ???? ???? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????: ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????.

?? ??? ????? ????? ???????: ????? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????:
???? ??????? ?????? (Integrated Information system): ??? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???.

???? ??????? ??? ??????: ??? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????.

?? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ???????:
???? ??????? ???: ??? ???? ???? ????????? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? (Sub-system) ???? ???? ?? ????? ????.

???? ??????? ????: ??? ???? ???? ????????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????.

?? ??? ????? ????? ??????: ????? ??? ?? ??:
???? ????????? ??????: ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ???????.

???? ????????? ??????????: ??? ?????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ???????.

2/6. ???? ??????:
???? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ???.

????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????.

?????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ? ?????? ? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ? ????????? ? ????????.

?? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????:
????? ? ????????? ?? ???? ????? ????????.

?????? ??? ???? ????? ????????.

???????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????.

??????? ?? ????? ???????.

?? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????.

2/7. ????? ??? ?????????:
???? ????? ??? ????????? ?????:
?????? ?? ????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ???????.()
???? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? (????? ?????? ????????) ?????? ???????? (????????) ??? ?????? (???????) ???? ?????? ????? ???????. ()
?? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ? ????? ? ????? ? ????? ???????? ????? ???? ??????. ()
?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????. ()
?? ?????? (?? ??????) ????? ?? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????? ? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????. ()
?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???????. ()
?? ???? ???????? (??????? ????????) ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???? ????????? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ???????.()
?? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????????. ()
?? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????????. ()
2/8. ??????? ???????? ???? ?????????:
????? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ():
??? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? (Executive support systems) (ESS)
??? ??????? ?????? (MIS)(Management Information system)
??? ??????? ??? ?????? (DSS) (Decision support systems )
????? ??????? ??? ???????(KWS) (Knowledge work systems)
??? ???? ????????? ????????(OAS) (Office Automation systems)
??? ???????? ?????????(TPS) (Transaction processing systems)
???? ?????? ???? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ????????()?():
??? ?????? ????????: ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ????????: ???? ???? ???????? ? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ???????.

??? ????????? ????????: ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???? ???? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ?????: ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????.

??? ??? ????? ????????: ???? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???? ???????.

??? ????????? ????????: ???? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????: ????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????????.

????? ????????? ???():
??? ?????? ?????????: ?? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ? ????? ????? ????????.

??? ???????? ????????? ???????: ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ?????: ???? ???????????? ????? ????????? ???? ??????? ????????.

??? ???????? ????????: ????? ?? “?????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ????????”? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? “??? ???? ??? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ???????”.

??? ???? ??????? ???? ? ????? ???? ????????? ???():
???? ????????? ????????: ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????.

???? ????? ????????: ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ??????.

???? ????? ????????: ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????… ???.

???? ??????? ??????: ???? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????.

???? ??? (2): ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ??????:
???? ??? (1)
????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????????
??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????
(ESS)
??? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????
(DSS) ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????- ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???????
(MIS)
??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????
(KWS) ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????
(OAS) ??? ???? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? – ????? – ???? ?????????? ?????? ???????
(TPS) ??? ???????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????- ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????????
??????: ??????? (102: 2002)
2/9.????? ??? ????????? ????????:
??? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????.

????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ????.

??? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ?????().

??? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????????. ??? ???? ???? ????? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ?????? “????? ??? ????????” ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?????. ???? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????????.

???? ?? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????() ????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????.

???? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ???? ???????? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ????????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ???.

????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ??????.

??? ??? ????? ??? ????????? (Information system) ???? ???? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????:
?????? ?????: ?? ??? ????????? ????????
(Management Information system) (MIS) :
????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???:
??? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????( Executive Information system) (EIS): ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?????.

???? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ?????????.

????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???? ????.

??? ??? ???????? Decision support system (DSS): ????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ????? (5%).

??? ?????? ????????? (Information Reporting system) (IRs): ???? ??? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? (Making-Day-to Decision) ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?????() ???? ??? ?? ????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ????????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????.
?????? ??????: ??? ??????? ??????? (Operations Information systems) (OIS):
????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ???????:
??? ????? ??????? (Office Automation systems) (OAS): ????? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????: ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ?? ???.

??? ?????? ????????? (process control systems) (PCS): ????? ????????? ????????? ???? ????? ????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????.

??? ?????? ??????? (Transaction processing systems) (TPS): ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ????????()?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ??? (3)
-251460334645??? ?????? ????????? IRS
??? ??? ?????? DSS
??? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? EIS
??? ????? ???????OAS
??? ?????? ????????? PCS
??? ?????? ??????? TPS
??? ?????????
??? ????????? ???????? MIS
??? ??????? ??????? OIS
0??? ?????? ????????? IRS
??? ??? ?????? DSS
??? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? EIS
??? ????? ???????OAS
??? ?????? ????????? PCS
??? ?????? ??????? TPS
??? ?????????
??? ????????? ???????? MIS
??? ??????? ??????? OIS

453707567310
Source: Brien,1990, p36
??? ??? (3)
???? ??????? ????????? ????????
????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ??? (4)
????? ??????? (Expert systems): ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ????????? (Artificial Intelligence) ???? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????().
??? ??????? ???????? ??????? (End User Computing system)(EUCS): ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? (Software) ??????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ????().
??? ????????? ???????????? (strategic Information systems ): ????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ????? ??????.

??? ????????? ???????? ( Function Information systems): ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????:
??? ?????????
????? ???????
??? ??????? ???????? ???????
??? ????????? ????????
??? ????????? ????????????
??? ?????????
????? ???????
??? ??????? ???????? ???????
??? ????????? ????????
??? ????????? ????????????

??? ??? (4)
????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????.

???? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ??? ????.

??? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?????? – ??? ????? – ???? ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ????????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ????????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ?????().
???? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ????????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????.

??????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ??? (5).

3459967727001??? ????? ??? ????? ???????
00??? ????? ??? ????? ???????
47902182712720??? ?????
???
????? ????????
020000??? ?????
???
????? ????????
399415016649703143250250825?
??? ??? (5)
????? ??? ?????????
??????: ??????? 1990? ? 717 – 718
2/10.?????? ??? ????????? ????????:
???? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ??:
??????? ??????? (Hardware): ?? ?? ???? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ????????.

????????? (software): ?? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????:
??????? ????? (system software): ??? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ????????.

??????? ????????? ?????? (Application software) ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???????.

????? ???????? (Database): ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ??????.

????? (Network): ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??????.

???????/ ???????: (personal): ?? ???? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ????.

-4445068580????? ????????
???????
????? / ?????
??? ????????? ????????
?????
?????
????? ????????
???????
????? / ?????
??? ????????? ????????
?????
?????

??? ??? (6)
?????? ??? ????????? ????????
2/11. ???? ?????????:
1 – ??????? :- ?? ????? ???????? ????????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???? ????????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ??????? .

2 – ?????:- ?? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? .

3 – ????? ?? ????? ?? ?????:- ?? ???? ??? ????????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? .

4 – ??????? ??????? ?????:- ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????.

5 – ??????? ??????:-?? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??? ????????? . ????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????????.????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? . ??? ???? ????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? .

6 – ??????? ?????? ?????:- ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????? .

7 – ????? ?? ??????:- ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ? ?? ?????? ????? ???? .

8 – ??????:-?? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? .

9 – ????????:- ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? .

10 – ??????:- ?? ??? ????????? ?? ??????
?? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? : ?? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ???? . ???? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ? ??? ???? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? . ?????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ????????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????? .

???????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? . ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? . ??? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ???????? .

????? ??????
???? ???????? ????????
3/1. ????????? ?????? ????????
3/2. ????? ????? ??????
3/3. ??????? ??? ?????????
3/4. ????? ??? ??? ??????
3/5. ???? ????????
3/6. ???????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????????
3/7. ????? ????????
3/8. ????? ????? ????? ??????
3/9. ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????
3/10. ????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ??????
3/11. ????? ??????? ?????? ??????
?????:
?? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ????????.

?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ???????.

??? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????.

??? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????.

??????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? “???? ?? ???????” ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???????:
??? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????.

??? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????.

???? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ??????.

??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????.

3/1. ????????? ?????? ????????:
?? ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ????.

?? ????? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ?? ????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????.

?????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ?????.

???? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ???:
??????: ????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ? ????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ???.

????????: ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ????????.
???????: ????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??? ???????.

??????? ??????: ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ????????? ???. ????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???:
???? ????????: ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????. ???? ????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ???????? ??????. ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???????? ??????.

????? ???? ????????: ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ????????? ????? ???????? ????????. ?? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??????????. ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ????????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ???? “??????” ??????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ???????. ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ???????. ? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????:
??? ??????: ??? ??????? ???? ???????.

??? ????? (????????) : ??? ??????? ??????.

????? ????????: ??? ??????? ???????.

?????? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????:
?? ???? ????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ?????.

??? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? (????????? ??????? ?????????) ?????????? ????????.

???? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????.

????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ????????.

?? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????.

??? ???? ???? ????????:
??? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ????.

???? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?/ ?? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ????????.

????? ?????????: ??? ????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???????.

????? ??????????: ???? ????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ????????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ????() ? ????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????????? ???? ??? ??? ?????? (????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???????)? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????.

????? ??????? ??????: ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ????????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????:
??????? ???????.

???? ???????.

?? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ????????? ?????? ????????.

????? ?????? ???????: ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ???? ??????? ? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ?????:
????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????.

????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????:
?????? ??????? ????? ( ???????? ? ???????? ).

??????? ??? ??????? ( ??? ????? ).

??????? ??????? ( ???? ????? ).

3/2. ????? ????? ??????:
?? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ?? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????????(). ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???? ??? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????.
???? ???? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????????().

????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????.

??? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????().

3/3. ??????? ??? ?????????:
??? ??? ??????? ???????? DSS:
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?????? ????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???:
????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ??????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????
????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? ??? (34) ????? ????? (1 – 34) ????? ??? ???? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??? ???:
????? ?????: ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? (7) ?????? ????? (1 – 7).

????? ??????: ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? (7) ?????? ????? (8 – 14).

????? ??????: ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? (7) ?????? ????? (15 – 21).

????? ??????: ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? (7) ?????? ????? (22 – 28).

????? ??????: ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? (6) ?????? ????? (29 – 34).

????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ????? ??? (11) ????? ????? (1 – 11).

??? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????? (????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ????) ????? ?????? (1?2?3?4?5)??? ???????.

4/1/2/3 ????? ??????? ????? ??? ????????
?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ??????. ??? ????? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??????.

?- ??? ???? ??? ????????
??? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? OPEC? ?? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? (1).

?- ???? ???? ??? ????????
???? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ????? (?) ???? ???????? ???????:

??? ??:
k ??? ?????? (?????) ????????.

Si2 ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ????????.

St2 ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????.

??????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? (0.748? 0.892) ??? ????? ??? (3) ??? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? (0.7) ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????.

????? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ????? Validity ?? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ????? (????? ???????).

???? ??? (3)
????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? OPEC
??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????
????? ??????? ???????
???? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? 7 0.759 0.871
????????? ????????? ??????? 7 0.748 0.865
????????? ??????? ??????? 7 0.886 0.941
????????? ???????? ??????? 7 0.892 0.944
????????? ??????? ??????? 6 0.750 0.866
???????? 34 0.928 0.863
??????? ??????: ???? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????? 11 0.897 0.947
4/1/2/4 ????? ????? ???????
??? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??????? ????? (35) ???? ?????? ???? ????? ??? (4) ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? (58.8%) ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? (29.4%) ????? ???? ???????? ??????? ???? (10.8%) ??? ???? ???? ??? (13).

?
???? ??? (4)
????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? OPEC
??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? (%)
?????? 100 58.8%
?????? 50 29.4%
????? 20 11.8%
???????? 170 100%

??? ??? (13)
????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? OPEC
??? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ???????:
(?) ????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????? (1):

??? ??:
n ??? ?????? ????????
t ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ±1.96 ?????? ??? 95%.

p ???? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ??? 50%.

d ???? ????? ??? 5% ?????? ??? 95%.

????????? ?? ?????? (1) ??? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????(n) = 385

(?) ????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????? (2):

??? ??:
n1 ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????.

n??? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ?????.

N ??? ????? ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ??????? ?????? (60).

????????? ?? ?????? (2) ??? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????:
n1= 3851+385/60=51.9 ?52??? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???? ???? ??????? ???? (52) ???? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ??? (25) ????? ????? (outsource) ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? (35) ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? (35) ??????? ????? ???????? ????? ??? (5) ???? ??? (14).

???? ??? (5)
????? ?????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????? OPEC
??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? (%)
?????? 20 57.1%
?????? 10 28.6%
????? 5 14.3%
???????? 35 100%

??? ??? (14)
????? ?????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????? OPEC
4/1/2/5 ????? ??????? ???????????
?????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????:
?????? ??? (5) ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????? ????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????
????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???? (2) ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????) ???????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????.

?????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? OPEC? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????).

????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ?????? ???? ??? (0.748? 0.892) ??? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? (0.60) ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????.

?????? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ????? (35) ??? ????? ??? (35) ??????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? (35) ???????.

4/1/3 ???????? ????????? ?????????
?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????????? (35) ?? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? SPSS? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ???????:
?????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????????: ???? ???????? ????? ???? ???????Alpha Cronbach ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?????????.

????????? ???????? ?????????: ????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ???????.

????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????: ????? ????? ????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????? (?????) ???????? ????? OPEC ???????? ???????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ??????? ?????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????) ???????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????).

????? ???????? (Sample T-1) ??? ??????? ????? ??????? (?????) ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?????? (4.5) ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???????.

??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ???????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ??????? ?????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????).

???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ???????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ??????? ?????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????).

?????? ??????
????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????????
4/2/1 ?????
4/2/2 ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ??????? ????????????
4/2/3 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ???????? ???????
4/2/3/1 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ????????
4/2/3/2 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????
4/2/4 ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? OPEC ??? ??????? ??????
4/2/4/1 ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????
4/2/4/2 ?????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????
4/2/4/3 ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????
4/2/1 ?????
?? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ???????? ???????????? (????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????) ?????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ??????? ?????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????) ???????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ???? ???? ?????? (?????) ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ???? ????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????? (4.5) ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? (Sample T-1) ??? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????.

4/2/2 ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ??????? ????????????
????? ??????? ????????? ??? (5) ??????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????:
?) ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ?????
???? ??? (6) ???? ????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????? (77.1%) ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? (22.9%) ??? ???? ???? ??? (15).

???? ??? (6)
????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ?????
????? ??????? ?????? ??????? (%)
??? 27 77.1%
???? 8 22.9%
???????? 35 100%

??? ??? (15)
????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ?????
?) ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ?????
???? ??? (7) ???? ????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? (??? ?? 30 ???) ???? (31.4%) ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? (30 ??? 45 ???) ???? (42.9%) ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???? ?? (45 ???) ???? (25.7%) ??? ???? ???? ??? (16).

???? ??? (7)
????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ?????
????? ??????? ?????? ??????? (%)
??? ?? 30 ??? 11 31.4%
30 ??? 45 ??? 15 42.9%
45 ??? ????? 9 25.7%
???????? 35 100%

??? ??? (16)
????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ?????
?) ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ??????? ????????
???? ??? (8) ???? ????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????? (57.1%) ?? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ???? (??? ???????) ???? (22.9%). ????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? (5.1%) ??? ???? ???? ??? (17).

???? ??? (8)
????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ??????? ????????
??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? (%)
??? ??????? 8 22.9%
????? 20 57.1%
?????? ???? 7 20%
???????? 35 100%

??? ??? (17)
????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ??????? ????????
?) ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ??????
???? ??? (9) ???? ????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ?????? (??? ?? 5 ?????) ???? (25.7%) ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? (5-15 ???) ???? (54.3%) ????? ???????? ?? ?????? (15 ??? ?????) ???? (20%) ??? ???? ???? ??? (18).

???? ??? (9)
????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ??????
?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? (%)
??? ?? 5 ????? 9 25.7%
?? 5-15 ??? 19 54.3%
15 ??? ????? 7 20%
???????? 35 100%

??? ??? (18)
????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ??????
?) ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ??????? ???????
???? ??? (10) ???? ????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? (42.9%) ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? (34.2%) ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???? (22.9%) ??? ???? ???? ??? (19).

???? ??? (10) ????? ???? ????? OPEC ????? ??????? ???????
??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? (%)
?????? 15 42.9%
?????? 12 34.2%
????? 8 22.9%
???????? 35 100%

??? ??? (19)
????? ???? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ??????? ???????
4/2/3 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ???????? ???????
?????? ?????? ??????? ????? OPEC? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ??????? ?????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????) ???????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ??????? ?? ??? (11) ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????? (4.5) ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? (90%) ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????:
???? ?????? = ?????? ???????– ?????? ????????
?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????:
???? ????????? ?????????? ?????????: ??????? (?????) ???????? ????? OPEC ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????.

???????? (Sample T-1): ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???.

????? ??? (11) ???? ?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ???:
??????? ????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ??? (3.821) ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? (0.472) ????? ???? ????? (13.58%).

??????? ????? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ??? (3.831) ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? (0.520) ????? ???? ????? (13.38%).

???? ??? (11)
?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ?????? ???????
??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? %
???? ??? ????????? ???????? 3.821 0.472 13.58%
???? ???????? ???????? 3.831 0.520 13.38%
?? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? (Sample T-1) ??? ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????????.

4/2/3/1 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ????????
???? ??? (12) ???? ?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ??????? ?????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????) ????? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? (3.821) ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? (0.472) ????? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? (3.653? 3.939) ??? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? (0.536? 0.677) ??? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? (3.58%).

???? ??? (12)
?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ??????? ???????
????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? %
?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? 3.804 0.536 13.92%
????????? ????????? ??????? 3.653 0.546 16.94%
????????? ??????? ??????? 3.939 0.677 11.22%
????????? ???????? ??????? 3.829 0.665 13.42%
????????? ??????? ??????? 3.881 0.599 12.38%
????? ??????? ????????? ???????? 3.821 0.472 13.58%
???? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? (4) ????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? (?????) ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??? ??? ???? ???? ???? ????? (11.22%)? ???? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? (12.38%)? ?????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? (13.42%)? ?????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? (13.92%)? ?????? ????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??? ??? ???? ???? ???? ????? (16.94%)? ??? ???? ???? ??? (20) ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? ?????? ??????.

??? ??? (20)
??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ?????? ??????? ???????
??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? (Sample T-1) ??? ??????? ????? ??????? (?????) ???????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????????? ?? ????? ??? (14) ???? ????? ??? ????????:
???? ??? (13)
?????? (Sample T-1) ?????? ???? ??????? ???????
??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ? ???????? P-value
35 3.821 0.472 0.080 3.956 -8.52 0.000
??? ???? ?? ???? ??? (13) ?? ???:
(P value) ???? ?????? (0.000) ??? ??? ?? (0.05) ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ??? (????) ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????????? ??.

(? ????????) ???? (-8.52) ??? ??? ?? ???? (? ????????) ????? ???? (-2.032) ???? ???? ??? ??? ?????.

??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? (?????? ???????? = 4.5) ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? (3.956).

??? ??? ??? ????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????) ??? ???:
4/2/3/1/1 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????
???? ??? (14) ???? ??? (7) ?????? ??????? (1- 7) ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????):
???? ??? (14)
?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????
? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????
??????? %
1 ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? 4.086 0.742 8.28%
2 ????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ????????? 3.686 0.900 16.28%
3 ???? ???? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? 3.743 0.919 15.14%
4 ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? 3.886 0.867 12.28%
5 ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??????? 3.743 0.657 15.14%
6 ???? ???? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? 3.971 0.785 10.58%
7 ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? 3.514 0.951 19.72%
????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? 3.804 0.536 13.92%
????? ?? ???? ??? (14) ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????? (3.804) ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? (0.536) ????? ???? ????? (13.92%) ? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? (3.514? 4.086) ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? (0.657? 0.951) ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? (8.28%? 19.72%) ??? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ???????. ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? (Sample T-1) ??? ????? ?????? (?????) ???????? ????? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ????????? ?? ????? ??? (15) ???? ????? ??? ????????:
???? ??? (15)
?????? (Sample T-1) ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????
??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ? ???????? P-value
35 3.804 0.536 0.091 3.957 -7.68 0.000
??? ???? ?? ???? ??? (15) ?? ???:
(P value) ???? ?????? (0.000) ??? ??? ?? (0.05) ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ??? (????) ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????????? ??.

(? ????????) ???? (-7.68) ??? ??? ?? ???? (? ????????) ????? ???? (-2.032) ???? ???? ??? ??? ?????.

??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? (?????? ???????? = 4.5) ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? (3.957).

??? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????????? ??.

4/2/3/1/2 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????????? ????????? ???????
???? ??? (16) ???? ??? (7) ?????? ??????? (8- 14) ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????):
???? ??? (16)
?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????
? ?????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????
??????? %
8 ?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? 3.943 0.838 11.14%
9 ???? ?????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????? 3.857 0.772 12.86%
10 ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ????? 3.229 0.942 25.42%
11 ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? 3.543 0.741 19.14%
12 ????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? 3.657 0.725 16.86%
13 ???? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????? 3.971 0.822 10.58%
14 ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? 3.371 1.140 22.58%
????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? 3.653 0.546 16.94%
????? ?? ???? ??? (16) ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????? (3.653) ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? (0.546)? ????? ???? ????? (16.94%) ????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? (3.229? 3.971) ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? (0.725? 1.140) ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? (10.58%? 25.42%) ??? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ???????. ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? (Sample T-1) ??? ????? ?????? (?????) ???????? ????? ?????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ????????? ?? ????? ??? (17) ???? ????? ??? ????????:
???? ??? (17)
?????? (Sample T-1) ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????
??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ? ???????? P-value
35 3.653 0.546 0.092 3.809 -9.18 0.000
??? ???? ?? ???? ??? (17) ?? ???:
(P value) ???? ?????? (0.000) ??? ??? ?? (0.05) ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ??? (????) ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????????? ??.

(? ????????) ???? (-9.18) ??? ??? ?? ???? (? ????????) ????? ???? (-2.032) ???? ???? ??? ??? ?????.

??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? (?????? ???????? = 4.5) ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? (3.809).

??? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????????? ??.

4/2/3/1/3 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????????? ??????? ???????
???? ??? (18) ???? ??? (7) ?????? ??????? (15- 21) ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????):
???? ??? (18)
?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????
? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????
??????? %
15 ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? 4.057 1.083 8.86%
16 ????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? 3.971 0.822 10.58%
17 ?????? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? 3.971 0.785 10.58%
18 ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? 3.943 0.838 11.14%
19 ??? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ?? ?????? 3.943 0.906 11.14%
20 ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? 4.171 0.891 6.58%
21 ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????????? 3.514 0.781 19.72%
????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? 3.939 0.677 11.22%
????? ?? ???? ??? (18) ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????? (3.939) ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? (0.677)? ????? ???? ????? (11.22%) ????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? (3.514? 4.171) ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? (0.781? 1.083) ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? (6.58%? 19.72%) ??? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ???????. ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????(Sample T-1) ??? ????? ?????? (?????) ???????? ????? ?????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ????????? ?? ????? ??? (19) ???? ????? ??? ????????:
???? ??? (19)
?????? (Sample T-1) ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????
??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ? ???????? P-value
35 3.939 0.677 0.114 4.132 -4.91 0.000
??? ???? ?? ???? ??? (19) ?? ???:
(P value) ???? ?????? (0.000) ??? ??? ?? (0.05) ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ??? (????) ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????????? ??.

(? ????????) ???? (-4.91) ??? ??? ?? ???? (? ????????) ????? ???? (-2.032) ???? ???? ??? ??? ?????.

??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? (?????? ???????? = 4.5) ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? (3.809).

??? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????????? ??.

4/2/3/1/4 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????????? ???????? ???????
???? ??? (20) ???? ??? (7) ?????? ??????? (22- 28) ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????):
???? ??? (20)
?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????
? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????
??????? %
22 ?????? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? 3.657 0.906 16.86%
23 ??? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? 3.686 0.900 16.28%
24 ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ????????? 3.857 0.879 12.86%
25 ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ?????. 3.486 0.818 20.28%
26 ????? ???? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? 3.914 0.853 11.72%
27 ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ????????? 4.143 0.772 7.14%
28 ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? 4.057 0.838 8.82%
????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? 3.829 0.665 3.42%
????? ?? ???? ??? (20) ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????? (3.829) ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? (0.665) ????? ???? ????? (13.42%) ? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? (3.486? 4.143) ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? (0.772? 0.906) ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? (7.14%? 20.28%) ??? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ???????. ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? (Sample T-1) ??? ????? ?????? (?????) ???????? ????? ?????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ????????? ?? ????? ??? (21) ???? ????? ??? ????????:
???? ??? (21)
?????? (Sample T-1) ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????
??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ? ???????? P-value
35 3.829 0.665 0.112 3.957 -5.97 0.000
??? ???? ?? ???? ??? (21) ?? ???:
(P value) ???? ?????? (0.000) ??? ??? ?? (0.05) ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ??? (????) ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????????? ??.

(? ????????) ???? (-5.97) ??? ??? ?? ???? (? ????????) ????? ???? (-2.032) ???? ???? ??? ??? ?????.

??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? (?????? ???????? = 4) ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? (3.957).

??? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????????? ??.

4/2/3/1/5 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????????? ??????? ???????
???? ??? (22) ???? ??? (6) ?????? ??????? (29- 34) ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????):
???? ??? (22)
?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????
? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????
??????? %
29 ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????? 4.029 0.785 9.42%
30 ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ????????? ????? ?????? 4.029 0.891 9.42%
31 ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? 3.971 0.822 10.58%
32 ????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? 4.000 0.804 10.00%
33 ????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ????????? 3.371 0.973 22.58%
34 ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? 3.886 1.078 12.28%
????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? 3.881 0.599 12.38%
????? ?? ???? ??? (22) ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????? (3.881) ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? (0.595) ????? ???? ????? (12.38%) ? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? (3.371? 4.029) ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? (0.785? 1.078) ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? (9.42%? 22.58%) ??? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ???????. ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? (Sample T-1) ??? ????? ?????? (?????) ???????? ????? ?????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ????????? ?? ????? ??? (23) ???? ????? ??? ????????:
???? ??? (23)
?????? (Sample T-1) ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????
??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ? ???????? P-value
35 3.881 0.599 0.101 4.052 -6.11 0.000
??? ???? ?? ???? ??? (23) ?? ???:
(P value) ???? ?????? (0.000) ??? ??? ?? (0.05) ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ??? (????) ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????????? ??.

(? ????????) ???? (-6.11) ??? ??? ?? ???? (? ????????) ????? ???? (-2.032) ???? ???? ??? ??? ?????.

??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? (?????? ???????? = 4.5) ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? (4.052).

??? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????????? ??.

4/2/3/2 ????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????
???? ??? (24) ???? ?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ?????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ????? ????? ?? ??? (11) ????? ??????? (1 – 11):
???? ??? (24)
?????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????)
? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????
??????? %
1 ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? 3.886 0.832 12.28%
2 ???? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? 4.114 0.796 7.72%
3 ???? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ??????? 3.743 0.701 15.14%
4 ????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ???????? ???? 3.829 0.822 13.42%
5 ???? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? 3.914 0.781 11.72%
6 ????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????? 3.943 0.765 11.14%
7 ????? ??? ???? ?? ??????? 3.571 0.698 18.58%
8 ???? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????? 3.829 0.514 13.42%
9 ????????????? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? 3.629 0.731 17.42%
10 ???? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? 3.971 0.664 10.58%
11 ???? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? 3.714 0.789 15.72%
????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? 3.831 0.520 13.38%
????? ?? ???? ??? (24) ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????? (3.831) ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? (0.520)? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? (3.571? 4.114) ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? (0.514? 0.832) ??? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ???????. ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? (Sample T-1) ??? ????? ?????? (?????) ???????? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ????????? ?? ????? ??? (25) ???? ????? ??? ????????:
???? ??? (25)
?????? (Sample T-1) ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????
??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ? ???????? P-value
35 3.831 0.520 0.088 3.980 -7.60 0.000
??? ???? ?? ???? ??? (25) ?? ???:
(P value) ???? ?????? (0.000) ??? ??? ?? (0.05) ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ??? (????) ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ????????? ??.

(? ????????) ???? (-7.60) ??? ??? ?? ???? (? ????????) ????? ???? (-2.032) ???? ???? ??? ??? ?????.

??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? (?????? ???????? = 4.5) ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? (3.980).

??? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ????????? ??.

4/2/4 ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? OPEC ??? ??????? ??????
?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ??????? ?????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????) ???????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????:
????? ??? ????? ???? (5) ???? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????):.

???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ????????? ???????? ??????.

????? ??? (6) ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ?? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ??????? ??????.

????? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????).

4/2/4/1 ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????
?????? ????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ???????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ?? “???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????)”? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ??? (5) ???? ????? ?????? ??? ???:
????? ?????? ?????: ???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????).
????? ?????? ??????: ???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????).
????? ?????? ??????: ???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????).
????? ?????? ??????: ???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????).
????? ?????? ??????: ???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????).
??????? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ???????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? (6) ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ??????????:
4/2/4/2 ?????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????
???? ??? (26) ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ???????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? (0.000) ????? ??? ???????? ??? ???:
????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ???????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ??? (0.845) ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? (0.000) ???? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????.

????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????) ???????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ?????? ???? ??? (0.784? 0.938) ????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? (0.000)? ??? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??? (0.938) ???? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ?????? ?????? ??? (0.877) ?????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ?????? ?????? ??? (0.826) ?????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ?????? ?????? ??? (0.803) ?????? ????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??? (0.784) ??? ??? ????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ????????.

???? ??? (26)
?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????
??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????
?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? 0.803
????????? ????????? ??????? 0.784
????????? ??????? ??????? 0.938
????????? ???????? ??????? 0.826
????????? ??????? ??????? 0.877
???? ??? ????????? ???????? 0.845
4/2/4/3 ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????
??? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ???????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? (26) ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ??????????:
???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? (0.845) ?????? ????? ????? (0.000) ??? ???? ?????? (26)? (27)? (28)? (29)? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ????????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? (27)? ???? ?? ???? ?????? (?) ????? (4.92) ??? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??????.

???? (27)
????? ????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????? ???????
??????? B ????? ???????? (S) ???? (?) ????????
?????? 1.09 0.562 4.94 0.000
???? ??? ????????? ???????? 0.718 0.146 4.92 0.000
????? ???? (28) ?? ????? ???????? r ????? (0.845) ?????? ?????? (0.000) ?????? ??????? R2 ????? (0.714) ???? ???? ?? ?? ????? (71.4%) ?? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ????? OPEC.

???? (28)
????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????? ???????
????????? ???? ???????? ????????
???? ??? ????????? ???????? r R2 Adj. R2 ????? ???????? (S) ????????
0.845 0.714 0.709 0.401 0.000
????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? (29) ?? ???? (?) ????? (24.22) ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? (0.05.) ????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ?? ???? ???????? ????????.

???? (29)
????? ????? ??????? (ANOVA) ??? ????????? ??????? ???????
?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????? (?)
???????? 1 3.898 3.898 ?????? ????????
??????? 33 5.311 0.161 24.22 0.000
???????? 34 9.209 ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ?? “???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????)”? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? (5) ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????)? ????? ??? ????? ??? ??????????:
4/2/4/3/1????? ?????? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????
???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??????? ??????? ????? OPEC ???????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? (0.803) ?????? ????? ????? (0.000) ??? ???? ?????? (26)? (30)? (31)? (32)? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? (30)? ???? ?? ???? ?????? (?) ????? (8.43) ??? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??????.

???? (30)
????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????
??????? B ????? ???????? (S) ???? (?) ????????
?????? 3.33 0.644 5.18 0.000
????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) 0.132 0.016 8.43 0.000
????? ???? (31) ?? ????? ???????? r ????? (0.803) ?????? ?????? (0.000) ?????? ??????? R2 ????? (0.644) ???? ???? ?? ?? ????? (64.4%) ?? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??????? ??????? ????? OPEC.

???? (31)
????? ???????? ??? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????
????????? ???? ???????? ????????
????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) r R2 Adj. R2 ????? ???????? (S) ????????
0.803 0.644 0.640 0.523 0.000
????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? (32) ?? ???? (?) ????? (28.46) ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? (0.05.) ????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ????????.

???? (32)
????? ????? ??????? (ANOVA) ??? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????
?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????? (?)
???????? 1 4.598 4.598 ?????? ????????
??????? 33 4.611 0.162 28.46 0.000
???????? 34 9.209 ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ?? “???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????)”?
4/2/4/3/2 ????? ?????? ????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????
???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? (0.784) ?????? ????? ????? (0.000) ??? ???? ?????? (26)? (33)? (34)? (35)? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? (33)? ???? ?? ???? ?????? (?) ????? (3.19) ??? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??????.

???? (33)
????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????
??????? B ????? ???????? (S) ???? (?) ????????
?????? 2.14 0.538 4.00 0.000
????? (????????? ????????? ???????) 0.463 0.145 3.19 0.003
????? ???? (34) ?? ????? ???????? r ????? (0.784) ?????? ?????? (0.003) ?????? ??????? R2 ????? (0.615) ???? ???? ?? ?? ????? (61.5%) ?? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ????? OPEC.

???? (34)
????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????
????????? ???? ???????? ????????
????? (????????? ????????? ???????) r R2 Adj. R2 ????? ???????? (S) ????????
0.784 0.615 0.611 0.462 0.003
????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? (35) ?? ???? (?) ????? (10.18) ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? (0.05.) ????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ????????.

???? (35)
????? ????? ??????? (ANOVA) ??? ????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????
?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????? (?)
???????? 1 2.171 2.171 ?????? ????????
??????? 33 9.038 0.213 10.18 0.000
???????? 34 9.209 ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? “???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????)”.
4/2/4/3/3 ????? ?????? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????
???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? (0.938) ?????? ????? ????? (0.000) ??? ???? ?????? (26)? (36)? (37)? (38)? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? (36)? ???? ?? ???? ?????? (?) ????? (2.87) ??? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??????.

???? (36)
????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????
??????? B ????? ???????? (S) ???? (?) ????????
?????? 2.48 0.479 5.18 0.000
????? (????????? ??????? ???????) 0.344 0.120 2.87 0.007
????? ???? (37) ?? ????? ???????? r ????? (0.938) ?????? ?????? (0.007) ?????? ??????? R2 ????? (0.880) ???? ???? ?? ?? ????? (88%) ?? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ?? ????????? ?? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????).
???? (37)
????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????
????????? ???? ???????? ????????
????? (????????? ??????? ???????) r R2 Adj. R2 ????? ???????? (S) ????????
0.938 0.880 0.875 0.473 0.007
????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? (38) ?? ???? (?) ????? (8.24) ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? (0.05.) ????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? OPEC.

???? (38)
????? ????? ??????? (ANOVA) ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????
?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????? (?)
???????? 1 1.841 1.841 ?????? ????????
??????? 33 7.368 0.223 8.24 0.007
???????? 34 9.209 ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? “???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????)”.
4/2/4/3/4 ????? ?????? ????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????
???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? (0.826) ?????? ????? ????? (0.000) ??? ???? ?????? (26)? (39)? (40)? (41)? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? (39)? ???? ?? ???? ?????? (?) ????? (5.38) ??? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??????.

???? (39)
????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????
??????? B ????? ???????? (S) ???? (?) ????????
?????? 1.78 0.386 4.62 0.000
????? (????????? ???????? ???????) 0.535 0.099 5.38 0.000
????? ???? (40) ?? ????? ???????? r ????? (0.826) ?????? ?????? (0.000) ?????? ??????? R2 ????? (0.682) ???? ???? ?? ?? ????? (68.2%) ?? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC.

???? (40)
????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????
????????? ???? ???????? ????????
????? (????????? ???????? ???????) r R2 Adj. R2 ????? ???????? (S) ????????
0.826 0.682 0.678 0.385 0.000
????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? (41) ?? ???? (?) ????? (28.99) ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? (0.05.) ????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? OPEC.

???? (41)
????? ????? ??????? (ANOVA) ??? ????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????
?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????? (?)
???????? 1 4.307 4.307 ?????? ????????
??????? 33 4.902 0.149 28.99 0.000
???????? 34 9.209 ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? “???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????)”.
4/2/4/3/5 ????? ?????? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????
???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? (0.877) ?????? ????? ????? (0.000) ??? ???? ?????? (26)? (42)? (43)? (44)? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? (42)? ???? ?? ???? ?????? (?) ????? (6.19) ??? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??????.

???? (42)
????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????
??????? B ????? ???????? (S) ???? (?) ????????
?????? 1.36 0.404 3.37 0.002
????? (????????? ??????? ???????) 0.637 0.103 6.19 0.000
????? ???? (43) ?? ????? ???????? r ????? (0.877) ?????? ?????? (0.000) ?????? ??????? R2 ????? (0.769) ???? ???? ?? ?? ????? (76.9%) ?? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ?? ????????? ?? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????).

???? (43)
????? ???????? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????
????????? ???? ???????? ????????
????? (????????? ??????? ???????) r R2 Adj. R2 ????? ???????? (S) ????????
0.877 0.769 0.765 0.359 0.000
????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? (44) ?? ???? (?) ????? (38.26) ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? (0.05.) ????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ???? ?? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ????? OPEC.

???? (44)
????? ????? ??????? (ANOVA) ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????
?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????? (?)
???????? 1 4.944 4.944 ?????? ????????
??????? 33 4.265 0.048 38.26 0.000
???????? 34 9.209 ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? “???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????)”.
???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ??? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? R2 ????? (88%) ???? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ????? (76.9%) ?????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ????? (68.2%) ?????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ????? (64.4%) ????? ??? ????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ?? ????? ?????? ????? (61.5%) ??? ???? ???? ??? (21).

??? ??? (21)
????? ??????? R2 ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? OPEC

?????? ??????
??????? ???????? ?????????
4/3/1 ?????
4/3/2 ???????
4/3/3 ?????? ???????
4/3/4 ??????? ???????? ??????????
4/3/1 ?????
?????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? (????? ??????? ??? ???? OPEC ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ???:
4/3/2 ????? ????? ???????:
????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ???:
?????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? “??????? ?????????” ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? ??? (34) ????? ????? ??? ???? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????) ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ????? ??? ??? (11) ????? ????? (1 – 11).
??? ?????? ?????? ??? (25) ??????? ????????? ??????? (?????? ?????????) ??? ??? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????? SPSS ???? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? (????? ??????? ??? ???? (PEC
????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? OPEC ???????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??? (0.748? 0.892) ??? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? (0.60) ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????.

?????? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ????? (35) ??? ????? ??? (35) ??????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? (35) ???????.

?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ???:
???? ?? ??? ????? ?????? (77.1%) ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? (22.9%).

???? ???????? ????? ??????? (??? ?? 30 ???) ???? (31.4%) ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? (30 ??? 45 ???) ???? (42.9%) ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???? ?? (45 ???) ???? (25.7%).

???? ?? ??? ????? ?????? (57.1%) ?? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ???? (??? ???????) ???? (22.9%). ????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? (5.1%)
???? ???????? ?? ?????? (??? ?? 5 ?????) ???? (25.7%) ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? (5-15 ???) ???? (54.3%) ????? ???????? ?? ?????? (15 ??? ?????) ???? (20%).

???? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? (42.9%) ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? (34.2%) ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???? (22.9%).

??? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ?? ????:
???? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????) ?? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ?? (3.821) ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? (0.472) ????? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? (3.653? 3.939) ??? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? (0.536? 0.677) ??? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? (3.58%).

?? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? (Sample T-1) ??? ??????? ????? ??????? (?????) ???????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????????? ?? ?? ????:
(P value) ???? ?????? (0.000) ??? ??? ?? (0.05) ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ??? (????) ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????????? ??.

(? ????????) ???? (-8.52) ??? ??? ?? ???? (? ????????) ????? ???? (-2.032) ???? ???? ??? ??? ?????.

??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? (?????? ???????? = 4.5) ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? (3.956).

?? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ?? ????:
?????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? (4.5) ????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? (?????) ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??? ??? ???? ???? ???? ????? (11.22%)? ???? ????? (????????? ??????? ???????) ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? (12.38%)? ?????? (????????? ???????? ???????) ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? (13.42%)? ?????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????) ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? (13.92%)? ?????? ????? (????????? ????????? ???????) ??? ??? ???? ???? ???? ????? (16.94%)? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? ?????? ??????.

??? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? (5) ???????? (Sample T-1) ??? ????? ?????? (?????) ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?? ???? ??? (P value) ???? ???? (0.000) ??? ??? ?? (0.05) ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? (?????) ???????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ???? (? ????????) ???? ?????? ??? (-9.18? -4.91) ??? ??? ?? ???? (? ????????) ????? ???? (-2.032) ???? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? (?????? ???????? = 4.5) ??? ???? ???? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? (3.809? 4.132).

??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ?? ????:
???? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ?? (3.831) ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? (0.520)? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? (3.571? 4.114) ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? (0.514? 0.832) ??? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ???????.

??? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? (Sample T-1) ??? ??? ????? ?????? (?????) ???????? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ????????? ?? ?? ????:
(P value) ???? ?????? (0.000) ??? ??? ?? (0.05) ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ??? (????) ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ????????? ??.

(? ????????) ???? (-7.60) ??? ??? ?? ???? (? ????????) ????? ???? (-2.032) ???? ???? ??? ??? ?????.

??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? (?????? ???????? = 4.5) ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? (3.980).

??? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ?? “???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????)”? ????? ?? ?? ????:
????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ????? OPEC ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? (0.845) ?????? ????? ????? (0.000) ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? (?) ????? (4.92) ??? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ????? OPEC ?? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??????.

????? ??????? R2 ??? ???? (0.714) ???? ???? ?? ?? ????? (71.4%) ?? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ????? OPEC ??? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? (?) ????? (24.22) ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? (0.05.).

?? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ?? “???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ???? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? OPEC”? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????:
????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? (0.784? 0.938) ?????? ????? ????? (0.000) ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? (?) ?????? ??? (2.87? 8.43) ??? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ??? ?????? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ??????.

????? ??????? R2 ?????? ???? ??? (0.644? 0.880) ???? ???? ?? ?? ????? (64.4%? 88%) ?? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ??? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? (?) ?????? ??? (8.24? 38.26) ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? (0.05.).

4/3/3 ?????? ???????:
?? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ???:
??? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ????????
????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????
????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????????.

??? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????.

????? ??? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????.

?? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????.

????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??????.

????? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ????.

????? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ????????.

??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ????OPEC.

????? ??? ????? ????????? (?????????) ???? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????.

????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???? ????.

????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ????.

???????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????.

????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ????????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????.

????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ????????.

4/3/4 ??????? ???????? ??????????:
?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ???.

?????? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ???.

??? ??? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????.

???? (45)
??? ??????? ????????
??????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ??????
??? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? – ???????? ??????? ??????
– ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ???
– ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????
– ??????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???????. ??????? ?????? ???? ??????
????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? – ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ????????.

– ????? ??? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????
????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????????. ????? ????? ?????? ???? ????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????
???? ( 45 ) ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ??????
??? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????. – ????? ??????? ??????????? ????????
– ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ??????. ??????? ?????? ???? ??????
???????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????. ????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ? ????????
? ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ???????.

????? ??? ????????? ???? ??????

???????????????
?????: ??????? ???????:
?????
??? ???? ??? ??????: ??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???? 2003.
???????? ????? ???????? ??? ???? (2002)? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????: ????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? (22)? ? (1).
?? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ???? (2005)? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?223-224? ?239.
??? ??????? – ??? ????????? ?????? ???????? (???????- ????? ??????- ???? ?????- 2010)
?????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ???????: ??? ????????? ????????? ?1? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? 1998?
??????? ????? (1997)? ??? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???.
??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? (2001)? ??? ????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???.
????? ???: ??? ???? ????? ???????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?1? ????? 2011.

???? ??? ?????? ????? (2005)? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?: ????? ???? “???????????”? ?191
???????? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????? 2007?.

???? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ????? ????? 2002.

???????? ???? (1998)? ????? ??? ????????? ????????? (?1)? ????? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????.
??????? ????? ????? ????????: ???? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????: ????? ??????????? 1994?
????? ???: ????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???? 1984.

??????? ???? ????: ??? ????????? ????????? ????????? 31? ????? ??? ??????? 1997?.

???? ??????? ???? ???????: ???? ????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? 2003.

???????? ?????: ??????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? 2012
???????? ???? ????????? (2000)? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ????? ??????.
??? ???? ????? :??? ?????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ????????? ???? ?2006 ? ?21.

???????? ???? (2005)? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ????? 1? ?????? 23? ?43.
?????? ??????? (2000)? ??? ????????? ????????: ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????????.
??? ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? 1996.

????? ?????? (1992)? ????? ????????? ?? ???????? (?1)? ??????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???.
????????? ?????: ??? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????? 2011.

??????? ??? ????? ???? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????? (1)? 2000?
??????? ????????? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????? . ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? 1995?
???????? ???? ????????? (2005)? ??? ????????? ????????? ?1? ???? ???????? ???????.
?????? ???? ????: ???? ???????? ????? ????????? ?1 ??????? ??????? ?????????? 1996?
???????? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? 2012.

??? ???? ????: ????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????? 2013.

????? ???: ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?1? ????? ??????? 2010?
?? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????? 2002?
????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? “???? ?????” ????? ????? ???? 1998
???????? ????: ??? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ?1? ????? ??????? 2011.

??????? ????? ??????? ???? (2002)? ????? ?? ??? ????????? ????????? ??????? – ??????? – ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????????.
?????? ????: ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?1? 2003.

???? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????? (???????? ????? ??? ???? 1993? ?129).

????? ???: ?????? ?? ??? ????????? ????????? ???? ????? ??????????? ???? ????? ???????? 1999
?????? ??? ???: ????? ???????? ????????? ?1? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ????????? 1997?
???????? ??? ?????? (2002)? ??? ????????? ???????? (????? ????????)? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?32.
???????? ?????????: ??? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??? 2002. ???: ????? ???????: ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? 1999.

??????? ??????: ??? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????? 1990
?????? ???: ????? ???????: ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? 1999.

???????? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? (?????? ?????? ????)? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????? 2006.
????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ?8? 2010.

??????? ????: ?? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? 2007.

???????? ??????? ???????:
??????? ???? ????? ?????(2015)????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??????: ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ????????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????.

????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???? (27)? ??? (11)? ?161 – 180.

??????? ???? (2005)? ??? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? 10? ?57.
?????? ????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ???????? 2001?.
???????????? (2006): “??? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? – ????? ??????? “? ???? ?????? ????????? ?????? 33? ????? 1.

??????? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????.
??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????????? 2003?.

???????????? (2015): “????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ???????? ????????”? ????? ???????? ????? ??????????.

????????????? (2004):”??? ??? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ????????”? ????? ???????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????.

?? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????? 2002?.

??????? ???? (2000)? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????.
??????? ??? ???? (2005)? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????: ????? ??????.
???? ???? (2004)? ????? ??????? ?????? “??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ???????.

???? ???? ???? ???? (?2016?)? ??? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? – ???????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????.

????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???? (4) ????? ?????? ????? ??????? 2001?.

???????????? (2016): “??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????”? ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???.

?. ????? ????????
???????????????? (2000): ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??? 2020?????? ??????? 20/??????/2017
https://sites.google.com/site/misraffairs/future-studies???? ???? Offshore Protection Engineering Co. OPEC? ????? ???????: 16/8/2017
http://opecegy.com?. ????????? ? ???????
???? ????: ????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????? 2005
??????: ??????? ????????:
?????
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???????? ? ??????? ???????
Daneshvar, Poolad,  Information Technology Effect on Competitive Advantage–Strategic Perspective?, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology
Vol. 2(11), 2010, 6248-6256.

????????
???? ??? (1) ?????????.

???? ??? (2) ???? ????? ??? ???????? ?????????.

???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????? OPEC
?????? ?????? / ??????? ???????
???? ???? ???????
????????? ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? – ????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? :
” ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????????
????? ??????? ??? ???? OPEC ”
????? ??????? ????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ???????.

???? ???? ????? ??? ??? ??????????
??????
????? ?????: ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? OPEC
?? ???? ?? ????? (?) ???? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ???????:.

??? ???? ????? 2673358128000 2393958128000 ??? ?? 30 30 ??? 45 45 ?????
????? 2927358128000 2711458191500 2736859207500
34442408636000 ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? 3689357683500 2393958636000 2070109398000 ??? ?? 5 ????? 5 ??? 15 ??? 15 ??? ????? ????? ?????? 2673358128000 2393958128000 2844807302500 ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? 2673358128000 2393958128000 2844807302500
????? ??????: ???? ??? ????????? ????????
?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????? OPEC ???? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ????? (?) ??????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ???????:
? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ????
?????: ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????
1 ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? 2 ????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ????????? 3 ???? ???? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? 4 ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? 5 ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??????? 6 ???? ???? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? 7 ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????: ????????? ????????? ???????
8 ?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? 9 ???? ?????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????? 10 ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ????? 11 ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? 12 ????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? 13 ???? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????? 14 ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? : ????????? ??????? ???????
15 ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? 16 ????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? 17 ?????? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? 18 ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? 19 ??? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ?? ?????? 20 ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? 21 ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ?????? : ????????? ???????? ???????
22 ?????? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? 23 ??? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? 24 ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ????????? 25 ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ?????. 26 ????? ???? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? 27 ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ????????? 28 ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? : ????????? ??????? ???????
29 ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????? 30 ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ????????? ????? ?????? 31 ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? 32 ????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? 33 ????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ????????? 34 ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ???
????? ??????: ???? ???????? ????????
?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ????????? ?? ???? ?? ????? (?) ???? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ???????.

? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ????
???? ???????? ????????
1 ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? 2 ???? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? 3 ???? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ??????? 4 ????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ???????? ???? 5 ???? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? 6 ????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????? 7 ????? ??? ???? ?? ??????? 8 ???? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????? 9 ????????????? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? 10 ???? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? 11 ???? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???????
???? ??????? ????? ???????.

???? ??????? ?????? ??????????.

???? ??????? ?????? ???????
???? ???????
???? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? OPEC ??????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???? ????????? ? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? (35) ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? (?????? – ?????? – ?????????).

??? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????:
1-??? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC.

2-?? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC.

3-??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????) ?????? ?? ???????? ????? OPEC
4-??? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ?? “???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ????? OPEC ???? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ???????? ????????)”.

5-?? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ?? “???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??? ????????? ????????) ???? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? OPEC.

??? ??? ?????? ???????:
1-??? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ????????
2-????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????.

3-????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????????.

4-??? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????.

5-????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ????.

6-???????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????.

???? ??????? ?????? ??????????
Abstract
The study aimed to identify the impact of administrative information systems and their relation to the quality of administrative decisions in OPEC and to reach a proposed model for the role of MIS on the quality of administrative decisions. The researcher used the descriptive analytical method and used the questionnaire as a data collection tool. The comprehensive sample method was used, (35) questionnaires were distributed to the employees of the company at the administrative levels (Upper – Middle – Executive (.

The study showed significant results, the most important of which are the following:
Proved the low level of independent variable (the reality of MIS) realized by employees of OPEC.

The low level of independent variable (the reality of MIS) realized by employees of OPEC was confirmed.

proved the low level of dependent variable (quality management decisions) aware of employees of the company
Proved the validity of the main premise, which states that “there is a relationship of statistical significance between the independent variable (the reality of information systems) management company OPEC affect the dependent variable (quality management decisions(
The validity of the main hypothesis is confirmed by the validity of the first five sub-clauses, which can be summed up in that “a statistically significant relationship between the five dimensions of the independent variable (the reality of MIS) affects the quality of the management decisions of OPEC.

The most important recommendations of the study:
Policies and strategies should be developed to activate the impact of the use of MIS on the quality of management decisions.

The need to train staff to adequately train the MIS to achieve the desired goal.

The need for a section specialized in information systems to develop the performance of decision-making.

The senior management should increase support and provide the requirements for the operation of management information systems company.

To ensure that the information system in place is sufficiently flexible to allow for urgent adjustments.

Rely on the science of statistics in the organization and analysis of data in order to reach a decision calculated accurately including all the data and information available on the subject to be decided.

PCU
31337251270
Faculty of Commerce
Business Administration Department
D
00
Faculty of Commerce
Business Administration Department
D

The Effect of Management Information System and their Relationship to the Quality of the Administrative Decisions
An Applied Study on
Offshore Protection Engineering Co. OPEC

A Thesis
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for DBA
Submitted By
Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed Rasras
Supervised By
225742520320Ass. Prof.: Ekram Gomaa
Assistant professor of Business Administration
Faculty of Commerce
Ain Shams University
00Ass. Prof.: Ekram Gomaa
Assistant professor of Business Administration
Faculty of Commerce
Ain Shams University
-82867520320Prof.:Taman Arafat
professor of Business Administration
Faculty of Commerce
Ain Shams University
00Prof.:Taman Arafat
professor of Business Administration
Faculty of Commerce
Ain Shams University

227266513233402018
02018

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