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?INTRODUCTION
Child Psychology has its own history, theory and could further explain about a child’s behaviours. Child psychology can be defined as the process by which a person (individual) changes over time. It covers the whole period from conception to an individual becoming a fully functioning adolescence. It’s a journey from total dependence to full of independence.

As a child’s growth development incorporates, the physical growth as well as cognitive and intellectual, language, emotional and social development would follow-up the along with the growth. Whilst these aspects are often considered separately, in reality each aspect influenced the others. For example, as the brain develops physically, cognitive and intellectual abilities increase. This in turn allows a person to explore their social world further, develop their emotional responses for every experience, thus would bring impacts on the development of the brain.

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Next, in this assignment, we need make a research about Dyslexia and ADHD. Dyslexia, or also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence. Different people are affected with different degrees of dyslexia. Problems may include difficulties in spelling words and reading numbers, difficulties in reading quickly and writing words, struggling with “sounding out” words in the head, pronouncing words wrongly when reading aloud and having a hard time understanding what one reads. Often these difficulties are first noticed at school. When someone who previously could read loses their ability, it is known as alexia. The difficulties are involuntary and people with this disorder are mostly not much different, compared with normal children, and that includes their passion to learn.

ADHD on the other hand, means attention deficit hyperactivity disorder that could affects children and teens and is possible for the disorder to continue up until adulthood. ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed mental disorder for children. Children with ADHD may be hyperactive and unable control their impulses. They may also have trouble paying attention. These behaviours will interfere with their school and home life. Research found out that dyslexia is more common in boys than in girls. It is usually discovered during the early school years, when a child begins to have problems paying attention. Adults with ADHD may have trouble managing time, being organized, setting goals, and holding down a job. They may also have problems with relationships, self-esteem, and addiction.

Next, Dyslexia and ADHD have their own signs and symptoms. Discovering whether someone has learning disabilities or not is actually harder than how it sounds like. Experts look for a noticeable difference between how well a child does in school and how well he or she could do, given his or her intelligence or ability. There are also certain clues that may mean a child has a learning disability. Most of it are related to elementary school tasks, because learning disabilities tend to be identified in elementary school. Some child probably would show just a little bit of these signs but are not exactly dealing with the disorder. This makes it hard for the parents to notice if their child is dealing with these disorders or not. If a child shows a number of these problems, then parents and the teacher should consider the possibility that the child has a learning disability.
You might say that troubles such as paying attention, listen and follow directions, sit still, or waiting for anything are normal among kids, but for the kids with ADHD, the struggles are harder and problems such as fidgeting would occur frequently, and the troubles are more severe. Categories of ADHD are such as, inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive. Inattentive are kids who are inattentive (easily distracted), and have trouble focusing their attention, concentrating, and staying on task. They may not listen well to directions, miss important details, and may not finish what they start. They may also daydream or dawdle a lot, and occasionally, they may seem absent-minded or forgetful, and would lose track of their things. Hyperactive are kids who are hyperactive are fidgety, restless, and easily bored. They may have trouble sitting still or staying quiet when needed. They may rush through things and make careless mistakes on their task, no matter how important it is. They may climb, jump, or roughhouse during serious time or even at places that they shouldn’t have done it. Unintentionally, they may act in ways that disrupt others such as making jokes or playing around when the others are taking things seriously. Impulsive are kids who are impulsive and would act too quickly before thinking. They often interrupt others, and might push or grab. They would find it hard to wait, and may do things without asking for permission, take things that are not theirs, or act in ways that are risky. They also would be acting or reacting more than what they should be over some minor things.

Sometimes, parents and teachers notice signs of ADHD when a child is very young, but it is normal for little kids to be distractible, restless, impatient, or impulsive, and these things do not always mean that a child has ADHD. Parents have to kept in mind that their child’s attention, activity, and self-control develop little by little, as they grow. Kids learn these skills with the help from parents and teachers. But some kids do not get much better at paying attention, settling down, listening, or waiting. When these things continue and begin to cause problems at school, home, and with friends, then only you can announce it as ADHD.

Next, how is ADHD diagnosed? If you think your child has ADHD, make an appointment with your child’s doctor. He or she will give your child a check-up, including their vision and hearing, to be sure something else isn’t causing the symptoms. The doctor can refer you to a child psychologist or psychiatrist if needed. To announce the child is diagnose with ADHD, the doctor would start by asking about the child’s health, behaviour, and activity. They then talk with the parents, along with the kids about the things they have noticed about the kid. Your doctor might ask you to complete checklists about your child’s behaviour, and might ask you to give your child’s teacher a checklist too. After gathering the informations, doctors would then announce that the child is diagnose with ADHD if it’s clear that, firstly, the child’s distractibility, hyperactivity, or impulsivity go beyond what’s usual for their age. Secondly, is the behaviours have been going on since the child was young. Other than that is the effect of the child’s distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity at school and at home. Lastly is a health check shows that another health or learning issue isn’t causing the problems. Many kids with ADHD also have learning problems, oppositional and defiant behaviours, or mood and anxiety problems. Doctors usually treat these along with the ADHD.

On the other hand, there are no test that can conclude that a person is diagnosed with dyslexia. A number of factors are considered, such as the child development and educational issues, and also their medical history. The doctor will likely ask the child questions about these areas and would want to know about any conditions that runs in the family, including whether any family members have a learning disability. Second is Home life. The doctor may ask for a description of the child’s family and home life, including who lives along with the child at home and whether there are any problems at home. Third is questionnaires. The doctor may have the child, family members or teachers answer written questions. The child may be asked to take some tests to identify reading and language abilities. Next is Vision, hearing and brain (neurological) tests. These can help determine whether another disorder may be causing or adding to your child’s poor reading ability. Forth is Psychological testing. The doctor may ask you and your child questions to better understand your child’s mental health. This can help determine whether social problems, anxiety or depression may be limiting your child’s abilities. Lastly, testing reading and other academic skills. Your child may take a set of educational tests and have the process and quality of reading skills analysed by a reading expert.

Other than that, what parents can do for child with dyslexia problem is to play a key role in helping the child to succeed in his or her life. The first step is to address the problem early. If a parent suspected their child has dyslexia, they should talk to their child’s doctor. Early intervention can improve success. Second step is to read aloud to the child. It’s best if you start when the child is 6 months old or even younger. Listening to recorded books with the child. When the child is old enough, they should read the stories together, after the child hears them. Third step is for the parents to work with their child’s school. Talk to the child’s teacher about how the school will help him or her succeed. You are your child’s best advocate. Forth step encourage reading time. To improve reading skills, a child must practice reading. Encourage your child to read. As for the last step, set an example for reading. Designate a time each day to read something on your own while your child reads this sets as a practice and always supports your child. Show your child that reading can be enjoyable.

As for the ADHD, parents can be involved in learning all they can about ADHD. Follow the treatment of the child’s health care provider recommends. Keep all recommended appointments for therapy. Second is to give medicines safely. If the child is taking ADHD medicine, always give it at the recommended time and dose. Keep medicines in a safe place. Third is to work with the child’s school. Ask teachers if your child should have an IEP. Meet often with teachers to find out how your child is doing. Work together to help your child do well. Forth is parent with purpose and warmth. Learn what parenting approaches are best for a child with ADHD and which can make ADHD worse, thus avoiding it. Talk openly and supportively about ADHD with your child. Focus on your child’s strengths and positive qualities. Last is to connect with others for support and awareness. Join a support organization for ADHD to get updates on treatment and other information.

For the causes of dyslexia, it is a specialist doctors and researchers are not precisely sure what actually causes dyslexia. Some evidence points out to the possibility that the condition is genetic, as it often runs in families. There are two key factors. Firstly, genetic is to blame for being the cause of dyslexia when a team at the Yale School of Medicine found that defects in a gene, known as DCDC2, were associated with problems in reading performance. Another one is acquired dyslexia, which means a small minority of people with dyslexia acquire the condition after they are born, usually due to a brain injury, stroke, or some other type of trauma.

Next according to the University of Michigan Health System, dyslexia is the most common learning disability. 80 percent of students with learning disabilities have dyslexia. The International Dyslexia Association estimates that 15 to 20 percent of the American population has some of the symptoms of dyslexia, including slow or inaccurate reading, poor spelling, poor writing, or mixing up similar words. Furthermore, dyslexia affect people of all ethnic backgrounds, but, a person’s native language can play an important role. A language where there is a clear connection between how a word is written and how it sounds, and consistent grammatical rules, such as Italian and Spanish, can be easier for a person with mild to moderate dyslexia. Example languages such as English, where there is often no clear connection between the written form and sound, as in words such as “cough” and “dough,” can be more challenging for a person with dyslexia.

Lastly for the causes of ADHD it is not clear what causes the brain to get diagnosed with ADHD. There is a strong evidence that ADHD is mostly inherited. Many kids who have ADHD have a parent or relative with the same problem. ADHD is not caused by too much screen time, poor parenting, or eating too much sugar. Other than ADHD can improve when kids get treatment, eat healthy food, get enough sleep and exercise, and have supportive parents who know how to respond to ADHD.

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