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(Pacaoan) Effects of video games in one’s psychological formation varies from person to person and game to game. The video game industry has many to offer. Online RPGs, MOBAs, Virtual Reality, and Simulations are some of the broad array of video game genres. While some could be relaxing, and some others could be useful in some areas of life like Chess apps, there are games that are, indeed, stressful and could imbibe negative emotions within an individual. As a result, through continuous and prolonged exposure to the negative side of gaming, a gamer could acquire its negative aspects while playing. According to a study made by Gaetan, Brejard, ; Bonnet (n.d.), video gamers experience a broader array of emotions from the games they immerse in, and at the same time exert more effort in controlling these emotions should these become too disruptive and destructive. There are some cases in which one cannot contain the emotions anymore, and they lash out in an attempt to release these emotions and reduce its disruptive and destructive effects upon themselves. In the book “Human Development”, Craig (1976) mentioned a term called “Operant Conditioning”, a term originally coined by B.F. Skinner in his studies which were based on the research of Edward Thorndike. In Operant Conditioning, a specific behavior is likely to occur more frequently if positive reinforcement is presented upon completion of a task or goal. Provided a scenario of gamers with overheating emotions, it is assumed that the stimuli that requires action from a person are the stressful events in a game – poorly playing players and hard-to-beat levels to name some – and the “solution” to help alleviate the stress acquired is to release it in some form such as lashing out. The more stress a gamer gathers, the more need to release it is required and in effect, such acts like lashing out becomes second nature through Behavior Modification, the effect of Operant Conditioning, since it is viewed as a solution to the problem of stress. In another research made by the University of California San Francisco (2006), video games, indeed, have an impact on behavior, particularly violent video games. This could imply that the warping of human ethics in video games that exude violence and other negative aspects of a video game could have an impact on an individual in such way that the ethics of that individual is being shaped by the game he or she is engaging in. The research also reveals that the people who played GTA III reflected an increase in blood pressure and attitude changes. An increase in blood pressure could be attributed to stress, and stress has been linked with decrease in mental performance. Organisms under the influence of stress tend to make huge amounts of errors (Scicurious, 2012). These errors, when subjected to humans, could range from physical errors to verbal ones. The stress of video games could literally change a human’s behavior temporarily or permanently should these stresses be ingrain in the person.
(Pacaoan) Self-perception could have positive and negative effects on a person’s actions. A gamer who keeps on winning games and completely dominating the opposing players might develop the idea that he or she is a good player. People interpret other people’s actions on the same manner by which they themselves interpret their own actions and vice versa. Also, an individual’s actions are primarily shaped by social influences and little is it produced by a person’s free will (“Self-Perception Theory (BEM)”, n.d.). A good player might compare his or her actions that leads to a win to other players which actions profit them a loss and hereby conclude that he or she is a good player based on his or her performance that led to their team’s win. The actions succeeding a person’s perception of himself or herself, and of other people surrounding him or her, relies on some degree on the learning theory that humans are reactive beings. Craig (1976) says that “…human nature is neither bad nor good; people simply react and respond to their environment” (p. 31). Given a scenario where a good player (one that knows how to play the role of his or her champion in the game optimally) has been teamed with bad players (players who does most things horribly wrong that leads to the team’s demise), this player could show a reaction that is either positive, negative or both. One will recall that Behavior Modification is a by-product of Operant Conditioning, where individuals are likely to repeat a behavior that satisfies an individual’s needs and preferences. A player that encounters bad people could react positively by which he or she may coach his or her teammates the right way of playing the game and lead the group to victory. A player could also react negatively through quitting a game at random times, leaving the team at a player-count disadvantage, to show his or ger disapproval and to get “square” with the teammates in the sense that since the quitting player suffers from his or her team’s performance and the looming threat of suffering a loss, then the team should suffer too from his or her absence in the game. The instance where a positive-negative reaction should also be considered, such as a trash-talking player whose purpose of his or her actions is for his or her team to realize their faults and rectify them before the game leans toward defeat. It has a positive goal in which one informs the other of his or her disapproval and that the need for change is explicit, but this is not always the case as this king of message is always open to interpretation – be it in a positive way or a negative way depending on the emotional weight of the message.
(Pacaoan) Video game ethics have huge impacts on an individual’s character formation in many levels, and to effectively communicate with such individuals requires a different approach. The ethics of video games and the environment it presents have shaped gamers’ mental, emotional, and verbal characteristics that renders some of them “unpredictable” at times. However, this unpredictability could be remedied by knowing the psychological effects of certain games, as shown in the previous paragraphs. Some gamers communicate politely even when faced with stress, while some could be downright rude and annoying. According to a web article by Perry (n.d.), gamers communicate to share real-life experiences, develop winning strategies with the team, or maybe a select some abuse the communication features to talk trash and belittle other players. When dealing with such people in games, one should be of neutral state in communicating as not to aggravate and encourage the rudeness of the player. Through the learning theory of humans being reactive beings mentioned in the preceding paragraphs, talking back with a negative vibe would only worsen the situation and that such situation will not yield agreeable, but rather detrimental results to both parties. One should observe positive responses such as an impartial tone and calm conversations for all parties to minimize unpleasantries. Accept losses and failings in a game, and utilize it to make improvements in oneself (Lars, 2018).

References
Craig, G.J. (1976). Human Development. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Gaetan, S., Brejard, V., ; Bonnet, A. (n.d.). Video games in adolescence and emotional functioning: Emotion regulation, emotion intensity, emotion expression, and alexithymia Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563216301947

Lars. (2018, May 29). Avoid Tilt (Or At Least Deal With It) And Win More Games. Retrieved from https://on-winning.com/avoid-tilt/

Scicurious. (2012, December 5). Stressed out and not thinking straight? Blame dopamine release in your prefrontal cortex. Retrieved from http://scicurious.scientopia.org/2012/12/05/stressed-out-and-not-thinking-straight-blame-the-dopamine-in-your-prefrontal-cortex/

Self-Perception Theory (BEM). (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.learning-theories.com/self-perception-theory-bem.html

University of California San Francisco (2006, September 1). Video Game Violence Changes Attitudes in the Real World. Retrieved from https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2006/09/7056/video-game-violence-changes-attitudes-real-world

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