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2.2 Theories and model of staff training
According to Mitchell (2013, p.31), as the training process is required very much for the skills development of the staffs, the staff training development management needs to follow various types models in order to plan a proper training process. The various models of training also help them to provide the employees proper training in an effective manner. The management of staff training needs to follow various types of effective models for training such as Systems models, Instructional system development model and the transactional model.
Systems models
As stated by Kaslow (2014, p.19), systems model is one of the most effective models of staff training as it helps the staff training management to improve the performance level of staffs, employees. By following this model, the management can make their employees meet the business purpose of the industry. This model of training has five steps like analyse, designing, development, proper execution and proper development.
Analyze
Analyzing is the first step in this model and it aims to focus on the needs of the training. In this step, the management can analyze the performance level of the staffs and can understand in which area, the employees lack the most. This step also helps them to understand the employee, groups who needs the training and helps them to determine the cost of the training, measure the performance level based on the requirements of the organization.
Development
This third step helps the organisation to assist the staffs that they can learn about the activities of industry properly. It also makes the staffs understand about the delivery method and makes the staff training management to examine the materials for training and to check the information provided to staffs in order to ensure that they can accomplish the goals, objectives of the industry (Kaslow, 2014, p.31).
Proper execution
It is the fourth steps in this model of training. By following this steps, the hospitality industry can make it sure that they have properly executed the training procedures and it provide an assurance that their training procedures have achieved its goals, purpose. The wrong decisions in this step can lead the industry towards major business, loss.

Proper evaluation of development
As per the opinion of Ford (2014, p.19), this step is considered as the last and final step in this model. By following this step, the management of staff training can evaluate the success of their training by measuring the level of performance growth of the staffs effectively. It also helps them to make necessary amendments by viewing the flaws in the previous process in order to ensure the good level of training. This step also helps them to make it sure that their staffs can easily improve the satisfaction level of the customers.

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2.3 Concept of development
According to Gray and Truesdale (2015, p.401), the concept of development is also very important for the hospitality industry as it determines, the goodwill, business profit of the industry. Staff development is a development process for staffs that ensure the business development of the hospitality industry. On the other hand, the concept of staff development also indicates towards the approaches of professional development as staff development procedures. Therefore, the staff development procedures are necessary for the organisation as it also helps them to improve the level of capability of the staffs. Apart from this, staff development process also helps the employees, staffs to develop their professional standard, skills, Knowledge in order to meet the objectives, goals, business purpose of the industry.
On the contrary, as per the opinion of Zijlmans et al. (2015, p.611), staff development process also helps the employee to improve their career graph and to have a good position in the organisation. Proper development process also helps them to improve their skills based on the requirements of the business industry that they can bring a huge profit to their organisation. Proper development process also helps the staffs to meet the satisfaction level by improving their skills; behavioural attitude and level, of communication Staff development also lead the staffs towards the high-quality performance that is very much important to enhance business globally (Mitchell, 2013, p.31).
On the other hand, staff development indicates towards the planning for professional development procedures that can be beneficial both for the staffs and for the organisation. Apart from this, staff development also helps the organisation to have efficient employees, the guidance of expert for their organisation and this kind of approaches also help the organisation to have strong support from their employee and it will be beneficial for them.

2.4 Theories and models of development
As per the opinion of Huffman et al. (2014, p.448), hospitality industry needs to follow various kinds of model for their staff development process as it helps them to enrich their staff development process in an effective manner. On the other hand, the proper implementation of various models also helps them to enhance skills of the staffs and by following this model, the management can make their staffs fully involved in their business activities. Therefore, the management of hospitality industry needs to follow various types of staff development models such as Kirkpatrick’s model of Staff Development, individually guided staff development model and so on. Staff development model is a kind development model that mainly focuses on the development procedures for the training of the staffs, workers. The development model shows the management effective ways to improve their training process. In addition, it also helps the staff development management to set their planning for training in an effective way. On the other hand, as per the opinion of Zijlmans et al. (2015, p.611), staff development training is essential for the business firms, hotel industries as it also helps them to accomplish their business objectives and to enhance the level of service. It has been observed that Kirkpatrick’s model of Staff Development is considered as the most effective model for the staff development planning. The development model of Kirkpatrick aims to focus on the various factors such as reaction, behavioural attitude, learning and results.
Reaction
This phase is considered as the first phase in this model and it has been observed that these steps help the leaders, trainer to observe the reaction of the trainees positively. It also reminds the management about the necessity of feedback from the employees, staffs in order to ensure their development training is effective enough or not. The feedback from the staffs also helps them to understand the area they lack (Gray and Truesdale 2015, p.401). The feedback session also indicates towards the suggestion of the staffs in order for the further improvement in the staff development process .
Behavioural attitude
This step also helps the management to focus on the behavioural attitude of the staffs. It also helps the industry to make them understand that they need to maintain the good behavioural attitude towards the customers (Ford, 2014, p.19). It also encourages the employees, staffs to develop their communication level as it also an important part of the behavioural attitude of the employees.
Learnings
This step also helps the staff development management to check the knowledge level of staffs and it also helps them to understand how much information their staffs, employees have collected or not. The learning session also helps them to understand that whether they learned everything, whether they understand their role, responsibility or not.
Results
This step is considered as the final step of this model as it helps the industry to measure their investment in staff development process (Huffman et al. 2014, p.441). It also helps the management to compare the outcome, performance growth of the employees, staffs between the pre staff development process and post staff development process.
2.5 SERVQUAL model
According to Mitchell (2013, p.31), SERVQUAL model aims to focus on the customer satisfaction. By following this model, the hospitality industry can evaluate the various dimensions of the service quality such as tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy.
Tangibility
This model helps the industry to focus on the tangibility of their products, services in order to ensure that they are offering good quality products to the customers. On the other hand, it also helps them to notice that the services they are offering can fulfill the need of the customers.
Reliability
The management also needs to look at the fact that they can maintain the safety, security at their workplace. They need to provide their customers such a good quality service that they can maintain trustworthiness towards their customers.
Responsiveness
This step of this model also helps the management to notice that customers are accepting their products and they can satisfy the needs of the customers.
Assurance
This model also helps them to maintain their service quality. It also helps them to provide the customers with an assurance that they would get the best quality services.
Empathy
This dimension aims to focus on the activities of the industry and it makes the management of hospitality industry to understand the fact that they need to give more focus on the problems, issues, complaints of the customers. It also reminds them the fact that they need to solve the problems of the customers accordingly.

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