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Name?NURDIANA BINTI SALEHUDIN
Class?A4AS120216Lecturer Name?DR.HUSSIN BIN HANIBAH
Due Date?17.05.2018
CHEMISTRY CASE STUDY
SMOG

INTRODUCTION
Many people nowadays live in a big city with a lot of vehicles on the road and near heavy industry. If you life in this kind of situation, you may see scenery a cloudy fog that cover the horizon. Some of us may do not know what kind of situation we face or do not care at all and think it’s a natural phenomenon. This situation is called smog. So, what is smog actually?
The term ” smog” was first used in London during the early 1900’s. The word smog is formed of two word which are smoke and fog that often covered the city, According to some sources, the term was first determined by Dr. Henry Antoine des Voeux in his paper, ” Fog and Smoke” which he presented at a meeting of Public Health Congress in July 1905. Dr.des Voeux described the type of smog was a combination of smoke and sulfur dioxide from the heavy use of coal to heat homes and factories in Victorian England. When we talk about smog nowadays, it is referring to a more complex of variety air pollutants that interact with sunlight to form ground-level ozone that formed like a heavy haze over many cities that have heavy industry.

Smog is one of the type of air pollution that caused by particles in the air. It is yellowish and some mixture of various gases, water vapor and dust trap in the air. All of this substances mixed up together with the sunlight to form ozone. Smog usually occurs because the air is pollutant and hazy air that make us cannot see clearly and hardly to breath. Smog is formed from the atmospheric pollutants or gases that released in the air when fuels are burnt. These gases and tiny particles in the atmosphere will react with sunlight and its heat to form smog. This ground level ozone and fine particles are released due to complex chemical reactions between carbon monoxides, nitrogen oxides (NO?), sulphur dioxide (SO?) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). These nitrogen oxides (NO?), sulphur dioxide (SO?) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) are called precursors.
Precursors is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound. The time taken for smog to form its depend the temperature. When the temperature of air is warm the smog does not rise instead stay near the ground but during the temperature of air is cold, the smog may trapped and remain at the same place for a couple of days. Pollutants that combined together come from various of sources, including vehicles emission, smokestack emission, paints and solvents. Because as we know smog need to formed, so summertime are the worst smog problems. The main sources for nitrogen oxides comes from the electrical utilities, vehicles motor and industrial plants. It is true that smog more severe when it occurs father away from the main sources of release of pollutants. Due to chemical reaction, smog take place in the air when the released pollutants from the heavy traffic and industry by wind. This may cause bad affect and prove dangerous for rural areas as well as in urban areas or big cities.

The most dangerous substances of air pollution is liquid droplets or small particles that are found in the ground. These substances are named as particular matter (PM) and usually defined as PM10, PM2.5, and PM0.1 which correspond to diameter equal or less than 10, 2.5 or 0.1 micrometre. This PM10 or the largest particles commonly found in the city areas which may come from several sources. However, aerosols in urban areas contain finer particles that mostly contain a core of carbon element that come from process of burning of fossil fuel. Unfortunately, these particles can absorb inorganic and organic components. Mostly the major source of PM are from motor vehicles especially the type of diesel operated motor vehicles which can contribute approximately 40 % of the smog. Therefore, if the air contains fine and ultra fine particles in smog it will cause more harm to people.

According to new data that have reported by World Health Organization, more than 3.000 cities in the world which are more billions of people around the world nowadays have been to exposed to dangerous air. The outdoor air pollution have already reached 8% globally for the past five years. The fast-growing cities in the South-east Asia, Middle East and Western Pacific are impacted with showing more pollution level at five to 10 time above more than WHO expected. According to the new WHO database, the ultra fine levels of the particles become less than 2.5 microns which is are the highest in India with 16 of the 30 worlds most air pollution cities crisis. China has been plagued by this situation but already has improved its air quality since 2011. The city with the most air pollution according to WHO data is Onitsha. Onistsha is a fast growing and transit in south eastern in Nigeria. WHO data have been recorded that the level is nearly 600 micro grams per cubic metre of PM10s which is around 30 times than the level of WHO recommended level.

EFFECT OF SMOG
Smog is harmful to human, animal, plants and the nature as well. Many people deaths were recorded, due this smog problems. A very heavy smog can cause decreasing the UV radiation. Thus, heavy smog also will produce low production of the crucial natural element vitamin D which leading to cases rickets among the people. As we know, smog is formed by several combination of air pollutants that can give bad effect to human health, harm to environment and even damage property. The health problems that usually cause by smog such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, eye irritation and reduced resistance to colds and lung infections. This ozone can also inhibits the plant growth and cause widespread damage to crops and forests.

Anyone who always do the outdoor activity may be the most risk to suffer smog-related health effects. Physical activity causes to breathe faster and exposing their lungs more to ozone. There are four group of people who are sensitive to ozone in smog.

The first one is children. Children is a very active person and the highest risks to expose to smog because children spent a lot of their leisure time run and playing outside with their friends everyday. The health effects that usually children get due smog is asthma. This is the most common chronic disease for children compare to the other disease. Next is adults who are active with outdoors activity. Adults health of any age who always love to exercise or work at outdoors are also consider at higher risk for have bad effect from the smog. People with respiratory problems People who already have diseases such as asthma or other chronic respiratory diseases are vulnerable and more sensitive to the smog. Mostly, this group will experience adverse effects sooner and lower levels of exposure compare to those who are less sensitive.
Then, people with unusual susceptibility to ozone Healthy people are simply become more sensitive to the smog than other people who already have a bad effects of smog and may experience more adverse health effects of exposure. Last but not least, elderly people. Elderly people have a higher risk because of their age that getting old and they already suffer many diseases. This may lead them to become more sensitive to smog and give more bad effect to them
Smog also can cause effect to our health. The more exposure us to smog can cause to several type of short- term health. Firstly, chest irritation or coughing. This high levels of ozone can give a bad
effect to our respiratory system. It will continue harm your lungs if you have been exposed to smog for about a few hours even it will continue after symptoms are gone.

Next, asthma symptoms. If you have a worst asthma, the high level exposure to ozone smog can trigger asthma attacks and will give more hard time and your health getting worst than before. Last but not least, difficulty breathing and lung damage.During exercise, our body need to pump more energy doing this activity. By doing exercise with surrounding with smog, it will can make us feel difficult to breathe deeply and and cause dehydration.

Furthermore, can endanger to human life. Individual residents who are affected by smog often do prevention to themselves. For example, people prefer to drive themselves instead of taking the public transport because they does not want to be more expose to open air. This situation may lead to mitigate emissions that contribute to smog pollution. Then, the smog pollution become more complicated, as people change their lifestyles in response to poor air quality. Where all people continue doing their outdoor activities and wear mask.

Then, smog also can increase the susceptibility of cancer in human body due to reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl and super oxide.

FACTORS CAUSES OF SMOG
There are some factors that cause of the smog around us. Firstly, is ozone. Ozone is formed when VOCs and nitrogen oxide is chemically react with presence of heat from sunlight. Although, ozone layer is an important part of Earth’s atmosphere, the ground level of ozone are lead to cause the smog.

Secondly, the volatile organic compounds.VOCS are chemical gases which are released from solid and liquid chemical products. For example of the product are pesticides, printer supplies, detergent, electronics, furniture paints and many more product that produce VOCs.

Thirdly is nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide is a natural and human caused greenhouse gas. The activities that produces this gases such as animal waste management, nitric acid production, fossil fuel combustion and agricultural soil management. Also the treatment of waste water and adipic acid production both generate nitrous oxide. Adipic acids commonly used in manufacturing nylon and polyurethane foams. Nitrogen oxides can travel long distance before form ozone. Soil based bacteria are natural sources of the gas which convert nitrogen into nitrous oxides.

Next, are the vehicles. Many people have vehicles such as cars, bus, motorcycles, trucks and more to go their destination everyday The internal combustion in vehicles can causes the smog. The burning of fuel in engine will produces harmful gases and high emission.Agriculture side effect is one of factors of smog. Farmers plow fields and harvest by using machinery that use fossil fuels. Methane gas is a gas that also contributes to smog happen and hav ea greenhouse effect that allows global warming.

Home heating and cooking also contributes to smog. Usually, to keep homes warm by burning the fossil fuels such as gas, oil and coal. This combustion have produce the sources of air pollutants like sulfur dioxide. If heat house by using electricity, the energy produced may also been driven by fossil fuels. Home cooking use energy that came from energy plants, which lead arisen of potential for air pollution.

Sometime people think smog are causes by man made. Natural processes that release the substances cause smog such as volcanoes. Volcanoes release sulfur dioxide which a major modern air pollutant into air to influence the global cooling. Forest fires also release substances that lead to pollutant into air same way as fireplace wood. This process produce fine smoke particles which small enough to damage lungs and heart human according the EPA.
Last but not least, tobacco smoke is commonly smoke that also contribute to form smog. Nowadays, people to smoke because they said it is one of the ways to release stress. This tobacco smoke are indoor smoke that linked to respiratory diseases.

 
PREVENTION AND PRECAUTION
Majority of people need to be concerned about the smog. There are some prevention and precaution steps that will lead you prevent from smog. Firstly, in order to protect yourself and your family, make sure you need to stay informed about ozone levels in your area. Example, you and your family are going for a vacation, make sure to check ozone level wherever you are travelling to avoid something bad happen.

Next, you can use tools available that have provided by local air agencies to help you to look up ozone levels in a particular region. For example, the EPA has developed an index called the Air Quality Index (AQI) that reports on the levels of ozone and other pollutants that happen in our country. The index has colour assigned to make it easy to understand the air quality in your area. This AQI ranks air quality from 0 to 300. The EPA has said that levels above 150 are considered unhealthy for anyone and does not allow people do any outdoor activity during that levels.

These precautions can help protect you when ozone levels are high. Firstly, limit the outdoor activities if ozone levels are unhealthy, the higher chance you get effected by smog during this levels if you stay longer outside. Secondly, keep your activities gentler on smoggy days, as the more vigorous your activity level, the greater your chances of experiencing respiratory problems. Thirdly, uses carpooling, walking, biking or using public transportation to go to your destination especially during summer. Next, every household should decreasing electricity use and maintaining your vehicle’s fuel efficiency to reduces ozone-producing greenhouse gases.
To lighten the workload, avoid running the air-conditioner, idling the engine and carrying heavy objects in the vehicle. Additionally, supporting local and national measures to reduce nitrous oxides and VOC emissions can potentially reduce smog.

People or elderly who experience any respiratory illness or cardiac are more harmful to effects of smog. These patients need to increase their the dosage of medication to prevent the worsening of disease. Then, food containing antioxidants like Omega 3 fatty acids when can added to health it is may to help against oxidative stress that cause by pollution.

Media campaign should be launched regarding the public awareness the sources of pollution that casing the smog. Then, promote the tree implantation and ban the deforestation through worldwide as plants and trees transpire and decreases the temperature by cooling effect to prevent indirectly to occur the photochemical react ion and minimize the formation o smog. Next, the 3R, reuse, reduce and recycle of solid waste is also a good alternative to prevent open burning and waste of garbage.

Moreover, using low emission, it is low carbon fuels and the combustion are free power sources like solar and wind. This is important for primary prevention as this method are more safer for our health, cost low price and efficient of the energy
1134745813435CASE STUDY: SMOG
CASE STUDY: SMOG
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Malaysia
In 2015, Malaysia have been experienced the worst smog until Malaysia has to shut most school nationwide for about two days to protect children from this thick haze caused by smoke from burning forests in Indonesia. Every year Indonesia sees to fires the agriculture in Riau province in East Sumatera, South Sumatra, and parts of Kalimantan on Indonesian Borneo. The fires are caused by small group of farmers who use the slash and burn method to clear palm oil, pulp and paper plantations. The fires was open burning and often out of control and have been spread into protected forested areas.The problem are getting increasing from year to year. The burnt land also become drier which make it more easily to catch fire when the farmer do the burning process. On this year also has been the worst and most longer periods of smog because the unusually dry weather in Indonesia caused by the El Nino phenomenon.

The haze index hit the hazardous level in Shah Alam, the capital of Central of Selangor State. This unhealthy condition happen in many areas and order the authorities to close the school on Monday and Tuesday.Deputy Prime Minister Zahid Hamidi said Jakarta’s effort to destroy on the sources of open burning were not enough and need more effort to crack down. He suggest that Indonesia should ask more help from South East Asian neighbour to avoid this haze because this problem happen every year. Indonesia President Joko Widodo has announced that Indonesia government will give a strict penalty for those farmers who do the open burning, and will solve this problem immediately. Usually the offenders are palm oil plantations.

Malaysia’s Meteorological Department, however reported the Malaysia a getting clear from haze from Saturday which is the start of the monsoon season. Them also reported that the haze also happen in thee southern Thai which are Songkhla, Trang, Yala and Pattani which are close to Malaysia.

FACTORS SMOG IN MALAYSIA
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2978785-14605-5048257620
1162050136525
311213599060-602615109855
China
China have suffered for many years from serious air pollution.China have more than five million motor vehicles, dust storms from the north, coal burning in neighbouring areas and local construction. Commonly severe smog engulfed the city for about one week in 2013. Beijing is the worst area in China have been experienced smog. This situation contributes to the deaths of an approximate 1.6 million people in China in year or 4,400 people a day. The paper maps geographic sources of China, the air in China is a toxic and conclude that too much smog in the air comes from emissions in industrial zone. China’s government put too much effort on finding a ways to clean up the capital city’s air before 2022 because for the 2022 Winter Olympics.

According to data, about three-eighths of Chinese citizen breathe air that rated unhealthy. The researches used the same statistical ways to asses China air pollution. They have been analyzed for about 4 months to taken readings at 1,500 ground stations in mainland China The researcher analysis have indicates that China could not be able to solve the their air pollution problems. Greenpeace East Asia also found 360 cities in China which more than 90 percent failed to follow the national air quality in April for the first 3 months of 2015.

The China government ia aware and worried about the data showing that air pollution in China able to kill people. The authorities have permitted a greater public access to air quality readings and social media channels of information that rule Communist Party might provoke popular unrest. Also in March, a documentary about the health effects of smog is widely spread online.

The air pollution in China mostly comes from the large scale of burning of coal. The researchers concluded that smog that afflicting the Beijing city are not came from the city but from the coal burning factories where located 200 miles southwest in Shijiazhung, the capital of Hebei Province and major in hub industry.

The mayor of Beijing, Wang Anshum said he will order the restrictions on vehicles in the city, and sate a new outlet lauded projects to replace coal fired heating system in cities area. This system use the natural gas and generate less air pollution. It is because he promise to clean up the Beijing air because Beijing will be the nation’s bid to host the 2022 Winter Olympics.

PIE CHART OF THE SOURCES CAUSES SMOG IN CHINA
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1209675139065
329565067310-44767519685
India
New Delhi is the capital of India have been suffers through the most harmful type of smog which is a toxic stew that make India one of the worst country that suffered air pollution. It is shocking but not surprise because for the last a few years, smog in India will never end.

For the past few years, the doctors in India are suggest to their patients to leave New Delhi if they can. World Health Organization have reported 2.5 million Indians died of smog in 2015 which can conclude that become the largest number of pollution deaths in the world. Living in New Delhi like breathing in the smoking 45 cigarettes a day.

The government system in New Delhi are generally low because the government have no effort to clean the air. Also the lack of political will. The authorities know what they have to do to reduce the smog but the implementation in India begins after the disaster. India have become headlines even in the international that have been telling for the past years India has the worst air quality. In December 2016, India’s supreme court ordered the government to come up with a comprehensive plan to reduce and prevent pollution in New Delhi. The government took 10 months to make a plan known as the Graded Response Action Plan.

IndiaSpend have been analyse that under this plan, the government should have lists 30 issued to citizens and take a various measurement. In October, the pollution has started rise by itself. The government should banning construction activity and reduce the entry of vehicles like lorry and trucks into the city. Last year, New Delhi face the worst smog. The government had promised to India’s citizen various long term measures. For example, to reduce the road dust there will have vacuum cleaning of roads.

Mostly, that causing the smog in India because the burning of crop in neighboring. Kejriwal has blamed farmers in Punjab and Haryana because of their annual tradition of clearing field as the winter season are near coming. Industry emissions and vehicle contribute a lot to the smog, as construction dust and fires lit by poor for their daily used.
It is difficult to find a solution because as the farmer’s status, there’s the chaotic of Indian democracy itself. India have a various levels of government have failed to make a progress on this issue that across political jurisdictions that are run by other parties.

World Bank in 203 have estimated India country for annual cost of environment almost $80 billion. Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health, the pollution rated illness have low the productivity and decrease the annual economic output for developing the economies in India.
India government should put some effort to make pollution in India decrease. They should enforce banning on burning crop, hold to stricter emissions and make a rules on construction site on creating dust. Do a campaign for citizens on a good ways to reduce and prevention of smog and also encourage them to use a public transport to increase the air quality in India.

FACTORS CAUSES SMOG INDIA
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11430009525
-371475107315340741069850
United States or America
United state also experienced smog especially in California, according to American Lung Association’s State of the air report. Smog in U.S is worse in 2017, according to the Enviromental Protection Agency. It also found almost 128.9 million people in U.S earned an “F” grade for ozone in their areas. The American Lung Association found the factors that cause air pollution such as wood burning devices, wildfires, diesel engines coal, fired power plants and more. But still the report conclude that there are millions of people living in city where the higher pollution.Fairbanks, Alaska and a few of cities in California, Los Angeles and Bakersfield have the worst cities with higher particle pollution.

The sources of smog happen in America are the production carbon monoxide gas from cars and other transportation vehicles. Next, the smoke from factories, and the burning of forest widely in U.S. The production of methane gas from farms naturally occur and the breakdown of organic items and more. The biggest source of air pollution that lead to smog is transportation. According to CBS News, 60 percent of carbon monoxide gas are exhaust from cars and other transportation across the nation that have contribute up to 95 percent in cities.

In United States Congress, the Clean Air Act in 1963 have passed in effort to limit the amount of air pollution released to atmosphere. Since that, United State government have been done some alternative to the act that have served to strengthen it. According to History.com in 2007, 46 % of the American citizens in that country have been experienced unhealthy levels of air pollution.

The government have stated that the responsibility for protect the environment are individual responsible. Each of the person must willing to reduce the uses of driving an travelling by car.
Clearly the responsibility for protecting the environment rests with the individual. Each person must be willing to cut back on the amount of driving and traveling they do. The other possibilities that can they do, they should shop at local store and try to reduce buy items that have items shipped from long distances. Next, try to limit the amount of electricity that use in home and work place. Choose to recycle, reduce and reuse the product that can limit amount of wasting. Furthermore, use the organic product as such the cleaning product and but the organic items as much as possible.

FACTORS CAUSE SMOG IN
UNITED STATES
573405176530
3340100139065-46799594615
3004185227965
-52832031115
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, whatever sources form a smog from photochemical smog, industrial and inversions that will cause the air pollution and give effects for us. This air pollution cannot be stopped from happen cause the sources for air pollution are still there but people can help by reducing the amount of energy use even for factories that work twenty four hours. Mostly from research say cities are the area most affected with the air pollution then it would still effect you if you were living outside the cities but the percentage of air pollution in there are average. People who living in the cities must be careful and prepare some prevention to prevent consequences from the air pollution.

REFERENCES
CONTENT
ACKNOWLEGMENT
I would like to express my deepest appreciation to all those who help me to complete this case study. A special gratitude I give to our Chemistry lecturer, Dr Hussin Bin Hanibah who contribution with give some briefing how to do the case study and also in stimulating suggestions some ideas and encouragement to help me writing this case study it is done.

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