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448408439615Date of submission:
4th January 2017
Bilquis Post Graduate College for Women, PAF Base Nur Khan Rawalpindi.

submitted TO:
ma’am sumaira noor
Submitted by:
laiba rukhsar (145)
fareha shoukat (156)
beenish irshad (153)
00Date of submission:
4th January 2017
Bilquis Post Graduate College for Women, PAF Base Nur Khan Rawalpindi.

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submitted TO:
ma’am sumaira noor
Submitted by:
laiba rukhsar (145)
fareha shoukat (156)
beenish irshad (153)
-313690-322580 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

DEDICATION
We would like to dedicate this research to our most respectful teacher MAM SUMAIRA NOOR. Without her wisdom, patience, and guidance this research would not have been completed on time. We would like to thank her for constant effort and support. She is the supporting wall behind the accuracy and development of this study.

ABSTRACT
This research investigates about student experiences of learning English. It includes the problems faced by students while learning English as a second language in society. This study is conducted to show the problems which students face in society while learning English as a second language.

CONTENTS
Chapter I
INTRODUCTION
Significance of Research
Objectives
Research Questions
Hypothesis
Limitations
Chapter II
LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction
Overview of Literature
Research Articles
Chapter III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Type of Research
3.2 Population
3.3 Sampling technique
3.4 Tools for data collection
Chapter 4
DATA ANALYSIS
Chapter 5
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
CHAPTER: 1
INTRODUCTION:
English as a second language refers to the teaching of English to students with different native or home languages using specially designed programs and techniques. English as a second language is an English-only instructional model, and most programs attempt to develop English skills and academic knowledge simultaneously. It is also known as English for speakers of other languages (ESOL), English as an additional language (EAL), and English as a foreign language (EFL).

As English has become a global language, its importance in higher education has increased significantly. In order to meet the demands of globalization, national governments often priorities the development of English language teaching and learning in higher education, and the government of Pakistan is no exception. Among the many initiatives of Pakistan’s Higher Education Commission (HEC), the new English as Second Language (ESL) program, introduced for all public sector universities in 2006, remains the most prominent.
SIGNIFICANCE:
The Importance of English Language has globally accepted. It is the only language which is being taught second language and as an official language in almost 90 countries. It is not only currently considered the most important language for those who speak it as their first language but also for them who speak it as a second language. English is essential when it comes to finding jobs or career in both government departments and multinational companies. Every country has their own national languages local languages are  ??spoken and understood by people in different regions. Some languages ??are spoken by millions of people, the others by just a few thousand people.

OBJECTIVES:
To investigate about student experiences of learning English as a second language.

To analyze the difficulties faced by the students while learning English.

To observe the effect of society on student learning.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS:
What are the experiences faced by students while learning English?
What is the ease and difficulty in learning English as a second language?
What role is played by society for students in learning English as a second Language?
HYPOTHESIS:
Hypothesis of our research is students face problems in society while learning English as a second language.

LIMITATIONS:
Four significant limitations are associated with this research project: time, sample, and research instrument.

Time:
The first limitation is the restricted time period in which this research is to be conducted. The short amount of time limits the amount of data that can be collected, and this will make it difficult to make an absolute conclusion. Consequently, the results will most likely only give an indication of whether teachers perceive students to experience any effect in L1 as a result of their L2 learning.

Sample:
The second limitation is the sample that is used. Participants are chosen using a variation of non-probability sampling where participants are selected based on convenience.

Research instrument:
A third limitation is likely to occur in relation to the instrument used to collect data. Data are collected during a qualitative interview with each participant, and these interviews are guided by a set of questions. The guiding questions may have the potential to limit the results as they may not uncover all of the information that the participant may have to offer in regards to the research question. These questions have been designed as open questions to encourage participants to consider their responses without significant restrictions, but even though this precaution has been taken, the possibility remains that some significant contribution may be unintentionally restricted.

CHAPTER: 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction:
The majority of studies conducted in the area of second language learning focus on the effects of the first language (L1) on the second (L2). This study was specifically designed to test students’ awareness of the relationship between the two languages. These studies provide invaluable information about the effects that L2 learning has on L1 skills.

2.2 Overview of Literature:
The Effects of the Second Language (L2) on the First Language (L1):
• Exposure to a second language can: (1) enhance the complexity of first-language syntax used; (2) enhance language use skills (narrative strategies, reading and writing literacy skills in the first language, vocabulary scores); (3) enhance non-linguistic skills (divergent thinking, metalinguistic skills, attitudes toward others, mathematics scores and skills).
• Acquiring knowledge in a second language does not impede the ability to access that knowledge in the first language.
• Negative effects of the second language on the first language (such as accented first language speech or loss of access to first-language knowledge) will not occur under Alberta school authority language initiatives.

The Role of Content Instruction in Offering a Second Language (L2):
• Numerous models of content-based language programs exist, each illustrating a different balance between content-area and second-language learning outcomes. Student second-language proficiency levels, the nature of the content material and the amount of time devoted to the program all need to be considered in choosing an appropriate model for any given context.
• Students in time-intensive content-based language teaching (CBLT) programs, such as French immersion, are typically able to master complex content material effectively, despite less than native-like proficiency in the language of instruction.

• In programs where students have limited second-language proficiency and less time is devoted to second-language learning, the concrete and highly-contextualized content found in content-based language teaching programs makes them the most effective.
• In terms of language learning, content-based language teaching is a time-efficient and effective way of promoting the development of general second-language skills.
• The development of second-language grammatical accuracy needs to be explicitly promoted in content-based language teaching classrooms. This can be accomplished through the integrated teaching of language structures and vocabulary.

2.3 ARTICLES:
“Learning should be seen as a qualitative change in a person’s way of seeing, experiencing, understanding, conceptualized something in the real world”
(Matron and Rams den 1998:271)
“In the new higher education, the learner may be a person who is experiencing tremendous difficulty in the face of unexplained norms and values: he or she may not know, for example, the facts are same by many lectures as the vehicle for the most abstract form of conceptualization that are expected, but not modeled or defined. In addition, he or she may be exhausted from part time work or parenting, distracted by family or financial problems or lacking the fundamental confidence, self-esteem or health to engage in the ways that are assumed to be both desirable and possible.”
(Haggis 2003:96)
“There are social structures within which individuals exist (be these state government, peer groups, or educational system) that limit the availability of choice to individual. There are individuals living within social structure that do not allow them to make as many choices (e.g.: societies were the roles of men and women are circumscribed by tradition).”
(Mathew, in Block 2007:865)
CHAPTER: 3
Research Methodology:
3.1 Type of research:
According to the type topic, sample, and the collected data of research, researcher is doing a mixed research for assignment. This research will helps to find the average experiences of different students while learning English as a second language.

3.2 Population:
The population researcher had selected for research study is the students of different schools, colleges and universities. Researcher selected 20 students out of the population of 50 students. Researcher had made questioners for this study.

3.3 Sampling technique:
Researcher had selected non-probability sampling technique.

3.4 Tools for data collection:
For research project researcher had selected “Questioners” as a tool. It’s an instrument for the research study. The result of the research study will rely on these questionnaires. This is the basic tool for study.

CHAPTER: 4
DATA ANALYSIS:
The analysis of questionnaire is given as below:
Question no 1: I think I’m pretty good language learner.

Responses Number of Respondents
Strongly Agree 3
Agree 12
Neither agree nor disagree 4
Disagree 1
Strongly disagree 0

Question no 2: My language learning aptitude is probably pretty high.

Responses Number of Respondents
Strongly Agree 5
Agree 11
Neither agree nor disagree 2
Disagree 0
Strongly disagree 2

Question no 3: I worry a lot about my mistakes.

Responses Number of Respondents
Strongly Agree 5
Agree 6
Neither agree nor disagree 5
Disagree 0
Strongly disagree 4

Question no 4: I’m afraid people will laugh at me if I don’t say things right.

Responses Number of Respondents
Strongly Agree 0
Agree 9
Neither agree nor disagree 3
Disagree 4
Strongly disagree 4

Question no 5: I end up trembling and practically in a cold sweat when I have to talk in front of people.

Responses Number of Respondents
Strongly Agree 3
Agree 2
Neither agree nor disagree 3
Disagree 9
Strongly disagree 3

Question no 6: I find it hard to make conversation even with people who speak my own language?
Responses Number of Respondents
Strongly Agree 9
Agree 0
Neither agree nor disagree 4
Disagree 4
Strongly disagree 3

Question no 8: It is a mark of respect to people to learn their language if you’re living in their country.

Responses Number of Respondents
Strongly Agree 8
Agree 10
Neither agree nor disagree 1
Disagree 0
Strongly disagree 1

Question no 9: I like getting to know people from other countries, in general.

Responses Number of Respondents
Strongly Agree 1
Agree 12
Neither agree nor disagree 6
Disagree 1
Strongly disagree 0

Question no 10: Speaking the language of the community where I’ll be living will let me help people more than I could otherwise.

Responses Number of Respondents
Strongly Agree 1
Agree 15
Neither agree nor disagree 2
Disagree 1
Strongly disagree 1

Question no 11: I like to mimic other accents, and people say I do it well.

Responses Number of Respondents
Strongly Agree 1
Agree 6
Neither agree nor disagree 6
Disagree 4
Strongly disagree 3

Question no 12: When I speak English, I want to sound like a native speaker.

Responses Number of Respondents
Strongly Agree 3
Agree 3
Neither agree nor disagree 4
Disagree 4
Strongly disagree 6

Question no 13: As long as people understand me, it is not important which variety of English I speak.

Responses Number of Respondents
Strongly Agree 2
Agree 15
Neither agree nor disagree 2
Disagree 1
Strongly disagree 0

Question no 14: The non-native English speakers can also speak Standard English.

Responses Number of Respondents
Strongly Agree 3
Agree 11
Neither agree nor disagree 4
Disagree 2
Strongly disagree 0

Question no 15: I do not like learning English.

Responses Number of Respondents
Strongly Agree 1
Agree 0
Neither agree nor disagree 0
Disagree 8
Strongly disagree 11

Chapter 5:
Conclusion:
According to the collected data it is concluded that people like learning English as a second language because it is standard language and everyone wants to learn English by choice. There is no difficulty at all.

Reference:
www.Grammer.about.com www.sro.sussex.ac.ukl.com
www.oatd.com www.acpi.ca.comwww.notesread.com

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