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?THE OPEN UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA

The Effectiveness of Traditional versus ICT instructional materials on students’ academic performance: a Case of Open University of Tanzania Students, Zanzibar
Registration number pg201507619
Phone number +255626688722
E-mail HYPERLINK “mailto:[email protected][email protected]
BY
SADALLA, MSELEM ISSA
A Research Proposal Submitted In Partial Fulfillment of The Requirement For the Master Degree Of Education In Open Distance Learning Of The Open University Of Tanzania
2018
CERTIFICATION
The undersigned certifies that she has read and hereby recommends for the acceptance by The Open University of Tanzania as thesis titled The Effectiveness of ICT and Traditional Instructional Materials for Students Academic Performance; The Case of The Open University Students at Zanzibar Center in the requirement for the award of Master Degree of Education of Open and Distance Learning (MED ODL) of Open University of Tanzania
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(Supervisor)

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Date
COPYRIGHT

This work is secured by the international agreement which governs the protection of Literary and Artistic Work of Berne Convention signed in Switzerland in 1886. This work will not be reproduced by any means without prior signed owners or OUT permission.

DECLARATION
I, Sadalla, Mselem Issa do hereby declare that this thesis is my own original work and that has not been presented or submitted to any other University or institution similar or any other degree award
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Signature
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Date
DEDICATION
This thesis is dedicated to my lovely wives Maryam Kassimba and Asha Haji and to my dearest daughters Ramla Mselem and Nadia Mselem for their patience during the time when I was busy with this thesis by giving me courage, no doubts they understood the value of this thesis to all of us. May Almighty with our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) always bring us their blessing to our family and live a happy life.

Acknowledgment

I would like to express my deepest appreciation to all members who have contributed in different ways till the completion of this thesis.

First, I am really grateful to thank my supervisor for her assistance who always makes me eager for this work.

Second, the OUT staffs at Zanzibar center together with those at headquarter for their precious time, always they were there when I needed their assistance.

Also, I wish to thank my family for their emotional support always was too meaningful to me just to make me feel great.

And lastly, I would like to thank all students who participated in this thesis, my colleagues and my bosses who always seemed to understand my academic dreams and always gave me special treatment during the time of my study. May Allah always be with you all.

ABSTRACT
The study is about comparing the effectiveness of the ICT and traditional instructional materials on students academic performance for the students of the OUT, the revolution of technology has to bring many changes in this world of today, we have witnessed different sectors adoption of new technology for better operation, improving efficiency, providing better services, increasing production and lastly to maximize profit the better operation and high standard together with minimizing cost and maximize profit. This adoption has never lived in the education sector we find ways of providing education have been increased and the role of the participants has been changed. This study focuses on finding the effectiveness between those ways of providing instructions to the student. The study adopted a comparative design by comparing the students’ academic performance in .two different period. was used to compare by using undergraduate students overall MTT results for two periods was used, before adaptation and after adoption. Sixty-two (62) questionnaires were used for gathering primary data, and document review (DR) for secondary data.

The findings show that majority of the respondents they prefer ICT instructional materials although there still challenges such as internet problem, financial problem technological knowledge, and technological assistance seems to affects materials effectiveness. These challenges are coursing poor materials accessibility.

Likewise, there is still not much difference in the academic performance between ICT and traditional, this has been revealed by comparison of the undergraduate OLT 323 students overall result in two different times before adoption and after adoption.

Furthermore, the results of the findings show that the technological gap of using technology between male and female students still exist in the society this has been revealed by the views of respondents majority of male they are using ICT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CERTIFICATION ……………………………………………………………………….
COPYRIGHT ………………………………………………………………………….

DECLARATION …………………………………………………………………………
DEDICATION ……………………………………………………………………………
Acknowledgments………………………………………………………………….

ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………………
TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………………………
LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………………………
LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………………………………
APPENDIX ……………………………………………………………………………………
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS…………………………………………………………………
CHAPTER ONE ………………………………………………………………………………
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY ……………………………
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………….

Background of the Study ……………………………………………………………………
Statement of the Problem …………………………………………………………………
Objectives …………………………………………………………………………………..

General Objectives …………………………………………………………………….

Specific Objectives ……………………………………………………………………..

Research Questions ……………………………………………………………………….

The significance of the Study ………………………………………………………………….

The scope of the Study………………………………………………………………………….

Limitation of the Study ……………………………………………………………………
Delimitation of the Study …………………………………………………………………
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ………………………………………………
CHAPTER TWO ……………………………………………………………………………
2.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………
2.1 THEORETICAL REVIEW ……………………………………………………………..

2.2 Operational Definitions of Key Terms ……………………………………………………..

2.2.1 Instructional Materials ………………………………………………………………….

2.2.2 Traditional Materials …………………………………………………………………….

2.2.3 ICT Instructional Materials ……………………………………………………………….

2.3 EMPIRICAL REVIEW…………………………………………………………………
2.3.1 Learners Perceptions of Instructional Materials …………………………………………
2.3.2 Students Accessibility to Traditional and ICT Instructional Materials ……..……………
2.3.3 Academic Performance of Traditional & ICT Instructional Materials …………………
2.4 Research Gap …………………………………………………………………………….

CHAPTER THREE …………………………………………………………………………
3.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………
3.1 Study Area ……………………………………………………………………………
3.2 Study Approach ……………………………………………………………………………
3.3 Study Design ………………………………………………………………………………
3.4 Study Population ……………………………………………………………………………
3.5 Sample & Sampling Procedure ……………………………………………………………
3.5.1 Purposeful Sampling …………………………………………………………………..

3.5.2 Simple Random Sampling ………………………………………………………………
3.6 Sample Size ………………………………………………………………………………
3.7 Research Instrument ……………………………………………………………………..

3.7.1 Questionnaire ……………………………………………………………………
3.7.2 Pre-Test ……………………………………………………………………………..

3.7.2 Document Review ……………………………………………………………………
3.8 Data Collection Procedure ………………………………………………………………..

3.9 Data Analysis ……………………………………………………………………………
3.10 Validity & Reliability …………………………………………………………………
3.10.1 Validity ………………………………………………………………………………
3.10.2 Reliability ……………………………………………………………………………
3.11 Ethical Issue ……………………………………………………………………………
3.12 Research Permission ………………………………………………………………
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Data Presentation, Analysis and Discussion
4.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………
4.1Socio – Demographic ……………………………………………………………………
4.1.1…………………………………………………………………………………………
4.1.2 …………………………………………………………………………………………
4.1.3 ……………………………………………………………………………………………
4.1.4 ……………………………………………………………………………………………
4.2 Students Perception………………………………………………………………………
4.2.1 ……………………………………………………………………………………
4.2.2 ………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.2.3 ………………………………………………………………………………………
4.2.4 ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

4.3 Instructional Material Accessibility………………………………………………………..

4.3.1 ……………………………………………………………………………………………
4.3.2 …………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.3.3 ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

4.4 Academic Performance…………………………………………………………………
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, and RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………..

5.1 Summary ……………………………………………………………………………….

5.2 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………….

5.3 Recommendations …………………………………………………………………………..

5.4 Area for Further Study …………………………………………………………………….

REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………
APPENDICES
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1
Table 4.2
Table 4.3
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Conceptual Frame Work
Figure 2: Bates Actions Model
Figure 3: The Map Showing Location of Zanzibar
Figure 4:
Figure 5
Figure 6
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CCDECenter for Continuing and Distance Education
CDCompact Disc
DESDean of Examination Syndicate
DR Document Review

GPAGrade Point Average
ICTInformation Communications Technology
IETInstitute of Engineering of Tanzania
MTTMain Timed Test
OCP
ODLOpen and Distance Learning
OLT
OUTOpen University of Tanzania
OUT SOOpen University of Tanzania Students Organization
PDAPersonal Device Assistance
SIDASwedish International Development Agency
UNUnited Nations
UNESCOUnited Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization
USAUnited States of America
ZEPZanzibar Education Policy
ZNZZanzibar
CHAPTER ONE:
BACKGROUND AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Introduction
This chapter starts with the background of the study that consists of a brief history of instructional materials, states the problem, the objectives of the study, research questions as well as expected limitations and delimitations of the study. The chapter concludes with the conceptual framework of the study.

1.2 Background to the Study
The history of instructional materials can be traced back to the Second World War where most of the instructional activities were performed by using traditional tools. However, things have been changing continuously; after the Second World War, there was a need for different expertise in different specializations that has brought changes in instructional methods (Beatty, 1981). According to Beatty, those changes particularly, in education include Information Communication Technology (ICT) as basic for instructional materials that brought changes to teachers’ roles as a facilitator. Above all, teachers` flexibility in the teaching methods has been changed so that teacher is able to design the instructional materials due to the learners’ environment and promote problem-based learning (Dankbaar & Jong, 2014).
According to Ssewanyana & Busler (2007), the endorsement of ICT worldwide is the same for all countries, even though they differ in the management and deployment which is caused by different reasons such as poor infrastructures and technicians. The measure of development in this century is determined by the ICT uses which are more practiced in developed countries compared to developing countries (Ghaznavi, Keikha & Yaghoubi, 2011).
According to Hennessy et al., (2010), the use of ICT in African countries including Tanzania was a result from external forces, reasons behind the donor countries and development partners much convinced and appreciated ICT can alter the development so they wanted developing countries to cope with those changes. In understanding the roles of ICT in this century, UNESCO in collaboration with different countries providing ICT assistance through different programmes as an emphasis of Qingdao Declaration of 2015, that aiming to solve ICT problem in education by discussing the issue with different entities from education and ICT (UNESCO, 2015). From that assistance Africa said is taking a big step on ICT uses on filling digital divide by considering the multiple uses of mobile phones in Africa which increase the number of subscribers rapidly, this is according to the report of World Bank, Africa Development Bank and African Union (Yonazi, Kelly, Hallewood & Blackman, 2012).
Many countries have take reflection the use of ICT as a driving force that has vital potential in transforming their lives by reducing the time and cost in different sectors including education, schools and universities have adopted ICT in their programs as stated by (World Bank, 2017). Including Tanzania which in the 1960s the first computers were installed by the government together with computer training to be offered by the University of Dar es Salaam (Mgaya, 1994). In order to attain this goal, the government introduced the Tanzania ICT policy for Basic Education in July 2007 (Hare, 2007). Since then followed the inclusion of ICT in the government´s policies including Vision 2025 and National ICT Policy 2003 that specifically came to promote ICT uses in education in collaboration with different organizations such as SIDA (Swarts & Wachira, 2010). This also enhanced by the Ministerial Declaration of 2000 which highly values the uses of ICT in different field including education (UN, 2000). Zanzibar as part of Tanzania shows that emphasis of ICT in education realm by embracing in Zanzibar Education Policy of 2006, aiming for teachers and students should use ICT in the process of teaching and learning in this scientific era (Zanzibar Education Policy (ZEP), 2006)
1.3 Statement of the Problem
OUT started officially in 1992 as the first University that delivers the courses through open and distance learning in East Africa and became operational in 1993 (OUT, 2014). At that time traditional instructional materials were the only way for disseminating instructional information to students (Tambwe, 2016). Later on because of global forces OUT started to adopt the uses of ICT (UL-Amin, 2012). Also, internal forces played a large part for that adoption whereas ICT was considered as the way of eliminating educational obstacles such as loneliness, equity, gender and age as argued by (Mnyanyi & Mbwete, 2009).

So far, we have noticed the presence of various studies that have been conducted in Tanzania regarding uses of ICT and traditional materials. Mariki (2011) wanted to discover the significance of ICT adoption in the place of traditional for the development of ODL in Tanzania the focus was benefits and handicaps of traditional materials. According to Mariki, the adoption can be made without any complication yet it should be in the form of blending traditional and ICT in order to make them effective. On the other hand, Augusti (2013) describing the position of OUT using multimedia for instructional purposes including digital is to overcome barriers confronting students and teachers, who are parted in different places inside and outside the country including special groups such as women and handicaps, this will help them in the facilitation of teaching and learning process via distance learning friendly. Ngimi (2013) introduced a study concerning opportunities and challenges for integrating ICT in the education delivery in the institution of continuing education at OUT. According to Ngimi that is an awesome idea in the view of benefits, they can obtain teachers and students, although they need to undergo special courses so as to be fully beneficial. Moreover, in the study of Titus and Mselle (2015) while analyzing the viability of employing online social networks as e-learning platforms in Tanzanian universities; the study located majority of users are young ones while universities students in Tanzania are mixed ages as any universities in the world. Again, Nyandara (2012) undergo a comparative study between OUT and CCDE – CHINA on opportunity and challenges of technology-based for instructional in ODL. Among the findings of this study revealed OUT instructors have more access to internet connectivity than their students, while it supposed to be same for both sides in order to promote effective learning. Also, Nihuka (2011) found the access of ICT materials for the OUT students is finite because of so many reasons including difficulties direct from the university such as instructors lack of experience and less motivation that course ICT implementation to lag behind. But according to Isowe (2016), current study describes OUT has deliberately introduced computer libraries with installed computers and internet connection in university’s centers to make sure students access for their materials and other academic needs, special for those students without internet or computers in their places. Additionally, Faki (2016) while assessing the use of electronic materials by the OUT students found a bunch of hindrances that affect badly ICT integrations in education in Zanzibar as other developing countries such as poverty and knowledge among users.
Tanzania among developing countries that still faces many challenges on ICT utilization such as connectivity, infrastructures, power supply and total cost of devices. Despite that, OUT has diverted from traditional to ICT materials even though it is so hard to understand the ways of learning to those students of OUT, if they have computers or not, do they have internet access and even if they have computers do they understand learning by using them, do they have knowledge of using them, how they learn, and if we compare studying through ICT and traditional materials which is convenient for them, those are among the things that still questionable for ICT materials to OUT students. Hence, this study intends to compare the differences in effectiveness between the traditional and ICT instructional materials for OUT students, this will help to demonstrate the convenient instructional materials for use by OUT students.
1.4 Objectives
The proposed study is lying on the basis of the following objectives:-
1.4.1 The General Objective
The study aims at assessing the differences in the effectiveness of ICT compared with traditional instructional materials among the OUT students studying at Zanzibar center.

1.4.2 Specific Objectives
The specific objectives of the study are as follows:-
To assess students perception on the use of ICT versus traditional instructional materials
To examine students accessibility of ICT and traditional instructional materials
To compare students academic performance in traditional and ICT instructional material
1.5 Research Questions
What are the students’ perceptions on the use of ICT in comparison to traditional instructional materials?
To what extents are students able to access ICT and traditional based instructional materials?
What are the differences in students academic performance between traditional and ICT based instructional materials?
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is the researcher expectations for this study that the findings will provide benefits for individuals and institution, because it may motivate students in their studies by achieving the high grades, that will make them realize their ability and conquer their dreams same for the university administration to be proud of their efforts. Also, the university expected to be in a better position of producing competent students who will be able to grab opportunities concerning their education level, once competition needed among members in the same position as human capital. Besides that, awareness for educational practitioners might increase by contributing information that would be useful in understanding challenges and undiscovered benefits, that can be reached by forming new actionable theories for educational development. Furthermore, it may assist the university to stick on appropriate instructional mode according to students’ demography and university situation, this will help them to study in a convenient environment and same time efficiency in providing university services will be increased. Finally, this study may be used as a source of knowledge by upcoming researchers who will conduct studies in the same area of the study.

1.7 Scope of the Study
The OUT is a distance University with thirty-two (32) regional centers, thirty (30) within Tanzania and two (2) outside of Tanzania. Zanzibar as a part of Tanzania there are two centers, one is in Unguja known as Zanzibar center while other is in Pemba known as Pemba center (OUT prospectus 2016 – 2017). The target of this study was students studying at Zanzibar center in Unguja which located at Nkrumah five miles from Zanzibar Town (Stone Town). The gender was highly pondered during the time of data collection in order to get relevant information. This study intended to compare the effectiveness of traditional versus ICT instructional materials on students’ academic performance among the the Open University of Tanzania (OUT) students studying Zanzibar center. The study focused on undergraduate students. ICT is a diverse set of technological tools and resources but for this study, a computer was taken as ICT for instructional materials.
Limitation of the study
Among the normal things for any research is a limitation that researcher may encounter during the completion process which by chance may hinder the speed or efficiency, this limitation can be coursed by personal or environmental. For this study, Students’ time was among the constraints the researcher faced because the majority of the students are already with responsibility consequently they had a tight schedule, it was not easy to have free will on participating in the study. More of that, because of students’ nature of the OUT it was not easy to find them during questionnaire distributions and this was also contributed by the heavy rainfall coursed poor attendance in their discussion places.

However, MTT was an obstacle for researcher during data collection session most of the respondents they gave an excuse of having a hard time and very busy preparing for their exam, this situation coursed majority of the respondents refused to take the questionnaire or they took without returned to the researcher.
1.9 Delimitation
Researcher solved those limitations in different ways due to their nature and respected manners, the researcher followed the students in their discussion places urban and rural. Also, the researcher used some amount of money to encourage respondents during data collection. Together with that, researcher collaborated with regional center management and OUTSO office in Zanzibar in order to be assisted in finding the address of students and their discussion places.
1.10 Conceptual Framework for the Study
This is the theoretical structure constitutes the researcher’s belief that hold together recommendation and intention on how to describe the research task (Patrick, 2015).

The concept of this study was guided by the universal system approach that consists of input, process, output, and feedback.

Instructional Materials
-ICT materials
-Traditional materials
-Teaching Process
-Learning Process
Students Performance
-Poor Performance
-High performance

FEEDBACK

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

Figure 1:1 Conceptual Framework for the Study

Source: Modified From Universal System Model (2014).

The framework of the above figure used to illustrate factors with their relationship in the system and how they used in the developing the study. This has been taken from Universal System model by Jack Haury (2014). The model suggests conceptualizing of the interrelation between the factors in the system, the factors in the universal system model are:-
Input
These are variables that involve the system to make its operations and for this study, these are ICT and traditional instructional materials designed for OUT students for different academic courses.

Process
Is how things are been conducted in the system and their implementation, in this study this is teaching and learning activities performed by students and teachers in their respective places.
Output
This is the final product that derived from the system this can be anything depends on the input variables, in this study, this is students´ performance which may be good or bad depending on the materials prepared for them as input and the way they can access and given instructions found in those materials.

Feedback
This is the decision process which may provide new ideas on changing the whole system or just parts, in this study this is the step that can provide adjustment one among the steps of the system weather materials or process used to present them to the students, by matching the goals that have been made to be accomplished by the system, which is effective learning by using ICT or traditional.

Many studies suggested poor instructional materials (input) are always obstacles for students’ performance weather prepared by ICT or traditional. Traditional instructional materials have been used for a quite long time and still are used although not for the same extent as before, while ICT materials are newly used materials due to technological advancement that leads increasing uses in different areas including education for the aim of improving efficiency.

Teaching and learning by distance is a mode of learning (process) in the OUT, students learning physical separation from their teachers and using technological assistive media such as books, computers and telephones and little face to face. These media have effects on students’ performance such as accessibility and preference, many students are scattered in different areas urban and rural this course students to prefer one media more than another due to flexibility and availability of materials and needed resources.
Students can perform well or poor (output) depending on the other previous factors how well they have been prepared and facilitated. Well prepared materials lead to good performance and vice versa, this is because their relationship is interdependent in their results.

Feedback is considered by matching the planned goals in the system, it leads judgments of the system by adjusting some of the factors or all, this can be done on the input during the process, materials can be changed as well as the process of teaching and learning, but this normally takes a time when materials prepared by traditional while in ICT takes a short time to make changes whenever needed, but also adjustment can be done after the process by considering the goals and the outcome.
1.11 Overview of the study
This study divided in to chapters, Chapter one covered the introduction background and statement of the study, stated the significance of the study, general and specific objectives of the study, followed the formulated research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study, the chapter further outlined limitation and delimitation of the study, conceptual and theoretical framework of the study was delineated. Whereas Chapter two covered literature reviews for ICT and traditional instructional materials, where theoretical reviews related to the study the ICT and traditional instructional materials were discussed, definitions of the key terms used in the study was defined, empirical reviews were discussed concerning the study, conclude with research gap. Chapter three covered research methodology, the area of the study, study approach, research design, study population, sampling, sample size, research instrument, data collection, data analysis, validity and reliability, ethical issues, time plan and conclude with study budget. While data analysis, presentation, and discussion of the findings presented in chapter four. Chapter five contains summary, conclusion, and recommendations.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEWS
2.0 Introduction
This chapter consists of the theoretical review of the study, the operational definition of terms, and empirical studies related to the effectiveness of ICT and traditional instructional materials. Also, literature synthesis and the gap are the concluding remarks of this chapter.
2.1 Theoretical Review
This study is guided by Bates ACTIONS Model (1995)
The theoretical framework of this study shall be drawing from the Bates (1995) ACTIONS model which is based on decision-making the institution can use in the use of e-technology.
Anthony (Tony) Bates is one of the early leading open and distance learning (ODL) educators. He developed this model based on a philosophy of open learning. Open education is an educational system that is accessible to every individual with minimal restrictions. This philosophy stresses the flexibility of age, geographic location, time constraints, and economic situations
This model is made up of a set of questions to be asked by distance educators when making decisions about investment in technology and when choosing specific media and technology applications for a course.

Bates ACTIONS model is made of seven factors as illustrated in Figure 2

Figure 2:1 Bates ACTIONS model
Source: Bates (2000)
A- Access to Instructional Materials
Access is regarded as the way students can obtain instructional materials both from the rural and urban environment because they all have equal right regardless their remoteness how accessible is the particular technology for learners? Most of developing countries have technological barriers including infrastructure and connectivity which are challenges for having healthy access (Schumann ; Kende, 2013)
C- Costs of Instructional Materials
Cost is concerned with whether the target group of the learners can afford to get the technology or not. What is the cost structure of each technology? What is the unit cost per learner? In this study, the cost can include airtime, bundles, internet connections, and device’s total costs. According to Hennessy ´et al´ (2010), before the adoption of new technology the educational institution needs to reconsider the cost because sometimes it is so hard for the learners to meet the cost of the device due to poor economic situation especially for those low-income students.
T-Teaching and Learning Process
Training to the learners is essential for measuring the knowledge of using ICT devices among the learners so as to be able to use them properly and accept the device. What kinds of learning are needed? What are the instructional approaches will be the best in meeting these needs? What are the best technologies for supporting this teaching and learning?
I-Interactivity and user-Friendliness
Interaction is two-sided, the device and the user interaction that can be formed by the knowledge of manipulation. It is also interaction with contents of the respective program, which interactions needed to be learners’ friendliness in order to perform learning. What kind of interaction does this technology enable? How easy is it to use?
O-Organizational Issues
Organizational issues are the institutional policy of using ICT that will help better facilitation and makes any adjustment whenever needed together with a commitment to the university workers. It also includes ICT uses even in the advertisement that may help the learners to decide to join or not. What are the organizational requirements, and the barriers to be removed, before this technology can be used successfully? What changes in the organization need to be made?
N-Novelty
Novelty is concerned with the age of the technology that is, technological revolution, bringing new technology in the field with the aim of improving the quality of education and provide good services to the learners. How new is this technology?
S-Speed
Speed involves the rate for changing the materials when needed since materials are changeable time after time whenever needed, so it is wise to consider on the technology that is being used how fast it can be used to change the materials. How quickly can courses be mounted with this technology? How quickly can materials be changed?
Reasons for choosing this model is due to the factors that influence institutions in deciding on the adoption of technology since the study is concerned with the comparison between ICT and traditional technology towards learners academic performance, this model is an ideal.
2.2 Operational Definition of Key Terms
There are terms that are used throughout the study that needs clarification. These terms are.-
2.2.1 Instructional Materials
These are supplementary materials including teacher made and traditional resources and other means of conveying information used by the teacher in the process of teaching and learning for achieving the goals. They assist the learners in the process of knowledge building but also help the teacher as a meaning bridge in arriving at the target point (Catherine, 1956)
There are different types of instructional materials as explained by different scholars. Example, Henry (1987) identify six types these are printed and duplicated materials; non-projected display materials still projected display materials audio materials; linked audio and still visual materials and video materials. Also, Jadormio (2014) went with the same types with the only addition of one more called computer-mediated material. While, Capangpangan (2014) squeezed them into four types traditional and duplicated materials; non-projected display materials, still projected display materials and other two combines in one group as technological instructional media.

2.2.2 Traditional Materials
This is just one type of instructional materials that are resources formulated in the form of hard copy used for teaching and learning. According to Jurilla (2014), examples of traditional materials are texts-books, references books, journals, and magazines.

2.2.3 ICT Instructional Materials
In this study, ICT instructional materials refer to those soft copy material which is used in the process of teaching and learning in the form of audio or visual which are produced by one among the ICT devices.

As claimed by Onasanya (2014), there are varieties of ICT instructional materials just to mention some a projector, television, computer, mobile phone, Google search engine and software dictionary.
2.3 Empirical Review
2.3.1 Learners’ Perceptions of Instructional materials
Perception is the mental process whereby humans interpret their surroundings which is based on organized experiences and making selection (Efron, 1969). As stated by Efron, every human being perceived things differently according to the cognitive view.
Several studies have been made on perceptions of instructional materials. Adekunde et al., (2015) studied on the perception of students on computer utilization and academic performance in the north-central geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The aim was to assess students’ perception regarding the use of computer and their performance, the result indicates that students’ performance greatly affected by the uses of ICT which lead their positive perception on the ICT uses and this is because students tend to have positive fillings on the technological skills.

Again, Charles and Issiffu (2015) in their study on the students` perception of implementing ICT in learning in second-cycle institutions in Ghana, one among the study`s findings is concerning with gender on the use of ICT as instructional material and found that the level of perception between male and female students differ with high percentage from male who prefer the use of ICT in their study, male perceived ICT more positively than female students this has been caused by the existing digital divide in the society.

On the other hand, Makura (2014) did a study on students´ perception of the use of ICT in higher education teaching and learning context, the study attempted at investigating the students perceptions of the ICT usage by staff and students at South African University, a total number of forty-four 44 students were used to give their view through questionnaire-interviews and the findings shown that students perceived ICT as useful instructional material in their studies that help them in different ways, even though facing tremendous challenges including acceptance by some members which hinder adoption speed of ICT to be very slow.
Also, Amaya, Secker & Morrison (2016) undergo a recent investigation concerning the issue of reading using traditional material versus ICT materials or using both of them concurrently for UK students; the report discovered still many students prefer reading on traditional material than ICT even though their reasons they differ but generally they prefer traditional to ICT. In this comparison, students find hard on making the decision because still not even one is optimum for all environment, and students have personal perception and divergent view which lead to their learning culture. However, many of them seemed to think twice about ICT materials because ICT plays important roles in their daily lives including studies, this has been discovered while comparing the use of web and traditional, the study uses students of English department at Institute Agama Islam Negeri Tulungagung and data was collected through questionnaires and direct interview (Isnawati, 2017)
Although scientists agree reading on traditional materials is healthier than reading on ICT which affects human body as cited in numerous studies (Chatfield, 2015; Sparkes, 2014; Gallagner, 2014). That may be among the reasons for increasing number of students who prefer traditional materials than ICT as discovered by Schub (2016) more than three-quarters of students they prefer traditional materials this is from the research conducted for the college students in the USA.

Students perception on ICT is contributed much by their skills of using electronics including surfing, browsing on the internet and ability to manipulate devices this is the results of their self-motivation, this has been discovered from students in Nigerian University of Distance Learning (Omotosho, Lateef, Amusa & Bello, 2015)
Moreover, Foasberg (2014) conducted a study on the reading habits with regard to traditional and ICT, the aim of the study was to find the reasons behind that make students shift from ICT to traditional and same from traditional. The study revealed that students have a drastic perception on ICT instructional materials because by using ICT things are getting easier and faster special when it comes on searching, even though they tend to use both types of materials but ICT is timeless compared with traditional that always demands plenty of time on getting things done. This has been emphasized by the myth everything is just on the fingertip and the one using ICT is up to date than those using traditional materials.
2.3.2 Student’s Accessibility to Traditional and ICT Instructional Materials
According to Cambridge dictionary, accessibility is the quality or characteristic of something that makes it possible to approach, enter or use it.
For this study, this is the way the education institution attempts to ensure students have the ability to receive their study materials and other academic information concerning their study lives whenever needed.

According to Bates(1995), accessibility of materials is very worth for the learners and should be flexible in order to acquire learners diversity and needs in order for the learners to perform well in their studies, this is among the bunches of responsibilities to the institutions.
Kassimu (2013) while studying students support at OUT for the past 20 years found that, continuing using traditional materials is one among the shortcomings of students support in distance education. According to Kassimu, this is because they need some time to rich places caused by the transportation method; therefore, there is a need of using modern technology in order to improve students support including materials accessibility. Besides that, the majority of the respondents show preference of new technology being used for ICT materials being used for materials delivery, which help them navigate different sources and get relevant academic information concerning their study courses compare with traditional materials which always are limited the user in searching the information.

While (Woody, et al., 2010;Annand, 2008) suggested that e-book as one among the ICT tools can be used in teaching and learning process, because is more convenient and cost-effective for course delivery special for online students as long as they have internet access they are able to access their materials easily whenever they need.

Liu (2005) while studying the reading behavior in the digital environment, the purpose of the study was to investigate reading behavior by analyzing past reading habits compared with the present, the study found use of ICT for students in the educational setting are determined by the field of the study in that accordance students and staff they differ from one field to another in term of ICT use, science field tends to use more ICT than art.
Yunus et al., (2013) while studying pros and cons of ICT in teaching English language reading and writing, they insist the uses of ICT in education changing according to time these things are parallel as long time change so as for ICT, this can vividly found in this century we find the uses of ICT in education has dramatically increased compared with past century.

No one can doubt about the uses of ICT will be more even in the coming future because it provides tangible opportunities for teachers and students because ICT has the potential of creating learning environments suitable for learners circumstances (Al-Nour, 2012). This has been proved (ALLUDED)by (Hassan, 2012) the advent of ICT has brought many changes in education area including gender equality whereby women got a chance to participate in education just to mention some of those opportunities.

Likewise, those learners with disability in education life have been normalized by ICT materials by paving education impediments despite confronting with the hurdle situation in many areas. But still, they have the opportunity to receive the education regardless their diversity, those with hearing impairments can learn by visual and those with visual impairments can learn by touching and listening (UNESCO, 2009)
According to Jones ; Brown (2011), in their comparison study between e-books and traditional for elementary school, the finding discovered ICT materials are getting more popularity day after day because of easy access that can be in different forms and provide an opportunity to the user due to available time and place.
Kessy (2016) conducted a study on the Differential effectiveness of the plan and multimedia-enriched sex education for secondary school students’ academic performance in Tanzania. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the plain and multimedia-enriched instructional materials on students academic performance, according to Kessy, ICT materials is very successful but materials delivery in developing country like Tanzania is still very complicated due to so many reasons behind, consequently special strategies needed to be implemented by the government such as teachers training and good infrastructures. That may be the reasons lead traditional materials to be widely used in Tanzania compared with ICT.
Additionally, Mbwete (2009) stated that, developing countries still struggling with ICT access because yet they have challenges like power supply, internet connections and still a long distance to follow the ICT service for rural students because most of the villages have no electricity, and internet connection available most in the urban area with the high cost including bundles.
Moreover, Okonkwo (2012) described traditional material shall remain as a primary mode of instruction for ODL universities in some countries including developing, till the time ICT obstacles such as accessibility have been reduced if not eradicated and gives the way for soft materials.

According to Stahl, `et al` (2010) in their guide of accessible textbook in the k-12 classroom, the guide has the aim of providing solutions encounter students with instructional materials, and one among the things they are insisting is about the importance for instructional materials to be accessible in order to increase students performance, since they are the only thing that will guide the learner in the right direction while with the teacher and even without the teacher.

2.3.3 Academic performance of Traditional and ICT Instructional Materials
In the level of learning, there is no indication for recognizing the one who read by using ICT or traditional and still, there is no existing clue that demonstrates ICT can bring more understanding than traditional materials because, jet it is so hard to provide evidence for distinctive between the two instructional materials (Kassim, 2010). Even though Trimmel & Bachmann (2004) found students learning through ICT materials have better understanding compared with those learning by traditional materials, this was the results obtained from the research conducted for Australians students who were divided into two groups those with laptops and those without.
In the same line, (Karamti, 2016) on her research of measuring the impact of ICTs on academic performance case study students of higher education in Tunisia, the study used survey data which involves teachers and students, among the findings, shows that there is no evidence of effects for ICT on performance, however, those result was considered to be contributed by the education actors such as existed education policy and the role of universities in supporting the ICT utilization.
Salter (2013) study the impact of screen reading and traditional material, the study contended that traditional materials have more(immense) influence than ICT in terms of learning, this has been discovered by regarding eyes ability on reading, even though there still much to be done regarding retention so as to be clear on that issue.

Likewise, brain scientists in their researches emphasized brain retrieval capacity is working more by reading using traditional materials than ICT (Dooley, 2015). This is because the massive information from different points in one screen consequently exhausts the reader mentally, by feeding up too much information which causes fatigue during the retrieval process compared with the one who read from traditional materials there is no such multitask (Alkali & Geri as cited in Mizrachi, 2014.).

Meanwhile, Villar & Zabukovec (2017) in their recent research using e-materials for study, students perceptions vise perceptions of academic librarians and teachers. The aim of the study was to investigate students preferances, the research revealed traditional materials believed to be viable for deep learning students as demonstrated by different scholars, screen reading more persuasive with ability of shifting reader´s concentration from one point to another during the reading stage and causes interruption, that may force the reader to have assistive materials in deep understanding by printing out what is sorted before in order to support linking ideas and knowledge construction, which is different from traditional the reader concentration stays in the printed text and direct highlight points of interest and makes notes.

However, the complex of ICT materials tend to provide more understanding through the variety of flow including auditory and visual or even a combination simultaneously, which is more effective and flexible that gives learners more freedom of choice (Bodomo, Lam, Lee, 2003)
In addition, Rezvani & Ketabi (2011) in the study of the effectiveness using the web and traditional materials in teaching grammar to Iranian English as a foreign language learners, the objective of the study was to investigate the type of instructional how can effects the learners in accordance of studying grammar of new language, the study used randomly selection from three groups of participants including control group, the study located teaching through the website is more effective since it provides more motivation to the learners. Compared with traditional which is in interactive because it tends to be used in a passive way leads to bore the user (Jurilla, 2014).

Also, ICT engaged the learners in the self-confidence by considering the responsibility of learning is on their shoulders and not teachers, in this way ICT brought students control over their learning activities such as more freedom on pace contrast with traditional materials even though the traditional material endeavors to stay firm in that position (Sellinger, 2003).

Besides that, practitioners have more trust on ICT to traditional materials because pieces of literature have shown that ICT can bring changes in education because it has overwhelmed groups of users but the focus should be on the learner´s needs (Reynolds & Szabo, 2010). Precisely this goal may not be attained without considering education stakeholders and form consensus so as to design special technology that may cope with learners’ environments; this will enable learners actively involved in order to promote active learning (Haddad ; Draxler, 2002). Because leaping to ICT students need to be a proficient user so an excessive strategy needed in order to acquire possibilities provided by technology such as skills, otherwise, it can be cumbersome compared with traditional materials which do not need many skills during the time of uses (Korbey, 2014). Effective teaching and learning can be derived by ICT once the users have undergone special ICT training including teachers and students, this may help the facilitation process in their academic settings such as assignments and other academic tasks. Moreover, ICT bring more meaningful learning special in this era of technological advancement where technology and information as part of human life (Omotosho, Lateef, Amusa ; Bello, 2015)
Nevertheless, technology should not invalidate the traditional materials because still possess special roles in the society that ICT cannot manage being successor for fulfilling the needs of present and future generation, and what has been converted from traditional text into digital is just a small portion this also a reason behind ICT is not ready to perform all responsibilities owned by traditional materials (Wu, 2005).

From that defects (Mnyanyi et al., 2010; Mnyanyi ; Mbwete, 2009) proposed ICT materials should be considered as a compliment of traditional materials due to the rationales which proscribe either one to be taken solely.

2.4 Research Gap
According to those studies above they are related to this study, and according to the revealed results none of them is concerned with this issue of comparing effectiveness of ICT and traditional materials on students´ academic performance among the Open University of Tanzanian students studying in Zanzibar, that is the reason behind for doing this study in order to fill the gap of those studies.
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
This chapter is going to introduce method used in answering the research questions. The chapter covered with study area, study approach, and study design. Further, the chapter continues with population, sample and sampling techniques together with sample size for the study. Also, the chapter concludes with data collection instrument, procedure, and data analysis. It proceeds with validity, reliability, ethical issues ending with time plan with a budget of the study.

3.1: Study Area
The Open University of Tanzania (OUT) has many regional centers among them, are two centers in Zanzibar, one is in Pemba and the other one is in Unguja. Zanzibar is the name of an Island which also known as Unguja, it is the sister island of Pemba which lies under 22 miles off the cost of central east Africa 600 sq miles, lying longitudinal 390 11. 52 east and latitude 60 09.50 south, it is a part of the United Republic of Tanzania as shown in Figure 3 below.

This study conducted at Zanzibar center in Unguja. Selection reasons, the OUT is one among the educational institutions that adopt ICT materials from traditional materials in 2011 – 2012 due to the increasing print budget (Rwejuma, 2013). Also, the location of the center gave the researcher opportunity for data collection because it is not far from town area where respondents came to looking for their basic needs, hence researcher expected to find many respondents during data collection and saving expenses.
ZANZIBAR

Figure 3: 1 The map showing the location of Zanzibar
Source: Modified from Google map
3.2: Study Approach
The researcher of this study used both qualitative and quantitative, this method is best on providing mastery of the research issue of concerned also it reduces limitations of either one of the single method (Creswell, 2003). The researcher used mixed research approach because the first and second questions were analyzed by using qualitative, the researcher thought qualitative is ideal for collecting opinions of the students since the questions need their experience and perceptions so as to answer the questions. While the third question the researcher undergo the evaluation consist statistical data, the researcher used a quantitative method in order to answer the question. And by that hand researcher decided on using triangulation method because needed to be free on the choice of data collection instruments and to improve the validity of the study at the same time getting the opportunity of collecting more information.

3.3: Study Design
A research design is a plan structure and strategy of the investigation so conceived as to obtain the answer to research questions or problems (Ranjit, 2011). The author has gone further by explaining the function of research design, which identification development procedures and logistical arrangements required to undertake the study and to emphasize the quality and this procedure to ensure their validly, objectivity and accuracy.

The study espoused in the comparative research design, one with the aim of the comparative research is improving daily lives by comparison between things and making the decision by regarding the results. It was ideal for this study where the researcher wanted to compare the effectiveness between the ICT and traditional instructional materials by using students overall academic results within two periods of time, pre and after the implementation of ICT, the process will involve documents in order for getting records of concerned.
3.4 Study Population
According to Hanlon and Larget (2011), a population is the set of the subjects and phenomena with same characteristics that a researcher intends to use in the study. The population of this study is considered all students studying OUT at Zanzibar center. These respondents researcher believed are concerned with this study.

3.5 Sample and Sampling Procedure
The sample is the portion of the population that a researcher intends to study. The sample of this study is the undergraduates’ students studying at OUT at Zanzibar center. While sampling is the process of getting information concerning the large group of phenomena by using just a part of members (Ranjit, 2011). There are two types as explained by (Prasad, 2015) that is probability such as stratified sampling and non-probability such as purposive sampling, this study intends to use non-probability.

3.5.1 Purposeful Sampling
This is the kind of sampling whereby the sample is selected from the group by researcher’s own judgment to be part of the study. This process is done for several reasons including minimizing of the total cost of the study (Dudovskiy, 2018). The sample of this study is undergraduate students of 2018 together with undergraduates students of 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014, 2015, 2016, the researcher purposely selects this sample due to their position of being in the middle of none and post-degree students.
3.5.2 Simple Random Sampling
Is the process of selecting respondents by providing no limitations for the members to be selected as a representative of the population, in this process all members have equal right and opportunity to be regarded as the sample (White, 2014). The researcher provided the questionnaires to one hundred (100) undergraduates students of OUT studying at Zanzibar center regardless their courses they are taking, forty (40) female and sixty (60) male, this process the researcher did randomly since every student was regarded as the sample as long as the undergraduate student.

3.6 Sample Size
According to (Lavrakas, 2008), the sample size is the number of components that selected from which information collected.

The OUT Zanzibar center has a total number of two hundred and fifty (250) undergraduate students registered for the year of 2018-2019. Among them are one hundred and six (106) female students and one hundred and forty-four (144) male students. According to that number, the researcher took only twenty-six (26) female and thirty-six (36) male students and form a total number of sixty-two (62) as ideal number as participants in this study.

3.7 Research Instrument
Research instruments are the tools used by the researcher with the aim of collecting data from the subjects on a topic of interest for the aim of answering the research questions (Annum, 2017)

Research instruments are determined by the kind of data needed by the researcher, for this study questionnaires and documents review have been used in order to be able to answer the research questions accordingly.
3.7.1 Questionnaires
It is a data collection instrument that is formed by using a list of sequence same questions to gather information from the respondents (Abawi, 2013). In this study, the questionnaire was designed into two parts; one part was seeking students’ perceptions and second part students’ instructional materials accessibility in order to answer the first and second research questions. Those questionnaires administered into fifteen (15) questions with fourteen close-ended questions and one (1) open-ended designed for seeking students views concerning difficulties in accessing their study materials. The researcher decided to use this tool because it offers much freedom to the respondents, inexpensive and best for reducing bias that might come from the interviewer. But also due to the respondents nature they are scatted in different areas that could be made the situation to be very difficult and consumed much time, however it was not easy to be able to collect the data because most of the respondents did not return the questionnaires as expected by the researcher, hence researcher needed to follow them at their homes and offices instead of their study places.

3.7.1 Questionnaires response
Respondents Number of questionnaires given Number of questionnaires returned Actual Number of questionnaires needed Parcentage%
Male OUT Undergraduates students 50 36 58%
Female undergraduate students 35 26 42%
Grand total 85 62 100%
Table 3.6 Questionnaire Responses
Source: Researcher 2017
3.7.2 Documents Review (DR)
This is the process of collecting information needed which are already exist by reviewing existing documents so as to be used by the researcher as data for the study (World Bank, 2007). This is among the inexpensive tools used for gathering data since the information already exists, the researcher visited the OUT headquarter physical to review the records of undergraduate students and by the assistance of the DES this process was successful , the researcher decided to use these instruments due to the nature of the third (3) research question that needed the records in order for comparison students’ academic performance in two different periods of time, the academic results of the students were in numerical order this technique used only for collecting quantitative secondary data.

3.8 Data Collection Procedure
This is the systematic way of collecting and evaluating information from different sources for relevant field of the study (Rouse, 2018). Procedure for data collection varies due to the instrument used and type of data to be collected. The researcher was the one who collected data from various points by using two instruments. The researcher collected primary data through questionnaires which constructed in both open and close-ended for the aim of not egsosted the respondents but still grabbing more information, one hundred (100) questionnaires distributed to undergraduate students registered for 2018 as respondents and only forty-four (44) returned, the number was not bad at all still researcher distributed fifty (50) questionnaires for the second time and twenty (20) returned and form total of returned questionnaires to be sixty-four (64) while needed only sixty-two (62) so the number was good. On top of that, the researcher collected secondary data through documents records from the OUT headquarter at DES office concerning the overall results for undergraduates’ students for six years from 2011 to 2016, three years before and three years after the adaptation of ICT. It was not easy since these data are very confidential the researcher needed to visit the office in several times and meet the responsible personnel. The review of those records was suitable since they provided the view (insight) of comparison
3.9 Pre- Test
Before questionnaires given to the study respondents researcher provided them to small number of respondents for the aim of testing the standard of the questions and language used, and the feedback was taken as researchers guide in the formulation of genuine questionnaires which able answered the research questions.

3.10 Data Analysis
3.10.1 Quantitative Data Analysis
According to (Ranjit, 2016) there are two types of data analysis descriptive and analytic. This study used mixed method where the researcher collected descriptive data in the form of text by using questionnaires and numerical for documents records. The researcher used content analysis method for qualitative data transformation which was collected by using questionnaires. For closed-ended questions the researcher coded all alphabets into numbers in order to put them in the excel spreadsheets, followed finding the frequency distribution for easy interpretation then counted by using the formula and lastly finding the percentages and giving the findings, this process done by using excel computer program. But for open-ended question which was just one question The researcher interpreted them by identified the themes appeared from those respondents and filtered the data into several groups according to their themes and tags them in to numbers starting one to eleven, then gave them the names YES = 1 and NO = 0, then followed counting how many appeared most and finding the percentages. The most appeared considered the strong results of the findings weather 0 or 1.
3.9.2 Quantitative Data Analysis
Also, the researcher used excel computer program for analysing quantitative data derived from documents review, three years overall results for the undergraduate students of OLT 323(creative learning) study course of linguistic program before the adaptation of ICT and three years after the adaptation, this process done by using a line graph to illustrate the differences level of students performance regarding their MTT scored grade in those years starting the lower to highest. The aim of this process was to find differences in academic performance between those two periods, traditional time and ICT time.
3.10 Validity and Reliability
3.10.1 Validity
Validity is the situation in which a research truly measures that which was supposed to be measured or how truthfully the results are (Bashir, et al, 2008). In this sense, the researcher expected to provide the answer to the research questions of the study. The researcher tests the questionnaires by using a small group of respondents and also some graduate students just to comments on the form of the questions including language before providing to the target respondents. This process helped the researcher to correct some areas and adjusting the questions and removed some questions which seemed are not necessary to be included without affecting the aim of the questionnaires since respondents differed in terms of analyzing the questions so standardization needed in order for all respondents to perform well the task needed.

3.10.2 Reliability
The level of quality being precise measured and free from any mistake by the instrument used and results lay on consistent and stability in making prediction and accuracy hence the measurement when redefines should produce the same results (Ranjit, 2011). 3.11 Ethical Issue
According to (Velasquez et al.,2015) these are the code of conducts that explain what a human being should and what should not for the well-being of the concerned society.

Since research is in a systematic way there are things of concerned such as ethics whereby researcher have to give priority to the preparation process until the ending point of the research report (Mhalila, 2007).

The researcher accentuated mind those issues concerning individual or organization ethics such as anonymity and consent just for the sake of validation of the study. There was various information collected by the researcher from different sources in order to answer the research questions, those information whether personal or institutions were considered as confidential including names of respondents and individuals’ registration numbers, names and academic results.

3.12 Research Permission
The researcher received the letter of permission from the respective of concerning that allowed the researcher to undergo this research and to be assisted with any office or individuals concerning this research without any hesitation. The researcher used this letter during data collection period sent this letter to the DES of in order to be able to get those needed records, DES provided the needed data as researchers request and followed all necessary rules concerning the confidentiality of the data. Likewise, the researcher explained to the respondents about the study asked their permission of using their views.

3.13 Summary
The chapter three presented data collection procedures whereby quantitative and qualitative data was collected, study area, study approach, study design, study population, sample and sampling procedure, data analysis validity and reliability, ethical issues pre-test, research permission
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the findings of the study; whereby data collected by questionnaires and documents records, the main objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of ICT and traditional instructional materials regarding students’ academic performance. The study targets to access students perceptions together with instructional materials accessibility both ICT and traditional. The study area was Zanzibar center of OUT and respondents were undergraduates students.

4.2 Social Demography of the respondents
The aim of seeking respondents social-demography is to understand( delineate) the characteristics of the respondents who participated in this study, academically were at the same level but they differ in terms of age and gender, the following are their sub-social demography

4.2.1 Respondents gender N=62
Gender information assists the researcher to see the gender balance was regarded in this study just for the sake of validity of the findings. The table below shows the distribution of gender regarding the number of students. Gender is very essential in the case of providing opinions and experience since there is the diversity of opinion due to the nature of the sex, it influences the results of the findings

Gender Number Percentage
Female 26 42%
Male 36 58%
Total 62 100%
Table 4.1 Respondents gender (N=62)
Source: Researcher 2017
In the above table shows the distribution of respondents gender who are participated in this study, twenty-six (26) female respondents which are 48% of the total number of the respondents, while thirty-six (36) male respondents that are 58% of the respondents, they are divided in this number according to their registered number that is, this indicated that majority of the undergraduate students of OUT at Zanzibar registered for the 2018- 2019 center are male compared with female. This indicated that low women enrolment in the education level
4:2.2 Age of Respondents N=62
Age assist the researcher to find the total picture of the study respondents that is the mixed respondents so as to gate different experience from different participants who form the total number of the students, university students have mixed ages so as to find out all ages are concerned in this study is given out their views. Result in table 4.1, this study is striving on finding the opinions of the students so that is wisely to get those opinions from different ages of concerned, respondents age assist the researcher to reach the goal.

Age range Frequency Percentage %
18 – 25 7 11%
26 – 39 38 61%
40 – 45 12 19%
46 – above 5 8%
Total 62 100%
Table. 4.2 Respondents age (N=62)
Source: Researcher 2017
According to the table with respondents age indicates that majority of them were aged 26 – 39 this is the group that represents the young ones that are 61% percent of the total number of questionnaire respondents. Followed by 40 – 45 represents middle age respondents that are 19%, together with 18 – 25 this is the group represents those fresh from schools that form (11%) and the least number is 46 – above (8%) is the group of adults which is very few compared with other groups. This suggestion against the stereotype existed in the society that OUT is only for old ones but instead, it is the university same as other universities that accommodates all ages including young ones.

4.2.3 Occupation Status N=62
Information on respondents’ occupation status presented in the figure to help the researcher to understand the living situation in terms of time and the economic situation regarding their study lives.

Occupation status Number Percentage
Employed 34 55%
Self-employed
18 29%
Unemployment 10 16%
Total 62 100%
Table 4.3 Respondents occupation status (N=62)
Source: Researcher 2017
The aim of this question was to determine the type of the students studying at OUT Zanzibar center regarding their ability of accessing their study materials including owning devices, because it assumed that those with employment have little relief in term of internet access whether in office or at home, they able owning means of accessing the materials compare with those without employment most of the time they ending up by sharing or depending assistance from the family. Occupation status of the study respondents is shown in table 4.5 above the findings indicated more than 50% of respondents were employed and rest were unemployed but among them were self-employed 16% and 10% without. This implies that OUT is for every one employed and unemployed as long as they determine to pursue their education goals.

4.2.4 Year of study N=62
Period of studying indicate the experience of respondents concerning the university environment, the one with many years of study has a great experience, this including having a chance to experience too many changes but also the experience of handling situations including academics difficulties such as accessing instructional materials compared with the new one who will have a little experience

Study Year Respondents Percentage
Fist Year 9 15%
Second Year 20 32%
Third Year 26 42%
Others 7 11%
Total 62 100%
.

Table 4.4: Year of Study
Source: Researcher 2017
Information about respondents study year is shown in figure 4.5 above. The result stipulated that respondents 9 are studying in the first year that they make 15% of the study respondents, 20 respondents are in the second year that is 32%, moreover, third-year respondents 26 that is 42% of all respondents, apart from that 7 respondents were mentioned as other that means they have more than three studying years and they make 11% of all study respondents
4.3 Students perceptions of the uses of ICT versus traditional instructional materials.

The first study objective designed in finding the students perceptions on the uses of ICT and traditional instructional materials, the respondents were supposed to indicate one of the ICT or traditional instructional material, but this objective was created with a series of questions that contribute the idea of perception as follow.

4.4 Instructional Material Reliable
This was among the questions concerning perception first respondents asked to indicate the type of instructional material reliable for studying process, the aim of this question was to detect students’ preference, and the responses received are shown in the figure below.

Figure 4.3.1 Instructional Materials Reliable (N=62)
Source: Researcher 2017
As it can indicate in figure 4 the instructional material reliable for respondents where the researcher was egger in viewing this question according to gender. Both male and female they agree on ICT instructional material as reliable, male respondents 30(83%) they said ICT is reliable while 18(69%) female they indicate ICT is reliable. And only 6(17%) male respondents they said traditional and 8(30%) female respondent they mentioned the traditional instructional material
4.11 understandable study material
Respondents were asked to specify the instructional materials they understanding, the findings are in the figure 4.11, this was among the questions concerning respondents preference.

Figure Type of instructional materials understandable
Source: Researcher 2017
The figure presents the type of instructional materials the study respondents they understand. Researcher wished to find respondents ideas on the type of instructional material that they are understanding, 33(53%) of the respondents they mentioned they are understood by using ICT instructional material, while 29(47%) they mentioned traditional instructional materials.
4.5 Students Perceptions on ICT and traditional instructional materials
The respondents were supposed to indicate one type of instructional materials they prefer between ICT or traditional, Figure 4: bellow illustrates the results of these findings.

lefttop

Figure 4.4 Indicate respondents’ preference on ICT and traditional instructional materials.

Source: Researcher 2017
The findings in figure 4.4 indicate the majority of the study respondents they prefer ICT instructional materials, this is contributed by some sort of reasons such as the speed of searching the materials, availability of unlimited materials which gives students freedom of access. However, the results also reviled majority 14(45%) of female respondents they prefer traditional, this implies the existing challenges of ICT still problem for female students that they cannot tolerate such as internet break down, cost of devices and internet bundles, power, technological skills and technicians assistance, these have been related with the last question which assigned to investigates challenges confronting students while receiving their instructional materials whether by ICT or traditional.
4.3 The Instructional Materials Accessibility
The second research question was assigned to investigate instructional material accessibility, but there were sequences of questions asked indirectly concerning instructional materials accessibility issue.

4.3 Place receiving the study materials
First, they were asked to mention the place they accessing their instructional materials and the results are shown in the figure below as follow:-

Figure 4.6: Places for accessing instructional materials
Source: Researcher 2017
Figure 4.6 above 18% of respondents they are using only computer library at the center for accessing their instructional materials, and 37% respondents indicated they are using their personal devices that means computers and smartphones, while 42% of all respondents mentioned they are using computers at the central library together with their personals devices for accessing their instructional materials, more of that there is 3% of respondents they mentioned others, that means they are using other ways of accessing instructional materials different from those mentioned .

4.11 Accessing Speed
During the time of access the type of instructional materials always time is matter since time is very crucial for students this enables them to like one type to another. Respondents were asked to mention between two ICT and traditional instructional materials which is faster. The responses are indicated below in figure 4.8

Figure 4.8: The speed of instructional materials
Source: Researcher 2017
The results from the above figure 4.8 indicated that 92% of the respondents they have shown the speed of ICT instructional materials is faster, while only 8% indicated the speed of traditional instructional material is faster.

4.12 Materials accessibility
Respondents further asked to indicate the type of instructional materials easy for them to get. The aim of the question was to investigate the accessibility type of instructional materials. They were asked to indicate between two of them weather ICT or traditional instructional material. The results are shown in the figure 4.12,

Figure 4.14 Type of Instructional Materials easy to get for students
Source: Researcher 2017
The above figure 4.14 indicate the type of instructional materials easy to get, researcher was anxious in correlating with the gender, the result revealed 86% of male respondents they mentioned ICT instructional materials is easy for them to get, and only 14% of male they indicated traditional instructional material is easy for them, apart from that 46% of female respondents they indicated ICT instructional materials easy to get, and 54% they indicated traditional instructional materials. This indicated the idea of male students inclined to use more ICT than female students, this issue of the digital divide between male and female has been discussed in several readings include Murgor, (2015) who argue that female students they tend to adopt new ICT application in low speed compared with male students. This may be attributed to the technological gap between them, likewise, it implies that women responsibility such as family, work and academic appeared to have effects on that.

4.13 Cost of instructional materials
Respondents were asked to mention the cheap type of instructional material between ICT and traditional instructional materials

Figure 4.13 Cheap Type of Instructional Material
Source: Research 2017
From the figure 4.13 above show that majority of respondents they indicated ICT instructional material is cheap, and only (44%) they indicate traditionally, this is maybe due to the reason of books available in the central library which is almost empty.

4.4 Challenges confronting respondents while receiving their instructional materials.

This was an open-ended question with multiple responses, respondents were asked to mention those challenges they are facing during material accessibility. Their responses have two sides, one for ICT and the other was for the traditional.

4.4.1 ICT Instructional Materials challenges to students.

This was the open-ended question with multiple responses, the respondents were asked to mention challenges they confronting while receiving their study material either by ICT or traditional.The aim of the question was to access the accessibility challenges from students view findings are presented in figure 4.4: bellow. However some respondents they have mentioned the challenges of traditional as shown in the 4.5 table
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Figure 4.4: Challenges confronting students while receiving study materials through ICT ( N =62)
Source: Researcher 2017
From the results shown in figure 4:4 above the responses show that fifty-nine 59 respondents (95%) of all respondents they explain the challenges of ICT while respondents 3(5%) they explained about traditional challenges. And only 1(2%) said no challenges and 1 (2%) did not write anything. 25 (45%) they said about a network problem. 18 (33%) they said about expenses such as MB, internet connection and devices cost, 5 ( 9%) said about technical assistance, 4(7%) said about devices problem, also same number 4 ( 7%) said about power problem, 3 (5%) said about knowledge problem, 3( 5%) said about health problem, and 1( 2% )said about distance to library and 1(2%) library problem.

One among the challenges mentioned by the majority of respondents on ICT instructional materials is a network, which is very poor, not reliable most of the time break down and this may be coursed by the system but also poor infrastructures that obviously may disappoint the students special while downloading materials.

Another challenge is expenses for acquisition of ICT devices which can be divided into groups such as money for buying devices including as computers and mobile phones that support internet connections and able to download materials direct from the web. The second group is money for buying bandwidth and internet connection charges which the cost still high, all these things have been caused by the economic situation of the students most of them they cannot afford those cost.

Also, technical assistance is the one among the major challenges that have been mentioned, most of the time when students seek for technical assistance while online is very difficult because of the bunch of reasons including internet breakdown and poor coverage but also the existence of qualified personnel who can cope with students number seeking for assistance can be a reason of that since their availability is costing huge fortune for salaries and other privileges.
Besides, inadequate knowledge of using ICT is another challenge that students confronting while receiving their study materials knowledge is needed so as to be able to use ICT materials and without knowledge that caused them poor searching and limited adequate materials for their studies.

Figure 4.5: Challenges confronting students while receiving study materials through traditional ( N =62)
Apart from ICT instructional materials respondents were mentioned about the traditional
Instructional materials as indicated in figure 4

Figure indicate respondent 1(17%) said time consume, 1 (17%) said reference problem, 2(33%) said text problem, 1(17%) ICT existence and 1(17%) said language problem; the figure 4.5 below indicates the responses of the challenges confronting students while receiving their study materials by the traditional
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Figure. Traditional Instructional Materials Challenges
Source: Researcher 2017
4.6 Academic Performance
The third research question was assigned to compare the students’ academic performance, the researcher used the overall students academic results, for six years in two different periods three years before and three years after the adoption of ICT instructional materials and the selected students were those taking OLT 323 course used to compare their results as shown in figure

Figure. Students’ academic performance
Source: Researcher 2017
The table above shows the students’ academic performance, these data have been collected from documents of students MTT results taken OLT 323 study course. The list of the letters used in the figure is not the grade from the university rather than just codes given by researcher to be able to distinguish the result performed by the students, however, B + represents the highest point while the F represents the lowest.

The table 4 reveals that findings of the students academic performance which compared for two different periods, pre and post uses of ICT instructional materials, the findings shows that there is a little difference in academic performance, in the traditional era performance was little higher than ICT era although not in big difference special in the last year pre adoption of ICT instructional materials students performed well as indicated above in year 2013 about 9% of the students they got the highest score, thus there is a relation between type of instructional materials and students academic performance.

4.7. Chapter Summary
This chapter discussed the discovered findings of the study, concerning with the study objectives, the comparison the effectiveness of ICT and traditional instructional materials on students academic performance, students perception on the instructional materials whether ICT or traditional, accessibility of instructional materials.

Results that focused on students’ perception regarding instructional materials weather in ICT or traditional are shown in the 4.5.with more percentage they prefer ICT instructional materials.

While accessibility results discussed in the 4.6 whereby the results reviled that among the ICT challenges facing the students in accessibility process; internet problem, power problem, expenses, lack of technical assistance also was among the issue identified but also traditional related challenges have been identified such as library, books, language problem and the introduction of ICT.

And lastly, the results of academic performance discussed in the 4.7 the results indicated that students academic performance has little increased during traditional instructional material era by comparing students overall result in two different periods
Fig 5.4. 1 computer lab
The researcher was eager to visit the computer library at the center to see the computers, below are the photo taken

Fig 5.4.2 library center shelves
According to the respondents’ responses, one was concerning the existence of the ICT as the challenge for traditional materials the researcher was eager to visit the library
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Introduction
This chapter presents the summary of the findings, conclusion, and recommendations of the study which divided into two those to university (OUT) and those to students and lastly conclude with the area for the further study.

5.1 Summary
The study devoted to comparing the effectiveness of ICT and traditional instructional materials to students academic performance. The study based on the objectives namely:

To access students perception on the uses of ICT and traditional instructional materials
To examine students accessibility of ICT and traditional instructional materials
To compare students academic performance in ICT and traditional instructional materials
Findings of the study revealed that majority of the respondents prefer ICT instructional materials even though there are still some obstacles concerning its effectiveness including network break down which most of the time consume students time during the download period, also total cost of ICT instructional materials process such as the price of computers, airtime still high together with price of the internet bundle not cheap which seemed to affects most of the learners
Also findings related to accessibility of the instructional materials show that still, a problem for students caused by internet and economic situation, majority of the respondents indicated accessibility of instructional materials still a problem to them, yet students find difficulties on having secure access for the instructional materials because one needs to have ICT resources , but this is not only for the students but also the system of the university to be stable that can make smoothly access without any breakdown.
About the findings of the academic performance show that the performance after the adoption of ICT there is no big difference in the students’ performance regarding their overall results, even though the last year of traditional before ICT adoption students performance was little higher compared with others, this implies that the performance may be even higher than that once the challenges concerning traditional materials eradicated such as enough reference books and not copied ones together with active library.

However for ICT instructional materials still time is needed because things like internet, power and the total price of the device and bundles, once the University has good plan for them such as availability of ICT devices in low cost, operative technical assistance, enough ICT knowledge provided to students, and alternative instructional materials of ICT once there is a technical problem. Apparently, students performance may increase this has been witnessed in two years after the adoption of ICT the performance was little increased compared with the third year, this was because of the ICT groundwork made by the university such as availability of ICT instructional materials together with existed traditional instructional materials because once the university deviated to ICT instructional material still traditional materials were around special for those students who were about to finished or even those once they were students of OUT. New students were able to borrow from their friends, relatives and even from the central library. But also, there were computers which provided for loan and additional, installed computers in the 18 regional centers of the OUT including Zanzibar center (Isowe, 2016). Also availability of IT technician for providing any technical assistance for the students’ used computers in the lab center.

5.3 Conclusion of the study
This comparative research was confined to compare the effectiveness of ICT and traditional instructional material on students’ academic performance, hence the study aimed at investigating students’ perception for instructional materials, assessing the accessibility of instructional materials and assessing their academic performance. Therefore, the findings discovered traditional instructional materials are more effective regarding the undergraduate students’ academic performance although there is no big difference on those results between ICT and traditional instructional materials, but this shall not be taken as a general view because the researcher used only undergraduates’ academic records and only one study course.

However ICT instructional materials still a bottleneck for the students due to several existing reasons such as infrastructure problem still contribute much for instructional accessibility, the economic situation of the learners’ families also is the problem of owning devices but even if they own still they need to buy bundles in order to download materials. Also, students should be equipped with ICT programmes in their study programmes practical not for passing their exam and receiving credits. Also 24 hour 7 technical online support needed to improve the ICT instructional materials delivery including synchronous ways whenever needed for those who can use it such as audio and video, without limitation because in this era the availability of resource is widening in different areas although not for everyone but this should not be taken as an obstacle for all students since some of them still they can afford them.
On the other hand about perception issue majority of the respondents agree on ICT instructional materials are preferable for them than traditional materials in spite of the shortcoming, this has indicated mainly by male respondents they agree on that. It is contributing to accessibility ICT devices that majority of the male they have access compared to female, who still facing time constraint with their daily routines such as house, office, and studies.

5.4 Recommendation of the study
On the basis of the study findings it is suggested in two different views as follow:-

University
The OUT should make deliberate efforts dealing with mobile company service provider for introducing students free studying bundles as they have already introduced for facebook, even though some of those companies they have already established low-cost bundle just for the student such as university bundle from Tigo company and Hotel company, they are very helpful.

Re-establish the ICT short course of IET with the aim of training students this will encourage even those traditional instructional materials preference to change their beliefs from traditional to ICT.

The OUT should form a consensus with laptop producers companies to buy them at low cost and include them in the students’ fee just to make sure every student own one with low cost.

The OUT must continue to manage the center library services even after the adoption of ICT the library at the center should be equipped with all necessary facilities both ICT and traditional. Not like now days only computer lab existence and hard copy materials shelves are empty, also competent librarian needed to provide assistance whenever needed, because still, library going to remain a source of knowledge where students shall meet and find different materials even after the coming of online materials regardless the type of the materials
Also, the OUT should find alternative power source just in case of power failure in order to make sure accessibility of instructional materials is available from the system and the centers
Students
To establish some kind of savings mode by cooperating between them in order to be able to buy devices in the period of time one by one.

To undergo appropriate practical computer course instead of being satisfied with theoretical course OCP 100 Introduction to Computer that provided by OUT as a study course, this will help them to be computer competent and the myth of depending someone doing computerized things for them will be at the ending point.

Continue forming peer coaching will help them sheering of study facilities including instructional materials for those with no access can share with those who have access, some students they have access from their place of work or even from them their personal devices (PDA).

5.5 Area for Further Study
This study focused on comparing the effectiveness of ICT and traditional instructional materials on students’ academic performance, ICT has taken a large part of our daily lives regardless public or individuals, so far there is a need to undergo many studies as possible concerning the ICT so as to understand benefits and drawback of ICT and appropriate measure of to be taken. This study focused students part probably there is still a need to conduct the similar study in the comparative effectiveness of the OUT lecturers side pre-introduction of ICT instructional materials and post, focusing their ability of using ICT as the ones who are dealing directly with the students in several ways including preparation of instructional materials and providing assistance. It is anticipated that materials preparation and presentation always affect the students’ academic performance.

Moreover, there is a need to conduct a research investigating the effectiveness of the OUT regional centers libraries on providing their services to the students; researcher was eager in that issue once respondents of the study explained as among the challenges they facing on receiving their study materials.

5.1 Summary
The study divided into chapters, chapter one study background and statement of the study problem, the study problem was chapter two represents literature reviews of the related study, chapter three presents research methodology, this is a comparative study using the qualitative and quantitative approach with questionnaires and documents records as data instruments. Undergraduate students from Zanzibar OUT center were selected as respondents for this study together with overall results of undergraduates from 2011 to 2016. Chapter four findings of the study analyzed and chapter five presents summary, conclusion and recommendation.

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