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A Research Report Presented to Graduate school of Business Leadership University of South Africa In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Masters Degree in Business Leadership By BRHANU AREGA WOLDEAMANUEL (St. No. 77890183) STUDY LEADER Mr. Sifolo November, 2016 APPENDIX 4.4 The Programme Administrator MBL 3 Graduate School of Business Leadership P O Box 392 UNISA 0003 Fax no 27 11 6520299 CONSENT TO SUBMIT RESEARCH REPORT Consent is hereby given to- BIRHANU AREGA WOLDEAMANUEL ___________________________________________________________________ Student Number- St. No. 77890183 to submit his/her research report in its final form. STUDY LEADER DATE- November 30, 2016 _____________________________ ______________________________ DECLARATION I, Birhanu Arega Woldeamanuel hereby declare that this research report is my original work submitted to Graduate School of Business Leadership (GSBL) in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Masters Degree in Business Leadership (MBL) at University of South Africa. The research report has not been submitted to any University in whole or in part at any form, for any degree examination. All texts, references and sources are properly referenced and acknowledged. Birhanu Arega Woldeamanuel Date November,25, 2016 Signature__ ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Above all I would like to thank my Lord who is the reason for my existence and gave me His grace to accomplish this research paper successfully. Then my deepest gratitude goes to my friend Ato Girum Mesfin Asrat for his valuable comments and unreserved guidance during this research work. I would also like to extend my deepest appreciation to all my families, my best supporter, Wzo Wengelawit Alemu and Wro Ayinalem H/mariam for their continuous support during my study. Finally, I would like to thank Mr. Akaleweld Admasu General Manager of HORIZON ADDIS SC. and all of my interviewees and respondents for their cooperation and also all current and former Comet Transport share Company management and employees. ABSTRACT Today organizations are facing different kinds of challenges as they are operating in a dynamic global market. Due to the lack of proper knowledge and skill in management, shortage of capital, weak infrastructure etc. The challenge is more intensive for organizations situated in developing countries like Ethiopia. Therefore, such organizations have to seek for alternative ways to improve their business activities in order to compete in the global market. Supply Chain Management (SCM) is one of the most effective ways that many organizations like Wall-Mart have managed to achieve best organizational performance. In the Ethiopian business context, especially in Tire Industries, the concept of SCM should be well understood and practiced because these industries are the backbone of other growing industries in the country. The basic objectives of this research are (1) to study the existing of implementation of SCM practices in Ethiopia Tire Industry, and (2) to assess the extent of collaboration/ integration among the SC partners (3) analyze the relationship between SCM practice and organizational competitiveness and (4), to provide recommendation based on findings of the study so as to helpfully improve organizational competitiveness. The study starts with the introduction of manufacturing industries in Ethiopia and then in-depth literature review was conducted. Furthermore, using descriptive survey (quantitative) research design, a total number of 70 questionnaires were sent to 47 completed questionnaires were received from respondents. To test the relationship between supply chain management practices and organizational competitive position, four key dimensions of SCM practices (strategic supplier partnership, information sharing and postponement) were used as independent variables accompanied by different measurement instruments under each variable, while market and operational performance variables were to measure the organizational competitiveness. The research findings show that the implementation of SCM practices in Horizon Addis Tire Manufacturing is weak. In addition to that, except the strategic supply partnership, the rest of SCM practices have no relationship with organizational performance. Therefore, the study concluded that modern SCM theories and practices are not well understood and practiced as a means of improving organizational competitiveness in the sector yet. Finally, the study recommended that both theoretical and practical SCM training is essential for those managers and decision makers to develop efficient SCM in the sector. TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC o 1-3 h z u HYPERLINK l _Toc472257868 DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc472257868 h I HYPERLINK l _Toc472257869 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT PAGEREF _Toc472257869 h II HYPERLINK l _Toc472257870 ABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc472257870 h III HYPERLINK l _Toc472257871 LIST OF TABLES PAGEREF _Toc472257871 h IX HYPERLINK l _Toc472257872 LIST OF FIGURES PAGEREF _Toc472257872 h X HYPERLINK l _Toc472257873 LIST OF ABREVIATIONS PAGEREF _Toc472257873 h XI HYPERLINK l _Toc472257874 CHAPTER ONE- ORIENTATION PAGEREF _Toc472257874 h 1 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257875 1.1 Introduction to the problem Investigated PAGEREF _Toc472257875 h 1 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257876 1.2 Background of the Study PAGEREF _Toc472257876 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257877 1.2.1 The Tire sub-sector in Ethiopia PAGEREF _Toc472257877 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257878 1.3 Objective of the study PAGEREF _Toc472257878 h 6 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257879 1.3.1 The general objective of the research PAGEREF _Toc472257879 h 6 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257880 1.3.2 The specific research objectives PAGEREF _Toc472257880 h 6 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257881 1.4 The Perceived Significance and Benefits of the Proposed Study PAGEREF _Toc472257881 h 6 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257882 1.5 Statement of the research problem PAGEREF _Toc472257882 h 7 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257883 1.5.1. Rationale of the study PAGEREF _Toc472257883 h 8 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257884 1.6 Research questions and hypothesis PAGEREF _Toc472257884 h 9 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257885 1.7 Definitions of key terms, concepts and variables PAGEREF _Toc472257885 h 10 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257886 1.7 Limitations of the Study PAGEREF _Toc472257886 h 11 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257887 1.8 Organization of the Research Report PAGEREF _Toc472257887 h 11 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257888 CHAPTER TWO- FOUNDATION OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc472257888 h 13 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257889 2.1. Theory of SCM practice PAGEREF _Toc472257889 h 13 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257890 2.1.1. Resource Dependent Theory (RDT) PAGEREF _Toc472257890 h 13 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257891 2.1.1.1. The Theory of Customer Service PAGEREF _Toc472257891 h 13 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257892 2.1.1.2. Communication Privacy Management Theory PAGEREF _Toc472257892 h 14 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257893 2.1.1.3. Theory of Postponement PAGEREF _Toc472257893 h 15 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257894 2.2 Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc472257894 h 16 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257895 2.2.1. Historical Development of supply chain management PAGEREF _Toc472257895 h 16 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257896 2.2.2. Definitions of supply chain management PAGEREF _Toc472257896 h 17 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257897 2.2.3 Key components of SCM PAGEREF _Toc472257897 h 18 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257898 2.3 SCM Integration PAGEREF _Toc472257898 h 18 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257899 2.3.1. Upstream and downstream integration PAGEREF _Toc472257899 h 18 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257900 2.4 Supply Chain as a Strategic Asset PAGEREF _Toc472257900 h 19 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257901 2.5 SCM Practice PAGEREF _Toc472257901 h 20 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257902 2.5.1. Strategic Supplier Partnership PAGEREF _Toc472257902 h 20 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257903 2.5.2. Relation Ship with Customers PAGEREF _Toc472257903 h 21 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257904 2. 5. 3. Level of Information Sharing PAGEREF _Toc472257904 h 21 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257905 2.5.3.1. Types of shared information in supply chain PAGEREF _Toc472257905 h 21 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257906 2.5.4. Quality of Information Sharing PAGEREF _Toc472257906 h 23 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257907 2.5.5 Postponement PAGEREF _Toc472257907 h 23 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257908 2.6. Supply Chain Management and Competitive Position PAGEREF _Toc472257908 h 23 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257909 2.6.1. Product Quality PAGEREF _Toc472257909 h 25 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257910 2.7. Collaboration in Supply chain PAGEREF _Toc472257910 h 25 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257911 2. 8 Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc472257911 h 26 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257912 2.8.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc472257912 h 26 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257913 2.8.2. Historical Development of supply Chain Management PAGEREF _Toc472257913 h 27 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257914 2.8.3. Definitions of supply chain management PAGEREF _Toc472257914 h 27 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257915 2.8.4 Key components of SCM PAGEREF _Toc472257915 h 31 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257916 2.8.5 SCM Integration PAGEREF _Toc472257916 h 31 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257917 2.8.5.1 Upstream and downstream integration PAGEREF _Toc472257917 h 32 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257918 2.8.6 Supply chain as a strategic asset PAGEREF _Toc472257918 h 33 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257919 2.8.7 SCM Practice PAGEREF _Toc472257919 h 34 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257920 2.8.7.1 Strategic Supplier Partnership PAGEREF _Toc472257920 h 34 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257921 2.8.7.2 Relationship with Customers PAGEREF _Toc472257921 h 35 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257922 2.8.7.3 Level and Quality of Information Sharing PAGEREF _Toc472257922 h 35 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257923 2.8.7.3.1 Types of shared information in supply chain PAGEREF _Toc472257923 h 36 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257924 2.8.7.4 Postponement PAGEREF _Toc472257924 h 38 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257925 2.9 Supply Chain Management and Competitive Position PAGEREF _Toc472257925 h 38 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257926 2.10 Collaboration in Supply Chain PAGEREF _Toc472257926 h 40 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257927 CHAPTER THREE-.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc472257927 h 42 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257928 3.1 Methodology PAGEREF _Toc472257928 h 42 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257929 3.2 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc472257929 h 42 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257930 3.2.1 Research Framework PAGEREF _Toc472257930 h 43 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257931 3.2.2 Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc472257931 h 44 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257932 3.2.3 Sampling Technique and Population size PAGEREF _Toc472257932 h 45 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257933 3.2.3.1 Sample Size PAGEREF _Toc472257933 h 46 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257934 3.2.4 Data Analysis and Presentation PAGEREF _Toc472257934 h 46 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257935 3.3. Validity and reliability of the measure measurement instruments PAGEREF _Toc472257935 h 47 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257936 3.4. Statistical Analysis PAGEREF _Toc472257936 h 47 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257937 3.5 Ethical considerations of the study PAGEREF _Toc472257937 h 48 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257938 CHAPTER FOUR- RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH PAGEREF _Toc472257938 h 49 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257939 4.1 Descriptive statistics and respondents profile PAGEREF _Toc472257939 h 49 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257940 4.1.1 Response Rate PAGEREF _Toc472257940 h 49 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257941 4.1.2 Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc472257941 h 49 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257942 4.2 Hypotheses Testing PAGEREF _Toc472257942 h 58 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257943 4.2.1 Testing Hypothesis 1 PAGEREF _Toc472257943 h 59 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257944 4.2.2 Testing Hypothesis 2 PAGEREF _Toc472257944 h 60 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257945 4.2.3 Testing Hypothesis 3 PAGEREF _Toc472257945 h 61 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257946 4.2.4 Testing Hypothesis 4 PAGEREF _Toc472257946 h 62 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257947 4.2.5 Testing Hypothesis 5 PAGEREF _Toc472257947 h 63 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257948 4.2.6 Testing Hypothesis 6 PAGEREF _Toc472257948 h 64 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257949 4.2.7 Testing Hypothesis 7 PAGEREF _Toc472257949 h 64 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257950 4.2.8 Testing Hypothesis 8 PAGEREF _Toc472257950 h 65 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257951 CHAPTER FIVE – DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc472257951 h 67 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257952 5.1 DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH RESULTS PAGEREF _Toc472257952 h 67 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257953 5.1.1 Supplies chain management Partnership and Competitive position in Ethiopian Tire Industry PAGEREF _Toc472257953 h 68 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257954 5.1.2 Customer Relationship and Competitive position in Ethiopian Tire Industry PAGEREF _Toc472257954 h 69 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257955 5.1.3 Information sharing and Competitive position in Ethiopian Tire Industry PAGEREF _Toc472257955 h 69 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257956 5.1.4 Postponement and Competitive Position in Ethiopian Tire Industry PAGEREF _Toc472257956 h 70 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257957 5.1.5 Competitive positioning PAGEREF _Toc472257957 h 71 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257958 5.1.6 Relationship between supply chain management practices and organizational competitiveness in Horizon Addis Tire Manufacturing PAGEREF _Toc472257958 h 72 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257959 5.2. Conclusion and Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc472257959 h 73 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257960 5.2.1. Strategic Supplier Partnership PAGEREF _Toc472257960 h 73 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257961 5.2.2. Supply Chain Customer Relationship PAGEREF _Toc472257961 h 73 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257962 5.2.3. Information Sharing PAGEREF _Toc472257962 h 74 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257963 5.2. 4 Postponement PAGEREF _Toc472257963 h 74 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257964 5.3 Suggestions for Future Research PAGEREF _Toc472257964 h 74 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257965 4. Reference list PAGEREF _Toc472257965 h 75 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257966 APPENDIXES PAGEREF _Toc472257966 h 79 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257967 APPENDIX 1Registration conformation. PAGEREF _Toc472257967 h 79 APPENDIX 2 Data Collection Instrument……………………………………………………………………….80 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257968 APPENDIX 2..2 Questionnaire 81 HYPERLINK l _Toc472257969 APPENDIX 3-Statistical Results PAGEREF _Toc472257969 h 85 LIST OF TABLES TOC h z t Caption c HYPERLINK l _Toc467326891 Table 4. 1 Current employment position of respondents PAGEREF _Toc467326891 h 50 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326892 Table 4.2 Respondents service year in the current company PAGEREF _Toc467326892 h 51 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326894 Table 4.3 Educational background of the respondents PAGEREF _Toc467326894 h 52 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326895 Table 4.4 Extent of strategic supplier partnership practices PAGEREF _Toc467326895 h 53 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326896 Table 4.5 Extent of customer relationship practices PAGEREF _Toc467326896 h 54 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326897 Table 4.6 Extent of information sharing PAGEREF _Toc467326897 h 55 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326898 Table 4.7 Postponement PAGEREF _Toc467326898 h 56 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326899 Table 4.8 Responses about dimensions of competitive position their mean value PAGEREF _Toc467326899 h 57 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326901 Table 4.9 Statistical chi-square test for strategic supplier partnership practices PAGEREF _Toc467326901 h 60 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326902 Table 4. 10 Statistical chi-square test for customer relationship practice PAGEREF _Toc467326902 h 61 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326903 Table 4.11 Statistical chi-square test for information sharing PAGEREF _Toc467326903 h 62 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326904 Table 4.12 Chi-square test statistics of postponement practices PAGEREF _Toc467326904 h 63 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326905 Table 4.13 ANOVA Test competitive position against Strategic supplier partnership PAGEREF _Toc467326905 h 64 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326906 Table 4.14 ANOVA Test competitive position against customer relationship PAGEREF _Toc467326906 h 65 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326907 Table 4.15 ANOVA Test competitive position against Information sharing PAGEREF _Toc467326907 h 65 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326908 Table 4.16 ANOVA Test competitive position against Postponement PAGEREF _Toc467326908 h 66 LIST OF FIGURES HYPERLINK l _Toc467326887 Figure 1.1 Tire Industry project, 2015 PAGEREF _Toc467326887 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326888 Figure 2.5 Research framework PAGEREF _Toc467326888 h 16 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326889 Figure 2.3 The supply chain management processes PAGEREF _Toc467326889 h 30 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326890 Figure 2.4 The internal and External supply chain PAGEREF _Toc467326890 h 34 HYPERLINK l _Toc467326893 Figure 4.1 Work experience PAGEREF _Toc467326893 h 51 LIST OF ABREVIATIONS SC__________-__________ Supply Chain CLM________-__________ Council of Logistics Management CSCMP______-__________Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals CPFR _______-__________Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment IS___________-__________Information system IT___________-__________Information technology HATF________-__________Horizon Addis Tire Factory SCM_________-__________Supply Chain Management SCR_________-__________Supplier and Customer Relationship ATC_________-__________Addis Tires Share Company MOFED______-__________Ministry Of Finance Economic Development CHAPTER ONE- ORIENTATION 1.1 Introduction to the problem Investigated Ethiopia is one of the fastest growing economics in the world and is Africas second most populous country. It has been providing opportunities for the private sectors to participate actively in investment activities as opposed to the previous socialist policies which put investment activities under state control. Due to steep unreasonable competition, globalisation, change in market demand and the rapid adoption of outsourcing, todays organizations are operating in a networked business environment. As global competition increases, manufacturing companies should be more involved in how their suppliers and customers engage their businesses. To compete successfully in todays challenging business environment, manufacturing companies should be able to effectively integrate internal functions within a companies and effectively link them with the external operations of supplier and supply chain members. They need to focus on supply chain management practices that have impact on enhancing supply chain management activities and ultimately performances (Arawati, 2011 Toyin (2012) The changing globalisation patterns are pushing businesses to re think their strategy. In general, business environment is characterized by unpredictability and changeability. According to Fawcett (2007), companies are becoming more concerned about how the resources of supplier and customers are used to create value. The efforts that are made to align goals and shares resources to collaborate across boundary is the main direction of supply chain management. Therefore, adopting a more integrated approach to supply chain (SC) relationship management has been increasingly viewed as a way of meeting changing customer needs (Eyong, 2009). As defined by Heizer and Render (2007) supply chain management is the integration of the activities that procure materials and service, transform them into intermediate goods and final products and deliver them to the customers. The goal of supply chain management (SCM) is to integrate both information and material flows seamlessly across the supply chain as an effective competitive weapon (child house, 2003). SCM practices are defined as the set of activities under taken by an organization to promote effective management and supply chain. The practice of SCM are proposed to be a multi dimension concepts, including the dowers stream and upstream sides of the supply chain (Li et.al. 2006). Supply chain management (SCM) has raised the interest in the past years as organizations started to realize that, the actions taken by one member of the chain actually have an influence on the profitability of other members in the chain. This scheme generated the alt of competing as a part of supply chain against the other supply chains instead of competing as a single firm against other individual firms (Silver et. al., 1998) This is due to the fact that, nowadays the new source of business competition lies outside the walls of organizations, and it is determined by how effectively companies link their operations with their supply chain partners such as suppliers, manufactures, distributors, wholes seller, retailers and end customers /Consumers (silver et.al,. 1998) besides. Firms do not necessarily own all the resource and capabilities that will help them compete in the market place. Hence this requires multi-dimensional organizational focus through strategic frame work including cross functional and cross organizational processes to create maximum value to end customers peter M. Ralston (2015). The implementation of supply chain strategy becomes vital important to deliver quality products and services at the right time. Chopra and Meind (2004) cited in Green et. al. (2014). Supply chain strategy determine the nature of procurement of raw materials, transportation of materials to and from the company, manufacture of the product or operation to provide the service, and distribution of the product to the customer, along with any follow-up service and specification of whether those processes will be performed in-house or outsourced. Supply chain strategy specifies what the operations, distribution, and service functions, whether performed in house or outsourced, should do particularly well. Thus, those will lead to application of the sustainable supply chain management comprising the strategic supplier partnership, customer relationship management, information sharing and postponement. The relationships of sustainable supply chain management practices and dynamic capability take the main concern. This study focuses mainly on consumers in Tire industry in Ethiopia. The customers are very sensitive to safety and quality of products, reduction of environmental impacts from production by applying the environmental management systems like ISO 14001-2004 and quality assurance became necessary for survival (Philip, 2014). Supply chain, Supply chain management gives significant opportunities to the firms involved in terms of cost reductions, revenue enhancement, flexibility, customer satisfaction, speed and economy of time (Forrester, 1998).cited in Balda (2011). Hence, cooperation is crucial between members of Supply chain, Therefore, Supply chain management offers a managements philosophy to manage activities and integrate with downstream, upstream as well as firm internal supply chain operations (Ross1998). Currently the Ethiopian business environment is becoming customer driven, competitive and technologically based. Hence, it is unquestionable that companies should build an integrated and efficient system though which resources would flow in a seamless and in stannous manner across the supply chain. The current practice of Ethiopian manufacturing industries with regard to supply chain management is traditional in that, partners involved across the supply chain act independently in designing, developing and executing strategies with minimum effort made to align strategies with the partners doing business with them particularly suppliers, whole sellers, distributers, and customers Balda (2011). Russell, (2006) identify a coping strategy which suggests that the relationship with suppliers and other partners should be supported with an appropriate level of collaboration information technology and lean- agile principles. Therefore, the researcher has, thus, been inspired to conduct a study on the impacts and practices of supply chain on Tire industry in Ethiopia particularly in Horizon Addis Tire Share Company and forward possible suggestions that would enable the company to be competitive. 1.2 Background of the Study A Tire is a ring shaped covering that fits around a well rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance by providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shuck while keeping the fundamental materials of modern tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber, fibril and wire, along with other compound chemicals. They consist of at read and a body. The tread provides fraction while the body ensures support. Before rubber was invented, the first version of tires where simply bands of metal that hutted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Today the vast majority of tires are prevailed inflatable structures, comprising air to form an inflatable cushion pneumatic tires are used on many tires of vehicles, such as cars, bicycles, motorcycles, trucks, earth movers and aircraft. A tire looks like a simple product, but its not if typical tire involves dozens of different components made from more than 100 primary raw materials that must be precisely processed and assembled to achieve the right balance between many competing factors including watery, environmental impact, divining pleasure and Dora billet (WBC Tires, 2015) Figure SEQ Figure ARABIC 1.1 Tire Industry project, 2015 Source- Addis Tire Share Company 1.2.1 The Tire sub-sector in Ethiopia The manufacturing sector has long been considered the main engine of economic growth and structural transformation. Ethiopia is potentially wealthy country with fertile soil and good rain fails over large regions. Ethiopia possesses several valuable minerals including gold and platinum. Ethiopian has potential areas for rubber plantation (Ethiopian Investment Agency, 2015). Ethiopia resources have enabled the country to maintain contacts with the outside world for centuries (Nurasimha and Ramesh, 2015) The growth and transformation plan (GTP) in Ethiopia transforming towards an industrialize economy and to increase per capital income of its citizens by 2025. Ethiopians Growth and transformation plan seeks of transform the economy from a predominantly agrarian to modern and industrialized economy .(9th EEU, 2015) But the GTP has not been able to faster and accelerate structural transformation of the economy and the share of the manufacturing sector in GDP remained stable at a rather low level. (4th Ethiopian Economy update, 2015) The industrial sector registered an average annual growth rate of 10.9 over the year 2014/2015 (MOFED). About 14.3 of the country GDP in 2013/14 has been contributed by the industrial sector. (CSA) According to CSA, the value of production is regarded as one of the important variables for measuring economies depravity and development of industrial production In 2015/2016 forts quarter menu fearing industries contributes a total value of production amounting to 25.96 billion birr. Among the industries, the largest share of production value is contributed by manufacturing of food products accompanied by manufacture beverage and manufacture of other non-metallic producer, contribute of 15, 17 and 11 of the total value, respectively the manufacture of rubber Tire products are 7 contribute the total manufacturing Industry (CSA,2016) had there been extractive integration of supply chain, in for motion communications, long firm relationships batwing suppliers and customer in the delivery of product, the a formation figure would be improved. Hence the was rage or resources, the increased down time as a result of poor coordination of supply chain, poor quality of share information, lack of supply chain risk management practice, etc. In addition to this the amount of imported fire is significantly increase from time to time posing other challenges to the organization in Ethiopia. The only manufacture Tire industry in Ethiopia has now day Horizon Addis Share Company. The production of Tire in Ethiopia goes back to 1972, when Addis Tires S.C (ATC) the first of its kind in the country of 60,000 Tire and 45,000 tubes and a total labour force of 260 Peoples. After subsequent joint venture formation between Addis tire S.C. (Government owned) and the Slovakian renowned Tire manufacturer MATADOR -As was established in June 2004. However, due to shift in business focus, MATADOR Addis Tire S.C. transferred its share to continental AG on October 23, 2007. Continental AG, the world known Tire Manufacture Company, has bought all Matadors holding. Due to lack of concentration of continently AG, there is no Significant progress on the commitment it can discharge all joint venture obligation. It was thus, the dedication committed investor for Ethiopia, decided to buy the share at continental AG through Ethiopia Companies, Horizon plantation PLC 100 owners in January, 2011 The name of Horizon Addis Tire share company. 1.3 Objective of the study 1.3.1 The general objective of the research The general objective of the research was to study look in to the practices and organization or tire times managing its SC in an integrated and elective way and assessing problems hindering its electiveness or performance increment. 1.3.2 The specific research objectives More specifically, the study has the following objectives- To study the existing practices of supply chain management from the SCM practices perspective To assess the extent of collaboration/ integration among the SC partners. To analyze the relationship between SCM practice and organizational competitiveness. To provide recommendation based on finding is of the study so as to helpful to improve organizational competitiveness. 1.4 The Perceived Significance and Benefits of the Proposed Study In the ever changing competitive marker with up-coming more globalized trade, Investigating the practices of supply chain management and barriers for its effective implementation in this complex and dynamic business world is believed to have the following importance to the academicians, corporate manager and generally for baseness practitioners, and specifically, for the Tire firm company, Specifically, this study has following main significance Identifying the supply chain management practices that will potentially influence the competitive strength of respective and the gap between the current supply chain practices of organizations and detective supply chain management. It serves as aspiring board to conduct for their and more detail study in the area this is because at the current situation there are only few researches were conducted in the related area in Ethiopia. 1.5 Statement of the research problem Companies which have recognized opportunities that exist there in the Supply chain management and directed their effort towards developing a competitive supply chain based on speed, flexibility, innovation, quality and responsiveness hard significantly improve customer service and this profitability. Ethiopia Tire industry has serious weaknesses and facing obstacles hampering their productivity and competitiveness. Most of the Tire manufacturing industry is more with the problem of low financial and managerial capacity, lack of machineries and facilities, inability to satisfy customer demands, and shortage of highly qualified workers. Moreover, they have poor or under capacity utilization and law level of total resource productivity. Even if the contribution of the sector to import Tire has increased over time to time and also the tire product manufacturing establishing largely depend on import raw material. Because of this shortage of foreign currency exchange could be one possible factor that created row material shortages that depend on imported raw material. Low market share of the manufacturing industry and utilized capacity show that there is a lot that remains to be done. Thus, one of the problems which contributed a lot toward the above limitations and weakness of the sector could be the lack of conceptual framework and basic knowledge of SCM amongst the business practitioners. Moreover even though some of the practitioners have realized the importance of SCM, they lack an understanding of what constitutes a comprehensive set of SCM practice. In this regard, the researcher could hardly find study related to the know-haw and implementation of SCM practices as well as their impact on organizational competitiveness in Tire industry. There for, the researcher needed to study commonly advocated SCM practices used in different researcher that include strategic supplier partnership, customer relationship, information sharing as well as postponement in Tire industry. 1.5.1. Rationale of the study Even if it is clear that currently other sector industry are playing a significant role for the economic growth of Ethiopia. In addition to these manufacturing sectors it is not anew history that for a long period of time and still now the Ethiopia Economy is dominated by Agriculture and Service Industry (MOFED). Effective and efficient Supply Chain Management now have becomes a very valuable and important way to remain competitive in the market and to improve the organizational Performance. It plays a very important role in stating competitive below use the competition among the organizations is effected by the supply chain management. Due globalization now organizations are realizing that to be competitive in global and local market they should have to do the work is to get better the efficiency inside the organization to improve the entire Supply chain also more effective and efficient then they competitor (Muhammad et.al.,2013). As global competition increase manufacturing companies should be more involved in how their suppliers and customers conduct their business. To compete successfully in todays challenging business environment manufacturing Company Should be able to effectively integrate the internal function within Accompany and effectively link them with the External operations of Suppliers and supply chain members. They need to focus on Supply Chain Management practices that have impact on enhancing SCM activity and ultimately perform Manufacturing companies must focus on their improvement of supply chain management to maximize their outcome. Most researchers say that planning and implementation of SCM is an essential to survive in the global market and more profitability. Nowa days most of the organizations have focus on its supplier and customer (Mohammed. 2013) However several external factors continue to retrieve the organization to adapt the new way of conducting businesses i.e. increasing globalization decreased buriers to international trade improvement of information availability through information technology and increasing customs demand (Sahay Mohan 2003 Gunscurant et al., 2003). In order to survive company must be able to reduce cost improve quality and provide fast response to the customer needs (Mohamed, 2012). The justification for targeting on tire production sector is that, tire price increases are creating one part of logistics cost are increase in the society. Currently in Ethiopia the price of tire increases. There are more Tire imports out of the country market .One may argue this may be due to poor supply chain management, collaboration and other factor across the supply chain partners. Therefore the rational of this research is build awareness of supply chain management and to fill the empirical gap. 1.6 Research questions and hypothesis Hence, this study is primarily aimed to answer what are the practices of SCM in Horizon Addis Tires Share Company, and more specifically to answer the following basic research question What do the current supply chain management practice on Horizon Addis Tires Share Company look like Is there collaboration or integration among key players of the supply chain Is there any relationship between Supply Chain management practices and organizational competitiveness in Horizon Addis Tire Industry According to Leedy et al., (2010), the research hypothesis is a reasonable conjecture, an educated guess and its purpose is to provide a temporary objective an operational target a logical framework that guides researchers as they collect and analyze data. There for based on the literature and research problem the following null (Ho) and research hypothesis (Ha) were used the study. Research hypothesis the above mentioned research questions can further be changed to testable research hypothesis as follow. Ho1- There is Strategic suppliers partnership practice is no weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry. Ha1- There is Strategic suppliers partnership practice is weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry. Ho2- There is Effective customer relationship practice is no weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry. Ha2- There is Effective customer relationship practice is weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry. Ho3- There is Effective information sharing practices is no weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry. Ha3- There is Effective information sharing practices is weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry. Ho4- There is Postponement is no weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry. Ha4- There is Postponement is weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry. Ho5- There is no relationship between strategic supplier partnership and Competitive Position in Tire Industry. Ha5- There is relationship between strategic supplier partnership and Competitive Position in Tire Industry. Ho6- There is no relationship between effective customer and Competitive position in Tire Industry. Ha6- There is relationship between effective customer and Competitive position in Tire Industry. Ho7- There is no relationship between effective information sharing and competitive position in Tire Industry. Ha7- There is relationship between effective information sharing and competitive position in Tire Industry Ho8- There is no relationship between postponement and Competitive position in Tire Industry. Ha8- There is relationship between postponement and Competitive position in Tire Industry. 1.7 Definitions of key terms, concepts and variables Supply chain management- is the Integration of key business processes from end user through original supplier that provides products, services and information that add value for customers and other stakeholders Douglas M. Lambert Martha cooper (2000) Supply Chain – The total sequence of business processes within a single or multiple enterprise environments those results in customer demand for a product or service to be satisfied. SCM Practice – is rate to complete set of actions which are done in organizations towards to improve the effectiveness in the internal supply chain (Mohammed et. al., 2013). Competitive advantage- is the extent to which companies are able to create a defensible position over its competitors (Diana Bratic, 2011) Integration- Is the process of combining or coordinating separate function processes, or producers and enabling them to interact in a seamless manner (Sunil, 2004) Tire – According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica a Tire is a continuous band that encircles the rim of a wheel and forms a tread that rolls either on the road, a prepared truck, or the ground. 1.7 Limitations of the Study In the up-to-date business environment impacts of supply chain toward achieving the goal of competitively strong organization, varieties of supply chain management impacts and competitive position pass through corporate strategy formulation. Top management members will seriously consider there implications at implementation of a good supply chain management knowhow and well doing of collaboration of upward and down ward integration. Thus, one can see that the type and dimension of these practice influence competitive performance of organization. There for this study will have limited, In treating all supply chain management practice. May poor quality of information collected because of negligence from respondent during data collection. The only one firm Tyre Industry may mislead the general conclusion. Since the organizations under concern are in competition, top management members may limit the information with an aim to obscure performance. 1.8 Organization of the Research Report This research paper is organized in to five Chapters. Chapter one contains the Introduction part dealing with back ground of the study and company research problem, objectives of the study, scope and significance of the study, the second chapter discusses the literature review about the subject matter. In chapter three the research methodologies were presented. In chapter four, presents result and discussion of the study and finally chapter five presents the major findings conclusions and forward suggestions. CHAPTER TWO- FOUNDATION OF THE STUDY This chapter will try to asses theoretical and empirical works related to the relevant supply chain management practices on which are the focal point of the study. Hence, the SCM practices that are closely exercised and influenced the competitiveness of the tire industry were the main concern. 2.1. Theory of SCM practice 2.1.1. Resource Dependent Theory (RDT) The theory centres on how some firms become reliant on others for needed inputs such as goods and materials, and how firms can manage such relationships (Pfeffer and Salancik, 1978). The asymmetric interdependence that exists in these inter-firm relationships is critical to reduce environmental uncertainty for some firms. As supply chain members work together closely, they often become more dependent on each other thus developing partnerships, alliances and cooperation. Thus, RDT has a high level of value in the supply chain context. The assumptions in this theory include commitment to partnership for mutual benefits, creating conditions favourable to be depended on by your partners to create a position of strength, trust in the partnership deal. Thus, from the perspective of best value supply chains, dependencies should be used to create mutual forbearance and trust, not to drive aggressive exploitation of one chain member by another. 2.1.1.1. The Theory of Customer Service The theory of customer service is based on identifying and satisfying your customers needs and exceeding their expectations. A company must be totally committed to delivering consistently high standards of service to gain and retain customer loyalty. Customer satisfaction and loyalty are inextricably linked to the quality of customer service and, ultimately, to the companys competitive advantage hence profitability. Key assumptions of the theory are build a Customer Service Culture. Indoctrinate new employees into the customer service culture immediately. Provide comprehensive training programs that make them experts in their field. Empower employees to make decisions that lead to customer satisfaction. Reward outstanding employee performance with recognition in the company newsletter, celebratory dinners, prizes and other perks. Know Your Customers by profiling them. You can ask them directly, through customer comment cards and surveys at your place of business and on your website. In addition to demographic details, learn what they like and dislike, and how your product or service directly benefits them (Lin, 2002). Note their buying preferences and interests. Consider how your customer perceives quality. Communication, Establish a continuing dialog with your customers. Keep them informed of special promotions that appeal to their interests. Tell your customers how much you appreciate their business by letter, email or a telephone call. Ask for your customers opinions on a regular basis to ensure you are consistently delivering good customer service. Pay attention to their changing needs, and introduce new products and services based on customer feedback gathered from surveys. Continually explore new ways to keep your customers engaged. Focus on caring for your existing customers and new ones will naturally follow. 2.1.1.2. Communication Privacy Management Theory Communication privacy management theory is a communication theory first developed by (Sandra Petronio, 2009). Communication Privacy Management theory describes the ways in which relational actors manage their privacy boundaries and the disclosure of private information. The theory focuses heavily on the processes that people employ to determine when and how they choose to conceal or reveal private information. The theory describes the ever-present dialectic of privacy and openness within various relationship models, explains how relationships develop as public and private boundaries are negotiated and coordinated, and demonstrates how individuals regulate revealing and concealing information through communication. The theory focuses on the idea that there are not only two contradictory stances within a relationship, but that at any given moment decisions are weighed using multiple viewpoints. CPM theory considers those rules for access and protection of information by examining the following about information sharing the types of ownership of information, the circumstances under which sharing occurs, and the expectations of sharing (McAdam R, McCormack D, 2001). 2.1.1.3. Theory of Postponement The theory of postponement by Jim Uchneat is well understood in the supply chain and manufacturing world. With solutions that have several variants, or that require customization, the process is designed to postpone adding variant features or customizations until the last possible moment. Common sub-assemblies may be built to stock, but variants are built to order, and are assembled just before they ship (Min S, Mentzer JT. 2004). Content creation in this era, where buyer relevance is a core principle, should leverage that same postponement philosophy. The new producers on the front line of business marketing campaign developers, bloggers, inside sales, presales, direct sales and channel partners should be able to custom assemble content just as it is needed. They should be able to do this every day without consuming their day. To do this requires content that is pre-produced in a modular fashion that anticipates their customers need for information. Modules must be managed for easy access, selection and final assembly (Waller, Dabholkar Gentry. 2000). Just as postponement is designed into a manufacturing production process, it must be designed into a content production process. Key to this is having a well thought out content strategy including a documented understanding of buyer personas, how they buy, their problems, and key messages that map to situation variants. A guiding document, called Content Frameworks, defines what content modules are required and how they support buyers information needs. Empirical Review SCM is synonymous with the integration of supply base that evolved from the traditional purchasing and materials functions (Benfield, 2000). In the perspective of transportation and logistics management, SCM is synonymous with integrated logistics systems, and hence focus on inventory reduction both within and across organizations in the supply chain. Eventually, these two perspectives evolved into an integrated SCM that integrates all the activities along the whole supply chain. Topics such as supplier selection, supplier involvement, and manufacturing performance, the influence of supplier alliances on the organization success factors in strategic supplier alliances, supplier management orientation and supplier/buyer performance, the role of relationships with suppliers in improving supplier responsiveness, and the antecedence and consequences of buyer supplier relationship have been researched on the supplier side. Studies such as those by (Clark and Lee, 2000) (Tan, 1998) explore the relationships between supplier management practices, customer relations practices and organizational performance (Froehlich and Westbrook, 2011) investigate the effects of suppliercustomer integration on organizational performance, (Tan, 2002) study SCM and supplier evaluation practices and relate the constructs to firm performance, (Min and Mentzer, 2004) develop an instrument to measure the supply chain orientation and SCM at conceptual levels. (Cigolini, 2004) develop a set of supply chain techniques and tools for examining SCM strategies. 2.2 Literature Review 2.2.1. Historical Development of supply chain management Several researchers have argued that we are presently ushering in a new area where firm performance and competitive advantage will be linked to supply chain performance (Lambert, cooper and Pagh 1998 Gunaskaram, Patel and Tirtiroglu 2001). The concept of SCM was mentioned in business literature as early as Forrester (1968), who suggested that the success of industrial companies hinged on interactions between flows of information, materials, manpower and capital equipment. Nonetheless, despite insightful conceptualization, the actual term supply chain management did not materialize until the early 1980 (Oliver and Webber 1982) and only a handful of articles mentioned the phrase supply chain between 1985 and 1997. In essence, the diffusion of the field did not take place until the late 1990s, with most of the theoretical and empirical investigation commencing in 1997 (Lambert, cooper and Pagh 1998). The realities addressed by supply chain reflect phenomena arising from the changing nature of the international economy during the latter half of the 20th century. Since the 1990 However the term should an exponential rise in popularity along with its corresponding concept of supply chain management introduced by the consultants in the 1980 (Arishinder and Deshmukh 2008 Chen and Populara, 2004) sited (Albert, Gaurav and Patrick, 2013). In 1982 by Keith Oliver a management consultant at Booz Allen Hamilton (Cortada, 2001) used the term to develop a vision for tearing down functional silos that separated production, Marketing and distribution As Cortada stated the contact was emerged upon efficiencies and mutual benefit associated with information sharing and decision coordinating to up and down a supply chain. 2.2.2. Definitions of supply chain management The lack of a universal definition of supply chain management is, in part due to the way the concept of supply chain has been developed (Simon et al., 20000). In fact, as it will be explained in the next section, the concept of supply chain has been consider from different point of view in related body of literature. Many organization today are forced to increase their global market share in order to survive and sustain are with objectives. At the same time these same organizations must defend their domestic market share from international competitors. The challenge is how to expand the global logistics and distribution network in order to ship products to customers who demand them in a dynamic and rapidly changing set of channels (Eva klemencie 2006) The best companies grounds the world are discovering a power full new source of competitive advantageous compasses all of those integrated activities that bring product to market and create satisfied customer(Sofiris Zgierz, 2000) Supply chain management as a philosophy and concept has developed as business organizations realize that both customer and suppliers can exert considerable influence on supply processes. Organizations need their suppliers to assist in decreasing costs and improving customer service and efficiency.(Naude and Badenhorst-weiss, 2011). SCM basically depends on organizations business strategy and relationship the organization plan and execution, logistic performance and information technology and its implementation in the organizational business system. According to Tan (2014), Supply chain management coordinated business activity and relationship internally within an organization with immediate suppliers and customers along the supply chain and within the entire supply chain system the external supply chain includes the internal supply chain. Little (1999) declares that supply chain management aims at increasing value contribution to the customer while concurrently optimizing functional cost of supply chain. Computer world (2001) defines supply chain management as the management has allows an organization to get the tight products and services to location they required on time, in the suitable quantity and at a satisfactory cost. Effectively managing this process involves supervising connections with customers suppliers and controlling inventory, forecasting demand and getting regular feedback on what on what is occurring at every connection in the chain (Assey) As competition in international market is progressively depend upon the of arrival time of goods as well as their quality coordination between supplier and distributer has become an important characteristics of the supply chain. As a customer satisfaction is crucial benchmark of the success of supply chain effective management of the linking processes is crucial (Tkman. 2005). SCM is aimed at examining and managing supply chain networks. The rationale for this concept is the opportunity (alternative) for cost savings and better customer service. An important objective is to improve a corporate competitiveness in the global market place in spite of hard competitive forces and promptly changing customer needs (Langley. 2008) sited (Ashagre Abera, 2015). 2.2.3 Key components of SCM The level of supply chain maternity drives both supply chain and financial performance. Howe ever companies must select supply chain practices that are most aligned with their supply chain strategy and overall business Jonson and pyke, (2000) to help discussion they identified twelve areas of SCM from their own experience of aching and researching 5Cm from analysis of syllabus and research papers on supply chain and from their discussions with managers. These twelve categories they identified and defined are location transportation and logistics inventory and forecasting and channel restructuring sourcing and supplier management information and electronic mediated environments product design and new product introduction service and after sales support reverse logistics and green issues outsourcing and strategic alliances metrics and incentives and global issues. 2.3 SCM Integration In theory any complex supply chain is the synthesis of the three components supplier, manufacturer and customer. The three entities of the supply chain respectively take one of the three great processes supplying manufacturing and customer ordering. 2.3.1. Upstream and downstream integration Upstream and downstream integration extended the scope of integration outside the company to embrace suppliers and customers. More specifically this stage of integration represents more than a change of focus from product oriented to customer oriented in relation to mutual support and cooperation. A review of external supply chain integration literature reveals two major areas of emphasis. They are- Customer integration Supply integration Supply integration, integration back down to the suppliers represents a change in attitude away from conflict to cooperation starting from product development the supply of high quality products process and specification change information technology exchange and design support(Bahara chi, 2009) According to power(2005) supply integration as obtaining frequent deliveries in small lots using single or dual sources of supplies, evaluating alternative sources on the basis of quality and delivery instead of price and establishing long-term contracts with suppliers. In terms of logistics communication this concept could view supply integration as effective alignment, information sharing and supplier participation between suppliers and manufacturers. Interns of customer integration, the firm will penetrate deep in to the customer organization to understand the product, culture, market and organizations, so that it can respond rapidly to the customers needs and requirements. The important concept of demand integrating is based on improvement of demand planning and visibility in supply chain. Without information sharing from one end of the supply chain to the other, tremendous in efficiencies can occur in customer service (Kastro, 2006). The challenge in supply chain integration is to coordinate activities across the supply chain so that the enterprise can improve performance by reducing costs increase service levels, reducing the bullwhip effect better utilizing resources and effectively responding to changes in the market place (Naulde and Badenhors, 2011) 2.4 Supply Chain as a Strategic Asset When companies view supply chain as a strategic asset supply chain strategy is part of the overall business strategy designed ground a well-defined basis of competition (innovation Law cost service quality). It is integrated with marketing strategy and with customers needs product strategy as well as power position on other hand supply chain strategy must adapt as market conditions and competitive advantages change (Evaklemancie 2006). The aim of every supply chain management is to minimize system wide cost while satisfying customer level requirements. Indeed, it is a customer oriented process for integrating business planning and balancing suppliers and demand across the entire value chain system. Ideally in typical supply chain management structure, suppliers and customer are brought together in one concurrent business process which spans the entire chain from initial source to the ultimate customer (Lambert and Caper, 2000 Stern et al., 1996). This suggests that every single company depend on other business to deliver its product or service to its customers (Ayers 2001). 2.5 SCM Practice SCM practices have been defined as a set of activities undertaken in an organization to promote effective management of its supply chain. Tan et. al., (2002) Identify six aspects of SCM practice through factor analysis supply chain characteristics, information sharing supply chain integration, customer service management, JIT Capacity and geographical proximity Other components of SCM practice such as technology, cost, inventory management, competitiveness and external regulations. According to McMullen (1996) needs to be managed effectively to achieve to business goals of each supply chain members. It also leads to value creation to end customer. Supply base management refers to how firms utilize their Suppliers process Technology, and capability to enhance supply chain performance and competitive advantage and how the manufacturing, logistics, materials, distribution and transportation functions are coordinated within the organization (Bulal and Adam, 2012). . It is used to measure the SCM adoption and its level practices. Related practices are divided in to six dimensions namely strategic supplier partnership, customer relations practices, information sharing, information quality and postponement Adebayo. I Toyin (2014). 2.5.1. Strategic Supplier Partnership A strategic supplier partnership is a long term relationship between the organization and its suppliers which is formed to help each achieve long term benefits (Sherdan 1998 Claycomb et al 1999 Nahle, 2001). strategic partnerships emphasize long term relationship that directly support business process planning and problem solving (Gunaselarcur et al., 2001) a strategic partnership allows accompany to work more effectively with suppliers willing to share responsibility to ensure success of the product. The partnership begins with the company and the supplier working together to make product design decisions that involve. For example choosing the best components and technologies and the most effective design and concludes with an assessment of the product design. 2.5.2. Relation Ship with Customers Customer relations refers to the practice of managing customer complains developing long term relationships with customers and improving customer satisfaction (clay comb et al., 1999 Tan et al., 1998 Noble(1997) stated that managing customer relationship is an essential component in supply chain management because it may be used as a barrier to competition. A good relationship with the consumer generates Customer satisfaction and loyalty, which given organization special advantages over competitors. 2. 5. 3. Level of Information Sharing Information sharing is the communication of knowledge to business partners with in supply chain research has shown that information sharing is an important factor in supply chain management Lolande (1998) stated that Information sharing is one of the building blocks that indicate a solid connection among business partners in supply chain. Supply chain partners that routinely share information become a unitary (single) entity that can better understand customer needs and respond more quickly to market conditions. The level of information sharing refers to the importance and accuracy of information communicated to supply chain partners. 2.5.3.1. Types of shared information in supply chain There are many different types of information that can be shared within supply chain, including logistics, business, strategic tactical and so on. Some familiar types of information may be categorized as 1. Sales data 2. Sales forecasting 3. Order information 4. Sales information 5. Inventory information 6. Product ability information 7. Exploitation information of new product 8. Other information. Partners like to share inventory information the most sharing this avoid going out of stock and stock-repetition. It also reduces the total stock level and stock cost allowing more accurate forecasts and decision to be made. Sales data sharing can eliminate order blow-ups, represent true customer demand, and decrease the loss caused by shortage or excess of innovative products. Members in supply chain make forecasts independently by sharing sales forecasts better productions are made which may enhance the competitive advantage the of supply chain sharing order information would lead to a quick determination of the bottleneck in the supply chain, enhancing the quality of customer services. The flow of product ability information may assist the declaration of the possible shortage gaming behaviour and avoid potential causes of the bullwhip effect. Information about new products can be shared to allow receiving a timely supply of goods from suppliers when the manufacturers obtain the real demand from retailer. Information sharing is an important aspect in achieving perfect integration in supply chain. Cross functional integration and inter organizational integration requires the visibility of information across the supply chain. Poor information sharing between partners in supply chain will result in poor coordination that will lead to many serious problems such as high inventory levels inaccurate forecasts, low resource utilization and high production costs. Indeed, information sharing is highly considered as the way to reduce demand uncertainty (Lee and Whang, 2000 Lee, 2002). The way companies share information whatever the confidential level or not determines the success of collaboration. The nature of information to be across the supply chain differs based on the degree of integration, institutional trust and availability of infrastructure that facilitate the practice (Lazaro Vic, et. al., 2007). There for an informatics perspective is vital in the supply chain since information flow is an integration part of SCM and material flow is closely dependent on information flow. 2.5.4. Quality of Information Sharing There also exist other types of information such as quality information, status messages on freightage technique progress information, function parameters of supply chain plan etc. (Zabra Lotfi et al., 2013). Information sharing is important in achieving supply chain effectiveness, but its perceived impact depends significantly on the kind of information that is shared, with whom it is shared, and when and how it is shared. In other words, the impact of information sharing is strongly influence by the quality of information that is shared, Quality includes aspects such as accuracy, timeliness adequacy, and the Credibility of exchange. To eliminate distortion and to improve the quality of information shared, Companies should take steps to ensure that the information is as accurate as possible and that it flows smoothly throughout the chain without delay. 2.5.5 Postponement Postponement is business strategy that maximizes possible benefit and minimizes risk by delaying further investment in a product or service until the last possible moment in order to satisfy the preferences of the customer at that moment. A manufacturer for example may produce generic product that can be modified at the last stages to suit the change. A lot of companies emphasize quality as a means to stay competitive in the market place over the long run. They have a reputation of high quality as representing future market share for new customers and maintaining market share for existing customers over their life time. Further, improving quality can provide term financial saving (Franca. et al., 2001) stated (Diana Bratic, 2011) 2.6. Supply Chain Management and Competitive Position In todays global Competition environment, facing the rapid technology progress and high customer expectations, Companies find it hard to win the competition only depending ones own capacity (Seetal, 2008) In this situation, the establishment of the supply chain partnership among companies and the coordination of the partners are highly related. Also many companies struggle in justifying the cost of quality within their supply chain but main companies fail to see the cost associated with parrying quality levels from their suppliers. In order to create a quality product, which is one of the competitive advantages, company must address all aspects of the Supplier selection (Franca et al., 2010). This is the main role of supply chain management. For any market driven organization to be able to compete effectively with its competitors it must sustain certain core competencies, such as process management, integration of knowledge, and diffusion of learning. Competitive position of a business arguably results from the assessment of what the firm offers with regards to value creation as compared to that of its competitors (Gorynia 2004). Indeed, basic measures of the competitive position of a firm are its market share and financial position. Additionally, factors such as product quality, customer loyalty, and reputations are also used as additional measures of business performance and competitive position of a firm (Gorynia, 2004 Charles, Daniel, and Dorcas, 2014). To get competitive advantage firm must adopt multiple niches to become more productive and competitive. Responsiveness is also important in their operation how quickly you satisfy your customer. Your customer is not a position to wait your product if you do not provide quickly they will switch to other firm (Mohamed, 2013). There are some dimensions of supply chain performance based on supply chain processes and management which have direct influence to competitive advantage resource output, flexibility innovativeness And information, so improving supply chain performance has become one of the critical issue for gaining Competitive advantage for companies. Supply chain is a dynamic management tools and continuously improving performance has become a critical issue for most supplier, manufactures and the related retailers to gain and sustain competitiveness (Cal et. Al., 2009) sited Competitive advantage exists when a firm has a product or service that is perceived by its target market customers as better than that than of its competitors (Gregory et al, 2005). According to Suhong Li et al (2006) competitive advantage is the extent to which an organization is able to create a defensible position over its competitors. It comprises capabilities that allow an organization to differentiate itself from its competitors and is an outcome of critical management decision. The empirical literature has been quite consistent in identifying price cost, quality, delivery and flexibility as important competitive capability. In addition recent studies have included time based competition as an important competitive priority. 2.6.1. Product Quality Product quality is the collection of features and characteristics of a product that contribute to its ability to meet given requirements. There are three views for describing the overall quality of a product. First is the view of manufacture, who is a primarily concerned with the design, engineering and manufacturing processes involved in fabricating the product. Quality is measured by the degree of conformance to or predetermined specifications and standard, and deviations from these standards can load to poor quality and low reliability. In order to improve competitiveness of a tyre industry and build better reputation among consumers and competitors it is important to maintain level of quality of the Tyres. A quality affects all aspects of the organization and has dramatic cost implication. The most obvious consequence occurs when poor quality creates dissatisfied customer and eventually leads to loss of business. Effective quality improvements should result in a future stream of benefits, such as reduced faller costs, lower appraisal costs, increased market share, increased customer base and more productive work force. Improved quality increases productivity, hence, many world class industry use quality as a powerful competitive 1001. 2.7. Collaboration in Supply chain A traditional arms length approach to business partnership is not an acceptable or effective approach in the present forceful and aggressive global business environment (Bowersox et al., 2000). Innovative strategies are required to create a competitive advantage that allow for cost reductions, revenue enhancements, and flexibility when dealing with financial uncertainties. SCM present that opportunity through collaborative relationships that maximize desired service levels, minimize cost, and generate benefits to customers (Bowersox et al., 2000 Metzger et al.,2001). Supply chain collaboration is a win / win arrangement that is likely to provide improved business success for both parties (McClellan, 2002 sited (Koble and Janssen, 2010). Several benefits of collaboration have been documented over the years for manufacturing, suppliers, and customers. These include impressive cost reductions, improved service, improved end-customer satisfaction, shorter lead times, improved information visibility, increased competitiveness, and a clearer division of responsibility among partners (Akintoye et al.,2000 Motopoulos et al., 2007). Sited (Kohle and Jensen, 2010 Muthuramaytha, 2011). According to Lee,(2000). The best supply chain performers are deeply involved in relationships that call for tight links between partners. As companies migrate toward more extended supply chains, collaboration is becoming their most strategic activity. Collaboration is the means by which companies within their supply chain work together toward mutual objectives through the sharing of idea, information. Knowledge, risk and reward practically, coordination and collaboration of up-stream and down-stream of supply chain is difficult because of uncertainty in demand and supply and the lack of communication between members of a supply chain which is amplified through successive linkages (Lee 2000). Some companies have achieved integration through information sharing and inter organizational collaboration. In a study to measure the degree of integration among the companies it was found that information sharing and inter organizational integration were the underlying factors for integration with suppliers and customers in areas like supply chain design, inventory management and customer relationship management (Bagchi and Chu ha, 2005). But from time to time firms have been struggling to balance their competitive and cooperative relationships with other firms and stakeholders in the supply chain (Morgan et al., 2007 Assefa Balcha, 2011). 2. 8 Literature Review 2.8.1 Introduction This chapter focuses on the literature review to be conducted by the researcher. It includes a review of the various studies that have been conducted by other researchers on supply chain management practices. Among the areas to be reviewed include constructs on supply chain management practices buyer supply chain management practices variables organizational performance. The chapter will also provide a conceptual framework to show the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. 2.8.2. Historical Development of supply Chain Management Several researchers have argued that in the current business environment the firm performance and competitive advantage were strongly linked to supply chain performance (Lambert, cooper Pagh 1998 Gunaskaram, Patel Tirtiroglu 2001). The concept of SCM was mentioned in business literature as early as Forrester (1968), who suggested that the success of industrial companies hinged on interactions between flows of information, materials, manpower and capital equipment. Nonetheless, despite insightful conceptualization, the actual term supply chain management did not materialize until the early 1980 (Oliver Webber 1982) and only a handful of articles mentioned the phrase supply chain between 1985 and 1997. In essence, the diffusion of the field did not take place until the late 1990s, with most of the theoretical and empirical investigation commencing in 1997 (Lambert, cooper Pagh 1998). The realities addressed by supply chain reflect phenomena arising from the changing nature of the international economy during the latter half of the 20th century. Since the 1990 However the term should an exponential rise in popularity along with its corresponding concept of supply chain management introduced by the consultants in the 1980 (Arishinder and Deshmukh 2008 Chen and Populara, 2004) sited (Albert, Gaurav and Patrick, 2013). In 1982 by Keith Oliver a management consultant at Booz Allen Hamilton (Cortada, 2001) used the term to develop a vision for tearing down functional silos that separated production, Marketing and distribution As Cortada stated the contact was emerged upon efficiencies and mutual benefit associated with information sharing and decision coordinating to up and down a supply chain. 2.8.3. Definitions of supply chain management The lack of a universal definition of supply chain management is, in part due to the way the concept of supply chain has been developed (Simon et al., 20000). In fact, as it will be explained in the next section, the concept of supply chain has been consider from different point of view in related body of literature. Several definitions of supply chain management were proposed by researchers in the literature. Stock and Boyer (2009) defined SCM as The management of a network of relationships within a firm and between interdependent organizations and business units consisting of material suppliers, purchasing, production facilities, logistics, marketing, and related systems that facilitate the forward and reverse flow of materials, services, finances and information from the original producer to final customer with the benefits of adding value, maximizing profitability through efficiencies, and achieving customer satisfaction Many organization today are forced to increase their global market share in order to survive and sustain are with objectives. At the same time these same organizations must defend their domestic market share from international competitors. The challenge is how to expand the global logistics and distribution network in order to ship products to customers who demand them in a dynamic and rapidly changing set of channels (Klemencie, 2006) The best companies grounds the world are discovering a power full new source of competitive advantageous compasses all of those integrated activities that bring product to market and create satisfied customer(Sofiris Zgierz, 2000) Supply chain management as a philosophy and concept has developed as business organizations realize that both customer and suppliers can exert considerable influence on supply processes. Organizations need their suppliers to assist in decreasing costs and improving customer service and efficiency.(Naude Badenhorst-weiss, 2011). SCM basically depends on organizations business strategy and relationship the organization plan and execution, logistic performance and information technology and its implementation in the organizational business system. According to Tan (2014), Supply chain management coordinated business activity and relationship internally within an organization with immediate suppliers and customers along the supply chain and within the entire supply chain system the external supply chain includes the internal supply chain. Figure 2.3 The supply chain management processes Source- Ronald M. Salazar, BS (2012) Lambert lists and briefly describes each of the supply chain management processes Customer Relationship Management provides the structure for how relationships with customers are developed and maintained. Cross-functional customer teams tailor product and service agreements to meet the needs of key accounts, and segments of the other customers. Customer Service Management provides the firms face to the customer, a single source of customer information, and the key point of contact for administering the product service agreements. Demand Management provides the structure for balancing the customers requirements with supply chain capabilities, including reducing demand variability and increasing supply chain flexibility. Order Fulfilment includes all activities necessary to define customer requirements, design a network, and enable the firm to meet customer requests while minimizing the total delivered cost. Manufacturing Flow Management includes all activities necessary to obtain, implement and manage manufacturing flexibility and move products through the plants in the supply chain. Supplier Relationship Management provides the structure for how relationships with suppliers are developed and maintained. Cross-functional teams tailor product and service agreements with key suppliers. Product Development and Commercialization provides the structure for developing and bringing to market products jointly with customers and supplier Returns Management includes all activities related to returns, reverse logistics, gate keeping, and avoidance (Lambert, Garcia-Dastugue, Croxton, 2005). Each of the key processes has sub-processes at the strategic and operational level that are inherent to that process, but these sub-processes are also where interfaces amongst the key processes occur (Croxton et al., 2001). Analysis of these interfaces can lead to an evaluation of the level and strength of the relationships between the key processes. The strategic level is primarily focused on establishing, managing and providing implementation guidance for the process as opposed to the operational level, which is the actualization of the process once it has been established (Croxton et al., 2001) (John F. Perry II, BS Captain, USAF March 2012) Little (1999) declares that supply chain management aims at increasing value contribution to the customer while concurrently optimizing functional cost of supply chain. Computer world (2001) defines supply chain management as the management has allows an organization to get the tight products and services to location they required on time, in the suitable quantity and at a satisfactory cost. Effectively managing this process involves supervising connections with customers suppliers and controlling inventory, forecasting demand and getting regular feedback on what on what is occurring at every connection in the chain (Assey,2009) As competition in international market is progressively depend upon the of arrival time of goods as well as their quality coordination between supplier and distributer has become an important characteristics of the supply chain. As a customer satisfaction is crucial benchmark of the success of supply chain effective management of the linking processes is crucial (Tkman. 2005). SCM is aimed at examining and managing supply chain networks. The rationale for this concept is the opportunity (alternative) for cost savings and better customer service. An important objective is to improve a corporate competitiveness in the global market place in spite of hard competitive forces and promptly changing customer needs cited in (Abera, 2015). Supply chain management is, a set of three or more entities (organizational or individuals) directly involved in the upstream and downstream flow of products, services, finances, and/or information from source to customer (Mentzeret al., 2001). SCM practices have been defined as the set of activities undertaken in an organization to promote effective management of its supply chain (Li et al., 2006). The best supply chain practices are the initiatives that influence the whole supply chain, its parts or key processes (Cuthbertson and Piotrowicz, 2008). These practices are influenced by contextual factors such as type of industry, firm size, its position in the supply chain, type and length of supply chain (Li et al., 2006). 2.8.4 Key components of SCM The level of supply chain maternity drives both supply chain and financial performance. However companies must select supply chain practices that are most aligned with their supply chain strategy and overall business Jonson and Pyke, (2000) to help discussion they identified twelve areas of SCM from their own experience of aching and researching 5Cm from analysis of syllabus and research papers on supply chain and from their discussions with managers. These twelve categories they identified and defined are location transportation and logistics inventory and forecasting and channel restructuring sourcing and supplier management information and electronic mediated environments product design and new product introduction service and after sales support reverse logistics and green issues outsourcing and strategic alliances metrics and incentives and global issues. 2.8.5 SCM Integration 2.8.5.1 Upstream and downstream integration Upstream and downstream integration extended the scope of integration outside the company to embrace suppliers and customers. More specifically this stage of integration represents more than a change of focus from product oriented to customer oriented in relation to mutual support and cooperation. A review of external supply chain integration literature reveals two major areas of emphasis. They are- Customer integration Supply integration Supply integration, integration back down to the suppliers represents a change in attitude away from conflict to cooperation starting from product development the supply of high quality products process and specification change information technology exchange and design support(Bahara chi, 2009) According to power(2005) supply integration as obtaining frequent deliveries in small lots using single or dual sources of supplies, evaluating alternative sources on the basis of quality and delivery instead of price and establishing long-term contracts with suppliers. In terms of logistics communication this concept could view supply integration as effective alignment, information sharing and supplier participation between suppliers and manufacturers. Interns of customer integration, the firm will penetrate deep in to the customer organization to understand the product, culture, market and organizations, so that it can respond rapidly to the customers needs and requirements. The important concept of demand integrating is based on improvement of demand planning and visibility in supply chain. Without information sharing from one end of the supply chain to the other, tremendous in efficiencies can occur in customer service (Kastro, 2006). The aim of every supply chain management is to minimize system wide cost while satisfying customer level requirements. Indeed, it is a customer oriented process for integrating business planning and balancing suppliers and demand across the entire value chain system. Ideally in typical supply chain management structure, suppliers and customer are brought together in one concurrent business process which spans the entire chain from initial source to the ultimate customer (Lambert and Caper, 2000 Stern et al., 1996). This suggests that every single company depend on other business to deliver its product or service to its customers (Ayers 2001). 2.8.7 SCM Practice SCM practices have been defined as a set of activities undertaken in an organization to promote effective management of its supply chain. Tan et. al., (2002) Identify six aspects of SCM practice through factor analysis supply chain characteristics, information sharing supply chain integration, customer service management, JIT Capacity and geographical proximity Other components of SCM practice such as technology, cost, inventory management, competitiveness and external regulations. According to McMullen (1996) needs to be managed effectively to achieve to business goals of each supply chain members. It also leads to value creation to end customer. Supply base management refers to how firms utilize their Suppliers process Technology, and capability to enhance supply chain performance and competitive advantage and how the manufacturing, logistics, materials, distribution and transportation functions are coordinated within the organization (Bulal and Adam, 2012). . It is used to measure the SCM adoption and its level practices. Related practices are divided in to six dimensions namely strategic supplier partnership, customer relations practices, information sharing, information quality and postponement Adebayo. I Toyin (2014). 2.8.7.1 Strategic Supplier Partnership Strategic supplier partnership is defined as the long term relationship between the organization and its suppliers. It is designed to leverage the strategic and operational capabilities of individual participating organizations to help them achieve significant ongoing benefits. A strategic partnership emphasizes direct, long-term association and encourages mutual planning and problem solving efforts (Gunasekaran, 2001). Such strategic partnerships are entered into to promote shared benefits among the parties and ongoing participation in one or more key strategic areas such as technology, products, and markets. Strategic partnerships with suppliers enable organizations to work more effectively with a few important suppliers who are willing to share responsibility for the success of the products. Suppliers participating early in the product-design process can offer more cost effective design choices, help select the best components and technologies, and help in design assessment (Tan, 2002). Strategically aligned organizations can work closely together and eliminate wasteful time and effort. An effective supplier partnership can be a critical component of a leading edge supply chain (Noble, 1997). A strategic supplier partnership is a long term relationship between the organization and its suppliers which is formed to help each achieve long term benefits (Sherdan, 1998 Claycomb et al 1999 Nahle, 2001). Strategic partnerships emphasize long term relationship that directly support business process planning and problem solving (Gunaselarcur et al., 2001) a strategic partnership allows accompany to work more effectively with suppliers willing to share responsibility to ensure success of the product. The partnership begins with the company and the supplier working together to make product design decisions that involve. For example choosing the best components and technologies and the most effective design and concludes with an assessment of the product design. 2.8.7.2 Relationship with Customers Customer relations refers to the practice of managing customer complains developing long term relationships with customers and improving customer satisfaction (clay comb et al., 1999 Tan et al., 1998 Noble(1997) stated that managing customer relationship is an essential component in supply chain management because it may be used as a barrier to competition. A good relationship with the consumer generates Customer satisfaction and loyalty, which given organization special advantages over competitors. Comprises the entire array of practices that are employed for the purpose of managing customer complaints, building long-term relationships with customers, and improving customer satisfaction. Noble and Tan consider customer relationship management as an important component of SCM practices. As pointed out by (Day, 2003) committed relationships are the most sustainable advantage because of their inherent barriers to competition. The growth of mass customization and personalized service is leading to an era in which relationship management with customers is becoming crucial for corporate survival (Ragatz, 2007). Good relationships with supply chain members, including customers, are needed for successful implementation of SCM program. 2.8.7.3 Level and Quality of Information Sharing Information sharing is defined as The extent to which critical and proprietary information is communicated to ones supply chain partner (Li et al., 2004). The advancements of information technology have greatly contributed to the evolution of sharing information throughout the SC. Regular exchanges of information enables SC parties to perform as a single body (Stein Sweat, 1998). Shared information has different kinds related to inventory, resources, products, demands, delays, and planning information (Sakka Botta-Genoulaz, 2009). It may also include information about quality, logistics, customer and general market information, and design information (Singh, 2013). In order to yield best results, shared information has to be adequate, accurate, credible, and timely (Li et al., 2004). Information sharing affects performance in terms of improved customer responsiveness, decreased costs, enhanced service levels, and reduced levels of complexity (Zhao et al., 2002). Information sharing is the communication of knowledge to business partners with in supply chain research has shown that information sharing is an important factor in supply chain management Lolande (1998) stated that Information sharing is one of the building blocks that indicate a solid connection among business partners in supply chain. Supply chain partners that routinely share information become a unitary (single) entity that can better understand customer needs and respond more quickly to market conditions. The level of information sharing refers to the importance and accuracy of information communicated to supply chain partners. 2.8.7.3.1 Types of shared information in supply chain There are many different types of information that can be shared within supply chain, including logistics, business, strategic tactical and so on. Some familiar types of information may be categorized as 1. Sales data 2. Sales forecasting 3. Order information 4. Sales information 5. Inventory information 6. Product ability information 7. Exploitation information of new product 8. Other information. Partners like to share inventory information the most sharing this avoid going out of stock and stock-repetition. It also reduces the total stock level and stock cost allowing more accurate forecasts and decision to be made. Sales data sharing can eliminate order blow-ups, represent true customer demand, and decrease the loss caused by shortage or excess of innovative products. Members in supply chain make forecasts independently by sharing sales forecasts better productions are made which may enhance the competitive advantage the of supply chain sharing order information would lead to a quick determination of the bottleneck in the supply chain, enhancing the quality of customer services. The flow of product ability information may assist the declaration of the possible shortage gaming behaviour and avoid potential causes of the bullwhip effect. Information about new products can be shared to allow receiving a timely supply of goods from suppliers when the manufacturers obtain the real demand from retailer. Information sharing is an important aspect in achieving perfect integration in supply chain. Cross functional integration and inter organizational integration requires the visibility of information across the supply chain. Poor information sharing between partners in supply chain will result in poor coordination that will lead to many serious problems such as high inventory levels inaccurate forecasts, low resource utilization and high production costs. Indeed, information sharing is highly considered as the way to reduce demand uncertainty (Lee and Whang, 2000 Lee, 2002). The way companies share information whatever the confidential level or not determines the success of collaboration. The nature of information to be across the supply chain differs based on the degree of integration, institutional trust and availability of infrastructure that facilitate the practice (Lazaro Vic, et. al., 2007). There for an informatics perspective is vital in the supply chain since information flow is an integration part of SCM and material flow is closely dependent on information flow. There also exist other types of information such as quality information, status messages on freightage technique progress information, function parameters of supply chain plan etc. (Zabra Lotfi et al., 2013). Information sharing is important in achieving supply chain effectiveness, but its perceived impact depends significantly on the kind of information that is shared, with whom it is shared, and when and how it is shared. In other words, the impact of information sharing is strongly influence by the quality of information that is shared Quality includes aspects such as accuracy, timeliness adequacy, and the Credibility of exchange. To eliminate distortion and to improve the quality of information shared, Companies should take steps to ensure that the information is as accurate as possible and that it flows smoothly throughout the chain without delay. 2.8.7.4 Postponement Postponement is defined as the practice of moving forward as far as possible one or more operations or activities to a later point in the supply chain (Van Hoek et al., 1999). Postponement will be the appropriate SC strategy in the following situations costly and expensive products, short product life cycles, long delivery time, high demand variance, high degree of customization, innovative products, high variety of products with low volume, and low delivery shipments (Pagh Cooper, 1998 Van Hoek, 2001). Postponement brings several benefits to companies. It enables companies to control the risks related to product diversity and uncertain demand, increases flexibility, enables companies to keep their options open before the availability of sufficient information, reduces SC costs by keeping undifferentiated inventories, reduces levels of inventory, improves forecasting effectiveness, facilitates mass customization, and reduces production cycle times (Yang et al., 2005 Li et al., 2004) Postponement is business strategy that maximizes possible benefit and minimizes risk by delaying further investment in a product or service until the last possible moment in order to satisfy the preferences of the customer at that moment. A manufacturer for example may produce generic product that can be modified at the last stages to suit the change. A lot of companies emphasize quality as a means to stay competitive in the market place over the long run. They have a reputation of high quality as representing future market share for new customers and maintaining market share for existing customers over their life time. Further, improving quality can provide term financial saving (Franca. et al., 2001) stated (Diana Bratic, 2011) 2.9 Supply Chain Management and Competitive Position In todays global Competition environment, facing the rapid technology progress and high customer expectations, Companies find it hard to win the competition only depending ones own capacity (Seetal, 2008) In this situation, the establishment of the supply chain partnership among companies and the coordination of the partners are highly related. Also many companies struggle in justifying the cost of quality within their supply chain but main companies fail to see the cost associated with parrying quality levels from their suppliers. In order to create a quality product, which is one of the competitive advantages, company must address all aspects of the Supplier selection (Franca et al., 2010). This is the main role of supply chain management. For any market driven organization to be able to compete effectively with its competitors it must sustain certain core competencies, such as process management, integration of knowledge, and diffusion of learning. Competitive position of a business arguably results from the assessment of what the firm offers with regards to value creation as compared to that of its competitors (Gorynia 2004). Indeed, basic measures of the competitive position of a firm are its market share and financial position. Additionally, factors such as product quality, customer loyalty, and reputations are also used as additional measures of business performance and competitive position of affirm (Gorynia, 2004 Charles, Daniel, and Dorcas, 2014). To get competitive advantage firm must adopt multiple niches to become more productive and competitive. Responsiveness is also important in their operation how quickly you satisfy your customer. Your customer is not a position to wait your product if you do not provide quickly they will switch to other firm (Mohamed, 2013). There are some dimensions of supply chain performance based on supply chain processes and management which have direct influence to competitive advantage resource output, flexibility innovativeness And information, so improving supply chain performance has become one of the critical issue for gaining Competitive advantage for companies. Supply chain is a dynamic management tools and continuously improving performance has become a critical issue for most supplier, manufactures and the related retailers to gain and sustain competitiveness (Cal et. al., 2009). Competitive advantage exists when a firm has a product or service that is perceived by its target market customers as better than that than of its competitors (Gregory et al, 2005). According to Suhong Li et al (2006) competitive advantage is the extent to which an organization is able to create a defensible position over its competitors. It comprises capabilities that allow an organization to differentiate itself from its competitors and is an outcome of critical management decision. The empirical literature has been quite consistent in identifying price cost, quality, delivery and flexibility as important competitive capability. In addition recent studies have included time based competition as an important competitive priority. 2.10 Collaboration in Supply Chain A traditional arms length approach to business partnership is not an acceptable or effective approach in the present forceful and aggressive global business environment (Bowersox et al., 2000). Innovative strategies are required to create a competitive advantage that allow for cost reductions, revenue enhancements, and flexibility when dealing with financial uncertainties. SCM present that opportunity through collaborative relationships that maximize desired service levels, minimize cost, and generate benefits to customers (Bowersox et al., 2000 Metzger et al.,2001). Supply chain collaboration is a win / win arrangement that is likely to provide improved business success for both parties (McClellan, 2002 sited (Koble and Janssen, 2010). Several benefits of collaboration have been documented over the years for manufacturing, suppliers, and customers. These include impressive cost reductions, improved service, improved end-customer satisfaction, shorter lead times, improved information visibility, increased competitiveness, and a clearer division of responsibility among partners (Akintoye et al.,2000 Motopoulos et al., 2007). Sited (Kohle and Jensen, 2010 Muthuramaytha, 2011). According to Lee,(2000). The best supply chain performers are deeply involved in relationships that call for tight links between partners. As companies migrate toward more extended supply chains, collaboration is becoming their most strategic activity. Collaboration is the means by which companies within their supply chain work together toward mutual objectives through the sharing of idea, information. Knowledge, risk and reward practically, coordination and collaboration of up-stream and down-stream of supply chain is difficult because of uncertainty in demand and supply and the lack of communication between members of a supply chain which is amplified through successive linkages (Lee 2000). Some companies have achieved integration through information sharing and inter organizational collaboration. In a study to measure the degree of integration among the companies it was found that information sharing and inter organizational integration were the underlying factors for integration with suppliers and customers in areas like supply chain design, inventory management and customer relationship management (Bagchi and Chu ha, 2005). But from time to time firms have been struggling to balance their competitive and cooperative relationships with other firms and stakeholders in the supply chain (Morgan et al., 2007 Assefa Balcha, 2011). CHAPTER THREE-.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY In this chapter of the research report the justification for selected research design and methodology will be presented. More over the method of data analysis to get the desired research result, the research frame work, the ethical considerations of the study, the validity and reliability of the measuring instruments are parts of this section. 3.1 Methodology This part describes the methodologies that were used in this study the choice of particular research designs, sampling techniques, sources of data and data collection tools, statistical analyses along with an appropriate justification associated with each approach. 3.2 Research Design The research design is the frame work that provides the overall structures for the procedures that researcher follow the data that the researcher collects and the data analysis the researcher conducts (Leady and Ormarod, 2010). This study was intended to investigate the influence SCM practices on competitive performance of tyre manufacturing companies in Ethiopia. Accordingly, the Tyre Companys existing SCM practice and the challenges those prohibited its competitiveness were evaluated. That means the purpose of this research is to find out the underlying facts and/ or actual circumstances existing within the Tyre Industry with regard to SCM practices and describing the facts. There for, the researcher preferred to use descriptive research type. Which help to use quantitative data analysis The relationships among variables statistically tested, which required a quantitative approach and also used hypothesis testing to determine the relationship. According to (Bryman and Bell, 2003) quantitative research can be construed as a research strategy that emphasizes quantification in the collection and analysis of data and that Entails a deductive approach to the relationship between theory and research, in which the accent is placed on the testing of theories Has incorporated the practices and norms of the natural scientific model and of positivism in particular and Embodies a view of social reality as an external Objective reality. 3.2.1 Research Framework From the literature review it is clear that scholars have different views on the supply chain management practices that are key to organization competitive. It is an indication that different organizations rank these practices differently whereby one supply chain management practice can be widely adopted by an organization but minimally adopted or even not at all used by another organization. Hence, appropriate literature review was conducted to identify the dependent variable (competitive strength of tire industry) and independent variables which are the supply chain management practices (strategic supplier partnership, customer relationship, information sharing and postponement) that were implemented at varying degrees to impact competitive performance. The following figure 2.5 depicts the research frame work of the study. Figure 2.5 Research framework 3.2.2 Data Collection In general there are two source of data namely primarily data and secondary data source. In this case both primarily and secondary source of data were utilized through questionnaires, may interview and literature review. First a short written request for permission was presented for the Organizations under concern to conduct the study. The primarily data conducted in the form of personal interview and /or questioners with customers, procurement and supply manager, product manager marketing and human resource manager and may the company CEO or deputy CEO and through questionnaires which is distributed to employees of the company. As secondary data Books Articles, Journals, Broachers, and report were review. The questionnaire will be sent by email or hard copy to be filled by them and sent back. Some target population for the study may have been contact to face to face. Questionnaire close ended questionnaire in a 5 point liker scales was used to collect data from the sample respondents. The questionnaire has 5 rating scales ranging from 1 not at all, 2 to a small extent, 3 to a moderate extent, 4 to a great extent and 5 not applicable. Data gathered through questionnaires is simple and clear to analyses and it allows for tabulation of responses and quantitatively analyses certain factors. Furthermore to this it is time efficient for both the respondents and researcher. The questionnaire was structured in such a way that it includes all relevant parts of and information to clearly acquaint the respondents. The questionnaire consisted of three major sections. The 1stsection contains questions about Demographic profiles of the respondents including gender, age, type of business and period with service providers. The 2ndsection contained supply chain management practice and organizational competitiveness questionnaire and it comprises 18-item statements relating to the four service supply chain practice, namely strategic supplier partnership, Customer relationship, Information sharing, and Postponement. The 3rd section contained Competitive position of the organization The instruments engaged in order to collect primary data were structured questionnaires. In addition, secondary data was also collected from profiles of the Tire, documents, books, articles and journals. The draft questionnaire was modified from a readymade questionnaire that Baharanchi (2009) used in his study on Investigation of the Impact of Supply Chain practice on competitiveness. Since it was pre-tested with academics and practitioners to check its content validity, there was no need of conducting pilot test to examine its suitability for the target population. Moreover, it was modified considering the context of the studys target population. The structured questionnaires was directed to different position the research company like Production /purchasing managers, marketing manager, deputy CEO of the tires since they are the one who directly relate and have the knowledge about supply chain practice. 3.2.3 Sampling Technique and Population size There are two broad categories of sampling techniques probability sampling and non-probability sampling. According to Leedy and Ormrod (2010), probability sampling includes Simple Random Sampling, Stratified Random Sampling, Proportional Random Sampling, Cluster Sampling, and Systematic Sampling. Non-Probability Sampling contains Convenience or Accidental Sampling, Quota Sampling, and Purposive Sampling. The sampling technique that have been applied in this study was purposive sampling. Thus, this sampling technique was selected for the reason that the sample of respondents, meet the requirement of the researcher. According to Leedy, and Ormrod (2010), units of measure, like peoples are selected on the basis of some purpose. In this case, the respondents which are section heads, middle and top level managers are well acquainted with the experiences of supply chain management practices that influenced their organizational competitive strength directly or indirectly for longer period of time. Even though supply chain management is necessary for both manufacturing and service companies, this study was targeted on the Tire processing company Horizon Addis Tire Share Company. 3.2.3.1 Sample Size According to Bless and Higson-Smith (2000) a very important issue in sampling is to determine the most adequate size of the sample. They state that a large sample is more representative but very costly and a small sample is much less accurate but more convenient. Although Copper (2003) states that a sample size exceeding 5 of population is representative, this study about 12.96 to calculate the sample size in order to minimize bias. According to the Horizon Addis tire SC first quarter 2015/16 number of employees had been 540 Based on the following simple calculation method sample of 40 was taken which is 12.50 of the total population to increase the margin f accuracy. Sample 0.1250x 560 70 respondents Furthermore, the exact sample units of respondents were considered from companys management and employees on the basis of judgmental/non-probability sampling technique. The researcher preferred convenience sampling to contact the customers who are located at long distance with infrequent visit to the case company, this is due to its difficulty to address the whole customers and not exactly known lists of customers with in the case company. Therefore, these respondents were addressed as per their arrival or availability employee and employer at the case company. The target population size for the study is a total of 70 from mentioned positions, section heads (coordinators), middle level managers (Team Leaders), Top management members (CEOS, CFOS). 3.2.4 Data Analysis and Presentation There are two broad categories of sampling techniques Probability sampling and non-probability sampling. According to Leedy Omrod (2010), probability sampling includes simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling and systematic sampling. Non probability sampling contains convenience or accidental sampling quota sampling and purposive sampling. Even though supply chain management is necessary for both Manufacturing and service companies, this study will targeted Tyre manufacturing company for Horizon Addis Share Company. The sampling technique that will be applied in this study is purposive sampling. Thus the sampling technique was selected for the reason that the Sample of respondents meets the requirement of the researcher. The target sample size for the study is a total of 70 from different position, like section heads coordinator, middle and top level management. 3.3. Validity and reliability of the measure measurement instruments Reliability refers to the extent to which the instrument measures what is intended to measure and validity refers to the consistency with which a measuring instrument yields a certain result when the entity being measured hasnt changed (Leedy and Ormrod, 2010). Reliability will be addressed by the fact that the focus on dependent variables change by management of organization. And validity is the capability of all instrument used to measure whit is supposed to measure. They further categorized in to internal and external validity where the former refers to the extent to which its design and the data it yields allow the researcher to draw accurate conclusions about course and effect relationship within the data. The external validity refers to the extent to which the research results apply to situation beyond the study itself. 3.4. Statistical Analysis The results of the survey were analysed using descriptive statistics. There are many basic techniques for analysing quantitative data. In this study, the research chose the software of SPSS for Windows version 13.0 to analyse the exploratory factors. SPSS for Windows is probably the most widely used computer software for analysis of quantitative data for social scientists. SPSS, which originally was short for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, has been in existence since the mid-1960s and over the years has undergone many revisions, particularly since the arrival of personal computers (Bryman Bell, 2003). It is easy for the research to operate. Given the scales of items for a construct, the Cronbachs Alphas are calculated to assess the reliability of those items. For construct with alpha under certain threshold (0.7 in this report), items within each construct are to be checked in order to ensure that the items have high correlations. After reliability confirmed, the summated averages of the items in each construct will be studied further. Correlation matrix is calculated to show the pair-wise correlations between constructs, which provides useful but limited information about hypotheses testing. To account for the effects of other construct, multivariate linear regression is applied for the hypotheses. These measures provide more information on the correlation structure between constructs and therefore facilitate a further step in hypotheses testing. The result of the survey was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. In this study the researcher used SPSS 13.0 for windows to analyze exploratory factors. Given the scales of items for a construct, the Cronbachs Alphas were used to assess the reliability of those terms. Items within each construct were examined to ensure the reliability. In order to determine how the variables are related to each other, measures of relationship were applied to determine the correlation. By determining the correlation coefficient the researcher was able to establish the direction of the correlation as well as the strength. Inferential statistics was once more used to make inference about the variables about the variables measured for the large population by estimating the population parameter from the random sample selected and testing the hypothesis by applying statistical to the numerical data collected. The numerical was analyzed using regression analysis and Pearson correlation. These are parametric tests which are superior tests when it comes to accuracy. 3.5 Ethical considerations of the study According to Paul D. Leedy (2010 page 101) Most ethical issues in research fall in to one of four categories. These are protection from harm, Informed consent, right to privacy, and honesty with professional colleagues. Accordingly the researcher A written permission to conduct a study will be sent to respective organization and its grant will be assured on time. Tries to not to expose participant from any physical or psychological harm. Requests other consent and could participate only on a voluntary basis. Respects the participants right to privacy. Reports the findings in a complete and honest fashion. CHAPTER FOUR- RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH 4. Introduction This chapter presents the results of the analysis of the data obtained from the respondents. The results are split into two groups (1) Descriptive statistics of the supply chain management practices currently experienced in Ethiopian tire manufacturing sector and (2) hypothesis testing to accept or reject the null hypotheses. 4.1 Descriptive statistics and respondents profile 4.1.1 Response Rate The Tire Industries data bases were taken as sample frame. The selected respondents were General Managers, commercial and operation managers of industry considered in the study. In some private firms, marketing and purchasing managers are acting as commercial managers and Team leader. A total of 70 questionnaires were emailed and posted to the respondents. In addition, hard copies of the questionnaires were disseminated in person to firms or liaison/branch offices found in Addis Ababa. The questionnaire included a covering letter. A follow-up email and telephone call were made to increase the response rate. The response rate for questionnaires distributed in person was high. In addition, many complained that there had been too many university students that requested them to complete questionnaires. Despite these may have response rate a total of 47 respondents or 67 completed and returned the questionnaire. Response rate Number of respondents that cooperated 47 67 Total number of selected respondents 70. 4.1.2 Data Analysis The completed questionnaires were coded in word processing and inserted into SPSS v20 for data analysis. This software program was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistical analyses were used to reduce large amount of data to summarize frequencies, means, and standard deviations. Based on descriptive statistics, the collected data for each question and respondents were summarized. 4.1.3 Profiles of respondents Table 4. 1 Current employment position of respondents FrequencyPercentValidGeneral Manager11.4Commercial Manager45.7Production Manager710.0Marketing Manager57.1Team Leader2231.4Finance Manager or Human Resource Manager or Plant Manager or Field Engineer811.4Total4767.1Missing02332.9Total70100.0 As indicated in Table 4.1, most of the respondents were Team Leaders (46.8), Finance Manager or Human Resource Manager or Plant manager or Filed Engineer(17), Production Managers (14.9) and Marketing Manager (10.6) accounting for 89.3 of the total valid respondents. This was the assumption that at this level of position, they are well informed about SCM practices applied in their firms. As a result, their responses could be reliable. Table 4.2 Respondents service year in the current company FrequencyPercentValidUnder 2 Year57.13 to 5 Year710.06 to 10 Year1217.1Over 10 Year2332.9Total4767.1Missing02332.9Total70100.0 From the above table 4.2, most of the respondents (48.9) were working at their firms for over 10 years, 25.5 for 6 to 10 years and 14.9 for 3 to 5 years. The remaining 10.6 were working in their respective firms for Under 2 years. This shows that the respondents are well knowledgeable about their company supply chain management practices. Figure 4.1 Work experience Table 4.3 Educational background of the respondents FrequencyPercentValidCollege57.1BA Degree3347.1Masters Degree912.9Total4767.1Missing02332.9Total70100.0 As indicated in Table 4.3, most respondents educational level was first degree (70.2), The Masters Degree (19.1) and the remaining 10.6 College Diploma. 4.1.4 Respondents perception on the extent of SCM practices In this section, the perception of respondents on each of the SCM practices was described in view of strategic supplier partnership, customer relationship, information sharing, postponement and competitive poisoning variables. 4.1.4.1 Strategic supplier relationship (independent variable) The respondents were asked about their practice of strategic supplier partnership in five variables. These variables indicate. We consider quality as our number one criterion in selection suppliers, we regularly solve problems jointly with our suppliers, we entered into long term contract agreement with reliable suppliers, we have continuous improvement programs that include our key suppliers, and we include our key suppliers in our planning and goal-setting activities. Table 4.4 Extent of strategic supplier partnership practices VariablesNot at all Not at allto a small extentto a moderate extentto a great extentExtreme extentMeanStd. deviationWe consider quality as our number one criterion in selection suppliers 12.8 27.744.712.82.12.64.942We regularly solve problems jointly with our suppliers 8.5 27.738.317.08.52.841.068We entered into long term contract agreement with reliable suppliers 14.910.651.121.32.12.851.00We have continuous improvement programs that include our key suppliers 8.519.148.921.32.12.99.914We include our key suppliers in our planning and goal-setting activities 6.431.446.812.82.12.72.852 As presented in Table 4.4, it is understood that the mean values of all variables were between 2.64 and 2.99, which is to a MODERTE extent. Almost half of the respondents (51.1) Moderate extent and 23.4 ,to a smile extent with their suppliers. These findings suggest that the relationship of the tire firms with their suppliers depends much upon traditional way of business transaction and less concern pays to modern SCM practices such as We consider quality as our number one criterion in selection suppliers, We regularly solve problems jointly with our suppliers We entered into long term contract agreement with reliable suppliers, We have continuous improvement programs that include our key suppliers and participation of suppliers in planning and goal setting activities. As stated in the literature review section, selecting the right suppliers and forming strategic supplier partnership with firms are keys to success. 4.1.4.2 Customer Relationship (independent variable) The respondents were asked to give their practice of customer relationship practices in five variables. These variables indicate the extent of firms practice in terms of trust, participation in planning, long-term contract with customers, measure of customer satisfaction and follow-up procedures for customer complaints and inquiry. Table 4.5 Extent of customer relationship practices VariablesNot at all Not at allTo a small extent To a moderate extentTo a great extentTo Extreme extentMeanStd.We frequently interact with customers to set reliability, responsiveness, and other standards for us 2.1 25.5 44.7 27.7 0.0 2.98 .794We frequently measure and evaluate customer satisfaction 14.9 14.940.427.72.12.871.05We frequently determine future customer expectations14.814.942.625.54.32.941.05We facilitate customers ability to seek assistance from us10.610.544.729.84.33.061.04We entered into long term contract agreement with reliable customers4.312.853.229.80.03.15,882 Results of the descriptive statistics presented in Table 4.5 shows that 53.2 of the respondents practice follow entered into long term contract agreement with reliable customers at a moderate extent and 29.8 at great extent, at a mean value of 3.15. This shows that many of the firms entered into long term contract agreement with reliable customers. In terms of measuring customer relation and practice, 29.8 of the respondents said at great extent and 44.7 at moderate extent, with a mean value of 3.06. 4.1.4.3 Information sharing practices The respondents were requested to share their practice of information sharing in five variables. These variables indicate the Adequacy and quality of information sharing throughout the supply chain, The information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and complete, The information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and complete, The information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and complete, The information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and complete The perception of respondents is shown in Table 4.6. Table 4.6 Extent of information sharing VariablesNot at all Not at allto a small extentto a moderate extentto a great extentExtreme extentMeanStd. DeviationAdequacy and quality of information sharing throughout the supply chain6.412,846.827.76.43.15.955The information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and complete6.417.044.727.74.33.66.942The information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and complete10.623.434.827.74.32.911.04The information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and complete0.025.538.331.94.33.15,854The information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and complete4.325.527.338.34.33.13.992 Table 4.6 indicates that 51.9 and 24.1 of the respondents had informed their trading partners about changing needs to a small and moderate extent respectively, while 16.7 of them did not provide such information at all. On the contrary, only 7.4 of the respondents experienced such type of practice to a great extent. Regarding proprietary information exchange with trading partners, 53.7 of respondents rated their experience as being limited to a small extent and the remaining 25.9 noted they lacked experience in this area. On the other hand, with respect to timeliness 66.7, reliability of information exchange 57.4 and web-based data and information exchange with supply chain partners 59.3 of the respondents indicated that they had such type of experience to a small extent. Since all individual mean values of the above five variables in Table 4.6 are close to the average mean value (2.17) then it can be concluded that information sharing among supply chain partners in Horizon Addis Tire Factory is practiced to a smaller extent. 4.1.4.4 Postponement (Independent variable) The respondents were asked to give their postponement in three variables. These variables indicate the delay final product assembly activities until customer orders have actually been received, the delay final product assembly activities until customer orders have actually been received, and the delay final product assembly activities until customer orders have actually been received. The extent of respondents perceptions of postponement in their firm is shown in table 4.7.postponement Table 4.7 Postponement VariablesNot at all Not at allTo a small extentTo a moderate extentTo a great extentTo Extreme extentMeanStd. deviationWe delay final product making activities until customer orders have actually been received34.025.510.643 .325.52.621.609We delay final product sourcing activities until customer orders have actually been received31.934.08.50.025.52.531.572We delay final product delivering activities until customer orders have actually been received6.434.010.621.327.73.311.366 The above table shows that the mean values of the variables are between 3.31and 2.53. More than half of the respondents (64.9) disclosed that we delay final product sourcing activities until customer orders have actually been received are not at all and smell extent. Moreover, about 59.5 of the respondents stated that we delay final product making activities until customer orders have actually been received are not at all and smell extent. 4.1.2.5 Competitive position of Tire firms (dependent variable) The respondents were asked to compare their level of competitive positioning in comparison to their competitors. The researcher used the relative positions because the firms may not be willing to give information on actual financial performance. Five measures were used to assess their relative position Offers low cost/price product by attaining full capacity operations, The capability to offer consistent and high quality products and service to our customers than our competitors, The extent of market share growth compared with competitors, The capability to provide dependable and on-time delivery of customer orders, Is under constant innovation and delivers new products and services to the market. Table 4.8 Responses about dimensions of competitive position their mean value VariablesNot at all Not at allto a small extentto a moderate extentto a great extentExtreme extentMean Std. Offers low cost/price product by attaining full capacity operations6.427.742.619.14.32.87.947The capability to offer consistent and high quality products and service to our customers than our competitors2.217.456.523.90.03.02.715The extent of market share growth compared with competitors.6.431.948.912.80.02.68.783The capability to provide dependable and on-time delivery of customer orders2.226.128.343.5 0.03.13.885Is under constant innovation and delivers new products and services to the market4.317.036.234.08.53.26.988 As indicated in Table 4.8 42.6 of the respondents said that the firms have moderate competitive position in terms offers low cost/price product by attaining full capacity operations (mean value 2.87). The other dimensions of competitive position were weak compared to their competitors. About 31.9 of the respondents perceived that their firms are small extent. The extent of market share growth compared with competitors, while 45.3 said the competitive to a moderate extent. In terms of dependable and on-time delivery of customer orders, 28.3 of respondents said that they small extant meet the due date of customers order and 36.2 were Is under constant innovation and delivers new products and services to the market at a small extent of competitive positioning in this regard. 4.2 Hypotheses Testing The two main objectives of this research study were (1) to determine the extent to which the supply chain management practices were implemented and (2) to determine the significance of relationships between supply chain management practices and competitive position of Tire Industry in Ethiopia. In order to address these research objectives and guide the research, eight hypotheses were formulated. The aim of the empirical data was to either accept or reject the null hypotheses. In this study the supply chain management practices (strategic supplier partnership, customer relationship, information sharing and postponement) are independent variables while competitive position which includes variables (price/cost, quality, dependability, on time delivery and ability to design and develop new products) are dependent variables in order to address these questions, 8 hypotheses were developed and empirical data were collected from the respondents to either accept or reject the null hypotheses. There are some general assumptions for empirical tests, parametric or nonparametric (Diamantopoulos et al, 2004). Violation of them may or may not influence the reality of analysis. According to Diamantopoulos (2004), parametric tests have some general assumptions continuous rather than categorical measure of dependent variable, random sampling, independent of observations, normal distribution of the data, and homogeneity of variance. However, nonparametric tests have far less restrictive assumptions on the data random data and independent of the observations only. The statistical nonparametric tests that were conducted were the chi-square and Spearmans rank-order correlation tests. The reason why only nonparametric analysis was conducted was because the data were ordinal. The first four hypotheses (H1 up to H4) were tested by chi-square statistical test to determine whether there was a significant difference between the expected frequencies and the observed frequencies in one or more categories. To test these null hypotheses the researcher assumed that the expected and observed frequencies are equally categorized. It means that half (50) of the respondents will fail in the category of rating from not at all to moderate extent (categorized as weak supply chain management practices) while the remaining half (50) of the respondents fall in the category of to a great extent (categorized as strong supply chain management practices). Based on the critical chi-square value and frequency distribution, it is possible to test whether or not the null hypothesis was valid or not. Therefore, if the calculated chi-square value was greater than the significance value (p 0.05), then there was no evidence to reject the null hypotheses in favor of alternative hypostases. The reverse was true if the calculated chi-square value was less than the significance value. Therefore, nonparametric tests were applied to test the hypotheses. The statistical nonparametric tests that were conducted were the chi- square and one-way ANOVA test. In accordance with this principle, hypotheses H1 to H8 were tested as follows. 4.2.1 Testing Hypothesis 1 Ho1- There is Strategic suppliers partnership practice is no weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry. Ha1- There is Strategic suppliers partnership practice is weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry. Table 4.9 Statistical chi-square test for strategic supplier partnership practices We consider quality as our number one criterion in selection suppliersWe regularly solve problems jointly with our suppliersWe entered into long term contract agreement with reliable suppliersWe have continuous improvement programs that include our key suppliersWe include our key suppliers in our planning and goal-setting activitiesChi-Square25.660a15.660a32.894a30.340a33.319adf44444Asymp. Sig..000.004.000.000.000a. 0 cells (0.0) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 9.4. The calculated chi-square values for all the five variables were less than the level of critical value at 5 (see Table 4.8). This indicated that the probability associated with statistics p0.05 was significant. As a result, the null hypothesis, Ho1 The strategic supplier partnership practice is not weak in Tire Industry in Ethiopia was rejected while the alternative hypothesis (Ha1) stating, the strategic supplier partnership practice is weak in Tire Industry in Ethiopian was supported. This implies that the Tire Industry in Ethiopia have real weaknesses in practicing strategic supplier partnership practices. The Tire Industry in Ethiopian are still doing business as usual and paying little attention to modern SCM practices such as consider quality as our number one criterion in selection suppliers, regularly solve problems jointly with our suppliers, entered into long term contract agreement with reliable suppliers, continuous improvement programs that include our key suppliers, include our key suppliers in our planning and goal-setting activities. 4.2.2 Testing Hypothesis 2 Ho2- There is Effective customer relationship practice is no weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry. Ha2- There is Effective customer relationship practice is weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry The chi-square test results in Table 4.9 indicate that all calculated chi-square values except trust of customers were less than the level of significance 0.05. Therefore, the null hypothesis There is Effective customer relationship practice is no weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry was rejected. While, the alternative hypothesis Effective customer relationship practice is weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry. was supported. As stated in the literature review, effective customer relationships. Frequently interact with customers to set reliability, responsiveness, and other standards for us, frequently measure and Customers ability to seek assistance from us and also entered into long term contract agreement with reliable customers seeking customers need and requirements. However, Ethiopian tire firms are weak in this regard as shown in the above chi-square test results. We frequently interact with customers to set reliability, responsiveness, and other standards for usWe frequently measure and evaluate customer satisfactionWe frequently determine future customer expectationsWe facilitate customers ability to seek assistance from usWe entered into long term contract agreement with reliable customersChi-Square17.255a19.915b20.340b26.511b26.277aDf34443Asymp. Sig..001.001.000.000.000Exact Sig..001.001.000.000.000Point Probability.000.000.000.000.000a. 0 cells (0.0) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 11.8.b. 0 cells (0.0) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 9.4.Table 4-10- Chi-Square Test of Supply Chain Customer Relation ship 4.2.3 Testing Hypothesis 3 Ho3- There is Effective information sharing practices is no weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry. Ha3- There is Effective information sharing practices is weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry. From the chi-square test result, it was indicated that most of calculated chi-square values were less than the level of significance 0.05. Therefore, the null hypothesis, There is Effective information sharing practices is no weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry was rejected and in contrast the alternative hypothesis, there is effective information sharing practices is weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry was supposed. This chi-square test result was also supported by the descriptive analysis. This means that information sharing practices in tire firms supply chain are weak in both degree and quality of information. Whereas, they are relatively strong supply chain partners keep each other informed about events or change that may affect the other partners and inform trading partners in advance of changing needs. As stated in the literature review section, web-based communication is a basic requirement of supply chain management practices in tire industries. However, the Ethiopian tire firms do not use web-based system to exchange data among the supply chain partners. This might have resulted from poor infrastructure in hardware and software as well as lack of skilled labor to use internet as a means of data exchange tool. Table 4.11 Statistical chi-square test for Information Sharing Adequacy and quality of information sharing throughout the supply chainThe information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and completeWe and our sc partners keep each other informed about events or change that may affect the other partnersWe inform trading partners in advance of changing needsInformation exchange between our sc partners and us is timelyChi-Square28.213a26.085a14.170a12.319b21.617aDf44434Asymp. Sig..000.000.007.006.000a. 0 cells (0.0) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 9.4.b. 0 cells (0.0) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 11.8.4.2.4 Testing Hypothesis 4 Ho4- There is Postponement is no weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry. Ha4- There is Postponement is weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry. Table 4.12 Chi-square test statistics of postponement practices We delay final product assembly activities until customer orders have actually been receivedWe delay final product assembly activities until the last possible position in the supply chainOur products are designed for modular assemblyChi-Square13.957a7.553b12.468adf434Asymp. Sig..007.056.014a. 0 cells (0.0) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 9.4.b. 0 cells (0.0) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 11.8. All chi-square values for the variables relating to internal operations flexibility practices were greater than the level of significance 0.05 (See Table 4.11). Therefore, the null hypothesis There is Postponement is no weak in Ethiopia Tire Industry was not rejected. This shows that Ethiopian tire firms have not problem regarding delay final product assembly activities until customer orders have actually been received, delay final product assembly activities until the last possible position in the supply chain and products are designed for modular assembly. 4.2.5 Testing Hypothesis 5 Ho5- There is relationship between strategic supplier partnership and Competitive Position in Tire Industry. Ha5- There is relationship between strategic supplier partnership and Competitive Position in Tire Industry. The aim of this hypothesis was to determine whether there was a correlation between strategic supplier partnership in the supply side of tire firms and their competitive positioning compared to their competitors. In order to determine this correlation, Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated by SPSS 20 and the null hypothesis was tested. In addition, the impacts of the independent variables on the dependent variables was analyzed by nonparametric test one-way ANOVA. Table 4.13 ANOVA Test Competitive Position against Strategic Supplier Partnership ANOVASum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig.Equation 1Regression36313.715136313.7156058.387.090Residual523710.043873735.994Total560023.75887374 The ANOVAtest showed that the mean score of strategic suppliers partnership and competitive positioning was the same at less than the conventional cut-off 0.05 levels (correlation coefficient computed for strategic suppliers partnership against competitive positioning occurred not due to chance, but with significant level of probability. This means that the correlation among then by chance is strong. -off 0.05) suggesting that the coefficient provides estimate of co- 0.090 significant level (thus, accept Ho at and competitive positioning in Ethiopian ANOVA Comparing Strategic Suppliers partnership. 4.2.6 Testing Hypothesis 6 Ho6- There is no relationship between effective customer and Competitive position in Tire Industry. Ha6- There is relationship between effective customer and Competitive position in Tire Industry The aim of this hypothesis was to determine whether there was a correlation between supply chain management practices (customer relationship) in the demand side of tire firms and their competitive positioning from competitors. In order to determine this correlation, Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated and null hypothesis was tested. Then impact of independent variable on dependent variables was tested. The findings are presented in the following tables Table 4.14 ANOVA Test competitive position against customer relationship ANOVASum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig.Equation 2Regression36356.173136356.1733917.934.000Residual810771.093873739.279Total847127.26787374 The ANOVA-test showed that the mean score of effective customer relationship and competitive positioning is the same at less than the conventional cut-off 0.05 levels (correlation coefficient computed for effective customer relationship against competitive position probability. This implies that the correlation among the two variables occurred by chance the two variables is very low. 4.2.7 Testing Hypothesis 7 Ho7- There is no relationship between effective information sharing and competitive position in Tire Industry. Ha7- There is relationship between effective information sharing and competitive position in Tire Industry. The purpose of this hypothesis was to determine whether there was a relationship between information sharing within the supply chain practice of tire firms and their competitive positioning from competitors Table 4.15 ANOVA Test competitive position against Information sharing ANOVASum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig.Equation 3Regression36356.148136356.14827214.189.000Residual116723.881873731.336Total153080.02987374 The ANOVA test showed that the mean score of managing environmental issues and competitive positioning is the same at less than the cut-off 0.05 levels (coefficient computed for managing environmental issues against Competitive positioning occurred not due to chance, but with significant level of probability. This means that the correlation among the two variables is very low. 4.2.8 Testing Hypothesis 8 Ho8- There is no relationship between postponement and Competitive position in Tire Industry. Ha8- There is relationship between postponement and Competitive position in Tire Industry This hypothesis was tested also using Spearman correlation one way ANOVA to determine whether there is a relationship between postponement and competitive positioning of respondents firms. Table 4.16 ANOVA Test competitive position against Postponement ANOVASum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig.Equation 4Regression36356.147136356.14710753.394.000Residual295399.365873733.381Total331755.51287374 The ANOVA-test shows that the mean score of effective Postponement and competitive positioning is the same as the 0.05 levels (0.000). Thus, this ascertained that the correlation coefficient computed for postponement against competitive positioning occurred not due to chance, but with significant level of probability. This means that the correlation among is very low CHAPTER FIVE – DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH RESULTS The preceding chapter analyse the data analysis based on the summary of descriptive analysis and hypothesis testing. This chapter intends to cover the findings to be discussed and the relationship to the research problems. Accordingly, conclusion and recommendations would be drawn the direction for the future research will be covered. RQ1- What do the current supply chain management practice on Horizon Addis Tires Share Company look like Discussion on the findings of the research Tire is a homogenous product where cost differentiation is the main strategic issue to secure competitive advantage in the market. Cost minimization could be attained in maximizing the economies of scales in process of production and conserving the type and level of energy consumption which accounts the major cost component in the industry. Most of the factories in Ethiopia are using fossil fuel in the process of their processes where it is both costly and none environmentally friendly. In the past few years demands were increasing because of import and assembly of car and truck have been increased in Ethiopia Sharing critical information is vital to reduce the level of inventory and costs while delivering improved performance level within the supply chain levels. As discussed above in the literature review, the information technology and connectivity in Ethiopia has not developed yet. As it is also mentioned in the previous chapters, the lucrative profits currently gained in the industry, visible demand and supply gaps in the coming years and governments relentless effort to attract local and global firms, the monopoly nature of competition never lasts longer. Today is the era of globalization where other multinationals also would join soon the current Ethiopian Tire market. Therefore, the researcher has identified mainly the general supply chain management challenges and analysed their relationship with the competitive position of Tire industry in Ethiopia. Accordingly the following research questions were forwarded for further analysis What do the current supply chain management on Horizon Addis Tires Share Company look like practice Is there collaboration or integration among key players of the supply chain Is there any relationship between Supply Chain management practices and organizational competitiveness in Horizon Addis Tire Industry 5.1.1 Supplies chain management Partnership and Competitive position in Ethiopian Tire Industry Strategic suppliers partnership was assessed in terms of these variables indicate. We consider quality as our number one criterion in selection suppliers, we regularly solve problems jointly with our suppliers, we entered into long term contract agreement with reliable suppliers, we have continuous improvement programs that include our key suppliers, and we include our key suppliers in our planning and goal-setting activities. .Other variables are also not as such good enough. As indicated by Fawcett et al (2007), working with selected few strategic suppliers would enhance collaborations among partners that have an impact on responsiveness, quality and costs. These factors have an impact on the competitive position of Tire factories in Ethiopia. As shown in the statistical hypothesis testing, the level of correlation between strategic suppliers partnership and competitive position is found to be 0.090 with a significant level of 0.05, which suggests their relationship is significant. Therefore, the first null hypothesis stated as There is no relationship between the strategic suppliers partnership and competitive position in Ethiopian Tire Industry is rejected and companies need to give due consideration for strategic suppliers partnership to sustain the upcoming competitive conditions. 5.1.2 Customer Relationship and Competitive position in Ethiopian Tire Industry RQ2 Is there collaboration or integration among key players of the supply chain Business exists for make profit. Profit can only attained through a sustainable customer satisfaction. This process requires a customer focused and uninterrupted relationship. The very essence of SCM is pull system that starts from the customers. The relationships with the customers shall be managed in such a way that the efforts are systematically integrated with the organization as well as with the supply chain members. This management process is a process of identifying key customers, communication, development and implementation of different programs to secure the best level of customers satisfaction. As it can be seen under table 8, the majority of the respondents answered that the variables mentioned under customer relationship are not at all and small extent. A company should establish facts about its customers, and offers need based and defined services. Though tire is considered as a homogenous product, there could be various values and service attributable to customers. Dependable information and various assistances are the after sales part which would attract, satisfy and retain customers for firms to last in a sustainable and competitive position. As shown in table 14, in the statistical hypothesis testing, the level of correlation between strategic customer relationship and competitive position is found to be 0.000 with a significant level of 0.05, which suggests that their relationship is very low. Therefore, the second null hypothesis which is stated as There is no relationship between effective customer relationship and competitive positioning in Ethiopian Tire Industry is not rejected. Companies need to give due consideration for uninterrupted customer relationships to sustain their upcoming competitive conditions. 5.1.3 Information sharing and Competitive position in Ethiopian Tire Industry As discussed in the literature review, IT improves supply chain agility, reduce cycle time, enable higher level of efficiency and timely deliver goods and services to the customer. It requires uniform and compatible information technology investments and applications among the supply chain members. The connectivity alone does not bring what is required. There shall be a well the Adequacy and quality of information sharing throughout the supply chain, The information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and complete, The information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and complete, The information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and complete, The information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and complete. As shown Table 4.6 indicates that 51.9 and 24.1 of the respondents had informed their trading partners about changing needs to a small and moderate extent respectively, while 16.7 of them did not provide such information at all. On the contrary, only 7.4 of the respondents experienced such type of practice to a great extent. Regarding proprietary information exchange with trading partners, 53.7 of respondents rated their experience as being limited to a small extent and the remaining 25.9 noted they lacked experience in this area. On the other hand, with respect to timeliness 66.7, reliability of information exchange 57.4 and web-based data and information exchange with supply chain partners 59.3 of the respondents indicated that they had such type of experience to a small extent In the statistical hypothesis testing (Table 18), the level of correlation between information sharing and competitive position is found to be 0.000 with a significant level of 0.05. This suggests that their relationship is highly significant. Therefore, the third null hypothesis that states as There is no relationship between information sharing and competitive positioning in Ethiopian Tire Industry is rejected. Companies need to give due consideration for the infrastructure development, and trust building among themselves to develop and share information so that they will be in a competitive position in the end. 5.1.4 Postponement and Competitive Position in Ethiopian Tire Industry Postponement is business strategy that maximizes possible benefit and minimizes risk by delaying further investment in a product or service until the last possible moment in order to satisfy the preferences of the customer at that moment. A manufacturer for example may produce generic product that can be modified at the last stages to suit the change. Postponement brings several benefits to companies. It enables companies to control the risks related to product diversity and uncertain demand, increases flexibility, enables companies to keep their options open before the availability of sufficient information, reduces SC costs by keeping undifferentiated inventories, reduces levels of inventory, improves forecasting effectiveness, facilitates mass customization, and reduces production cycle times (Yang et al., 2005 Li et al., 2004) Among these variables, indicate the delay final product assembly activities until customer orders have actually been received, the delay final product assembly activities until customer orders have actually been received, and the delay final product assembly activities until customer orders have actually been received.. Table 16 also shows, Postponement and competitive positioning is the same as the 0.05 levels (0.000). Thus, this ascertained that the correlation coefficient computed for postponement against competitive positioning occurred not due to chance, but with significant level of probability. This means that the correlation among is very low. 5.1.5 Competitive positioning In todays global Competition environment, facing the rapid technology progress and high customer expectations, Companies find it hard to win the competition only depending ones own capacity (Seetal, 2008) In this situation, the establishment of the supply chain partnership among companies and the coordination of the partners are highly related. Among these variables measures were used to assess their relative position Offers low cost/price product by attaining full capacity operations, The capability to offer consistent and high quality products and service to our customers than our competitors, The extent of market share growth compared with competitors, The capability to provide dependable and on-time delivery of customer orders, Is under constant innovation and delivers new products and services to the market. As indicated in above Table 4.7 42.6 of the respondents said that the firms have moderate competitive position in terms offers low cost/price product by attaining full capacity operations (mean value 2.87). The other dimensions of competitive position were weak compared to their competitors. About 31.9 of the respondents perceived that their firms are small extent. The extent of market share growth compared with competitors, while 45.3 said the competitive to a moderate extent. In terms of dependable and on-time delivery of customer orders, 28.3 of respondents said that they small extant meet the due date of customers order and 36.2 were Is under constant innovation and delivers new products and services to the market at a small extent of competitive positioning in this regard. Table 16 also shows effective Postponement and competitive positioning is the same as the 0.05 levels (0.000). Thus, this ascertained that the correlation coefficient computed for postponement against competitive positioning occurred not due to chance, but with significant level of probability. This means that the correlation among is very low. 5.1.6 Relationship between supply chain management practices and organizational competitiveness in Horizon Addis Tire Manufacturing RQ3-Is there any relationship between Supply Chain management practices and organizational competitiveness in Horizon Addis Tire Industry The last four consecutive null hypotheses (Ho5 up to Ho8) were established to test whether there is a relationship between supply chain management practices and organizational competitiveness in Ethiopian Tire firm. Thus, as it was observed in the previous chapter, with the exception of strategic supplier partnership, the other SCM practices have no relationship with organizational performance. Therefore, it is obvious that, even though it is weak, strategic supplier partnership have positive relationship with organizational competitive position of Horizon Addis Tire manufacturing. Notably, customer relationship, information sharing practices and postponement had no impact on organizational competitiveness of Ethiopian Tire Industry. 5.2. Conclusion and Recommendations According to the four general challenges of supply chain management and each classified in to different independent variables, strategic supplier partnership, customer relationship, information sharing and postponement. One can argue that the practices of supply chain management Ethiopian Tire industry are almost poor. However, the only one of Tire factories are increasing at an alarming rate and some of the entrants are multinational companies having huge capital as well as long years of technical and managerial experiences in the industry. As it is shown in the descriptive statistics and hypothesis testing, that supply chain management practices strategic supplier partnership, customer relationship, information sharing and postponement were influential. The impacts of these variables on the competitive position of Tire factories are highly significant. To proactively avert the challenge of these variables on the competitive position of Ethiopian Tire firm, the researcher recommends the followings. 5.2.1. Strategic Supplier Partnership Tire Factory in Ethiopia need to change their usual transactional suppliers relationship with strategic supplier partnership. This requires the identification and follows up of critical suppliers they should be invited to be involved in the phase of organization planning. There should also be a suppliers performance measurement schemes with which they are going to be motivated and rewarded. Together, they should develop a joint team that facilitate trust among partners, solve potential harms that may be created within or across the border. 5.2.2. Supply Chain Customer Relationship Tire factory need to understand that they are there not only to sell tires but to serve them. An organization never exists if there are no customers. The very existence of every organization is to satisfy the customers to attain the very purpose of profitability. As discussed in the literature review, these days, Tire market is supply driven and this lead manufacturer not to be worried about cost, quality, services and diversity. Due to the era of globalization, no market is secured from intrusion. As time comes for the competition, dissatisfied customers would retaliate by migrating to the new better imported tire suppliers. Therefore, firms need to identify the need of the customers, collect feedbacks on any complaints and avail different products and service attributes to their customers. 5.2.3. Information Sharing Technology should be instituted to foster information communication within and among all supply chain members. Connectivity should start from customers through the organizations to the suppliers. Online information gathering and sharing should be designed based on mutual trust and purposes. Technologies also have to be compatible enough along the supply chain members to smoothen the flow and understandings along the networked lines. 5.2. 4 Postponement Is business strategy that maximizes possible benefit and minimizes risk by delaying further investment in a product or service until the last possible moment in order to satisfy the preferences of the customer at that moment. A manufacturer for example may produce generic product that can be modified at the last stages to suit the change. Implementation of postponement in terms of the delay final product assembly activities until customer orders have actually been received. This could also enable the supply chain members to be more customer-focused, flexible and profitable . Finally, to develop efficient supply chain management it is important to deliver both theoretical and practical SCM training for those managers and decision makers in the sector. For this purpose, concerned governmental bodies, Tire industries and learning institutions have to work together. 5.3 Suggestions for Future Research The current study has limited number of observations however, when sufficient time and other resources are available, future studies can include large number of samples from the population that encompasses other employee of the Factory. Future research study can also consider additional dimensions of SCM practice such as logistics integration and cross-functional coordination. Reference list Economic Intelligence Unit, Country Report, Ethiopia, (2011) www.eiu.com,assessed on July 10, 2011. M.J. Naude and J.A. 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(2002). Aligning supply chain strategy with product uncertainties. California Management Review, vol. 44, no. 3, pp105. Li, S. Rao, S. Ragu-Nathan, B. (2002). An Empirical Investigation of Supply Chain Management Practices. Proceedings of the 33rd annual meeting of the decision science institute, San Diego, CA, November 2326. Silver, A. Pyke, V. Peterson, R. (1998). Inventory Management and Production Planning and Scheduling. John Wiley Sons, New York. Power, J. and Sohal, A. (2001). Critical success factors in Agile supply chain management. International Journal of physical distribution and logistics, vol, 31 (4) 247-265 Turban, E. McLean, E. Wetherbe, J. (2004). Information technology for management 4th edition. John Wiley Sons New York. Philip Beske et al (2014) , Int. J. Production Economics, Sustainable supply chain management practices and dynamic capabilities in the food industry A critical analysis of the literature, 152(2014),pp131143. Fasika Bete Georgise et al , Supply Chain Integration in the Manufacturing Firms in Developing Country An Ethiopian Case Study Journal of Industrial Engineering ,Volume 2014,pp 1-13. Assay Mbang Janvier-James(2012) A new introduction to supply chains and supply chain management Definitions and Theories Perspective , International Business Research , vol. 5 ,No.,1, (January 2012) ,pp 194-199. Kennan, V.R. and Tan, K.C. (2010) Supply Chain Integration Cluster Analysis of the Impact of Span of Integration, Supply Chain Management An International, Vol. 15, Issue 3. APPENDIXES APPENDIX 1 Registration Conformation 1010 A I R M A I L WOLDEAMANUEL B A MR STUDENT NUMBER 7789-018-3 P O BOX 2402 ADDIS ABABA ENQUIRIES TEL 0861670411 ETHIOPIA FAX (012)429-4e MAIL [email protected] Dear Student I hereby confirm that you have been registered for the current academic year as follows Proposed Qualification MBL (0605X) PROVISIONAL EXAMINATION CODE PAPER S NAME OF STUDY UNIT WEIGHT LANG. EXAM.DATE CENTRE(PLACE) —- ——– – ———————– —— —– ———– ————— Study units registered for exam period October/November 2016 MBL93HY SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT0.067 E 2016 10-25 ADDIS ABABA ETHIOPIA MBLEPMY EXECUTIVE PROJECT MANAGEMENT 0.067 E 2016-11-02 ADDIS ABABA ETHIOPIA Study units registered for exam period January/February 2017 MBLREPP RESEARCH REPORT (MBL) 0.200 E As per dept requirements You are referred to the MyRegistration brochure regarding fees that are forfeited on cancellation of any study units. Yours faithfully, Prof G Zide Registrar 1503 O 03 0 APPENDIX 2 Data Collection Instrument APPENDIX 2.1 Questionnaire Dear Sir/Madam My name is BRHANU AREGA WOLDE AMANUEL and I am pursuing a research for my Master of Business Leadership degree at the University of South Africa. I humbly request your participation in my study which is aimed at investigating THE IMPACT OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON COMPETETIVE POSITIONING OF TYRE INDUSTRY IN ETHIOPIA . The study requires that I conduct interviews to collect data using the enclosed questionnaire. This study will largely benefit your organization in that it tries to identify the link between the supply chain management practices and competitive strength/advantage. More particularly, you as a participant will have the increased awareness and knowledge about the impacts of supply chain management practices on competitive strength while focusing on your organization. The enclosed questionnaires will take 25 minutes of your time to complete, and take note that participation is voluntary. I kindly request that you complete the questionnaire individually without any consultation and be honest as you can. The targeted participants in this research are persons involved with supply chain management practices and decisions with positions ranging from expert level up to chief executive officer. Note The completed questionnaires can be handed back to me or e-mailed through. HYPERLINK mailto[email protected] [email protected] Thank you in advance for your time and participation, much appreciated. If you have any further queries concerning the research you may contact me on the following numbers 0911-38-32-56 or 0925-65-80-80 B Research Questionnaires PART One. Demographic profile Please answer the following questions by marking _ in the blank spaces 1. Gender Male ______ Female______ 2. What is your highest education level Elementary school ______ High school ______ College ______ Bachelor degree ______ Masters degree ______ Doctoral degree ______ 3. Job Title/Position Investor/Owner ______ General Manager ______ Commercial manager ______ Manufacturing / Production manager ______ Marketing manager ______ Other (please indicate) ______ 1.1 Supply Chain Management Practices (Independent Variables) Strategic Supplier PartnershipDegree of Application put mark(X) on one of them below Not at all (1)To a small extent (2)To a moderate extent (3)To a great extent (4)To Extreme extent (5)We consider quality as our number one criterion in selection suppliersWe regularly solve problems jointly with our suppliersWe entered into long term contract agreement with reliable suppliersWe have continuous improvement programs that include our key suppliersWe include our key suppliers in our planning and goal-setting activities Supply chain customer RelationshipDegree of Application put mark(X) on one of them below Not at all (1)To a small extent (2)To a moderate extent (3)To a great extent (4)To Extreme extent (5)We frequently interact with customers to set reliability, responsiveness, and other standards for usWe frequently measure and evaluate customer satisfactionWe frequently determine future customer expectationsWe facilitate customers ability to seek assistance from usWe entered into long term contract agreement with reliable customers Information SharingDegree of Application put mark(X) on one of them below Not at all (1)To a small extent (2)To a moderate extent (3)To a great extent (4)To Extreme extent (5)Adequacy and quality of information sharing throughout the supply chainThe information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and completeThe information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and completeThe information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and completeThe information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and complete PostponementDegree of Application put mark(X) on one of them below Not at all (1)To a small extent (2)To a moderate extent (3)To a great extent (4)To Extreme extent (5)We delay final product assembly activities until customer orders have actually been receivedWe delay final product assembly activities until customer orders have actually been receivedWe delay final product assembly activities until customer orders have actually been received 1.2.5 Competitive position of tire firms (Dependent variable) Competitive positionDegree of Application put mark(X) on one of them below Not at all (1)To a small extent (2)To a moderate extent (3)To a great extent (4)To Extreme extent (5) Offers low cost/price product by attaining full capacity operationsThe capability to offer consistent and high quality products and service to our customers than our competitors The extent of market share growth compared with competitors The capability to provide dependable and on-time delivery of customer ordersIs under constant innovation and delivers new products and services to the market APPENDIX 3-Statistical Results 2.1 Mean and Standard Deviations of Independent variables (SCM Practices) 2.1.1 Strategic Supplier Partnership Strategic Supplier PartnershipNot at all Not at allTo a Small ExtentTo a Moderate ExtentTo a great ExtentTo Extreme Extent Mean Std. We consider quality as our number one criterion in selection suppliers 12.8 27.744.712.82.12.64.942We regularly solve problems jointly with our suppliers 8.5 27.738.317.08.52.841.068We entered into long term contract agreement with reliable suppliers 14.910.651.121.32.12.851.00We have continuous improvement programs that include our key suppliers 8.519.148.921.32.12.99.914We include our key suppliers in our planning and goal-setting activities 6.431.446.812.82.12.72.852 2.1.2 Supply Chain Customer Relationship Supply Chain Customer RelationshipNot at all Not at allTo a Small ExtentTo a Moderate ExtentTo a great ExtentTo Extreme Extent Mean Std. We frequently interact with customers to set reliability, responsiveness, and other standards for us2.125.544.727.702.98.794We frequently measure and evaluate customer satisfaction14.914.940.427.72.12.871.05We frequently determine future customer expectations14.814.942.625.54.32.941.05We facilitate customers ability to seek assistance from us10.610.544.729.84.33.061.04We entered into long term contract agreement with reliable customers4.312.853.229.803.15,882 Information sharingNot at all Not at allTo a Small ExtentTo a Moderate ExtentTo a great ExtentTo Extreme Extent Mean Std. Adequacy and quality of information sharing throughout the supply chain2.025.544.727.702.981.794The information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and complete14.914.940.427.72.12.871.05The information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and complete14.814.942.625.54.32.941.05The information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and complete10.610.544.729.84.33.061.04The information flow between our firm and supply chain partners is reliable and complete4.312.853.229.803.150.8822.1.3 Information sharing PostponementNot at all Not at allTo a Small ExtentTo a Moderate ExtentTo a great ExtentTo Extreme Extent Mean Std. We delay final product assembly activities until customer orders have actually been received34.025.510.64.325.52.621.609We delay final product assembly activities until customer orders have actually been received31.934.08.50.025.52.531.572We delay final product assembly activities until customer orders have actually been received6.434.010.621.327.73.311.366 2. Competitive position of tire firms (Dependent variable) VariablesNot at all Not at allTo a Small ExtentTo a Moderate ExtentTo a great ExtentTo Extreme Extent Mean Std. Offers low cost/price product by attaining full capacity operations6.427.742.619.14.32.87.947The capability to offer consistent and high quality products and service to our customers than our competitors2.217.456.523.90.03.02.715The extent of market share growth compared with competitors6.431.948.912.80.02.68.783The capability to provide dependable and on-time delivery of customer orders2.226.128.343.5 0.03.13.885Is under constant innovation and delivers new products and services to the market4.317.036.234.08.53.26.988 Results of ANOVA Test MODEL DISCRIPTION Model DescriptionSCMType of VariableEquation 1Competitive PositiondependentStrategic Supplier partnershippredictor Model DescriptionSCMType of VariableEquation 1Competitive PositiondependentCustomer Relationshippredictor Model DescriptionSCMType of VariableEquation 1Competitive PositiondependentInformation Sharingpredictor Model DescriptionSCMType of VariableEquation 1Competitive PositiondependentPostponementpredictor Test of Homogeneity of VariancesLevene Statisticdf1df2Sig.Strategic Supplier partnership901.785487370.000Customer Relationship496.820487370.000Information Sharing1573.495487370.000Postponement14148.076487370.000 ANOVASum of SquaresStrategic Supplier partnershipBetween Groups(Combined)7660.049Linear TermUnweighted667.961Weighted4829.899Deviation2830.151Within Groups71505.831Total79165.880Customer RelationshipBetween Groups(Combined)8848.312Linear TermUnweighted1353.204Weighted5784.572Deviation3063.741Within Groups68095.250Total76943.562Information SharingBetween Groups(Combined)19742.273Linear TermUnweighted7318.488Weighted18199.449Deviation1542.824Within Groups60261.418Total80003.691PostponementBetween Groups(Combined)19891.871Linear TermUnweighted6020.992Weighted11584.434Deviation8307.437Within Groups189108.486Total209000.358 6 Student Number-77890183 Page PAGE MERGEFORMAT VIII Bd d,@GPUyoOuWWseqi v.AxgNOC7MapYm8paFtz8SZm7WlyR,,T Uy0sRxUxR,sXa5COG7xWS
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