CIA Central Intelligence Agency
CSC Central Statistical Agency
FDRE Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
HR Human Rights Watch
ILO International Labour Organization
IOM International Organization for Migration
MoFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs
MoLSA Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs
NGOs Non-Governmental Organizations
OSCE Organized and sophisticated enterprise
PEAs Private Employment Agencies
UN United Nations
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
Human trafficking is a global concern due to it affects every country of the world. Ethiopia is not an exception to this problem and the issues of human trafficking is affecting the community in general and the youths and productive age in particularly. This thesis also deals with the causes and effects of human trafficking in Ethiopia: cases from Dodola woreda Oromia national regional state. In this thesis, Descriptive and explanatory research designs were employed. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were also applied. The major tools utilized for this study were a questionnaire, interview, and focus group discussion. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 20 (statistical package for social science) software was in descriptive and frequency whereas; the qualitative data were analyzed thematically in explanatory through crosschecking the validity and reliability with quantitative data. These methods and research approach were employed to answer the following research question (1) how human trafficking is affecting the youths politically, economically, social in Dodola woreda. (2) What are the key drivers of the trafficker to engage in human trafficking? (3) What are the effects of human trafficking on the young group in Dodola woreda? (4) Why were the youths engaged in human trafficking in Dodola woreda? Snowball sampling which is part of purpose sampling were used to get the target group of population. Hence 18 participants from six offices were selected; 6 from labour and social affair, 2 from youth and sport office, 7 from police officer, 3 from court official were filled questionnaire, and 25 interviewers were from victims of trafficking, and 8 focus group discussion from family of victims were selected using the above sampling method.
The find of the study reveals that lack of job opportunity, the desire to improve one’s life, low payment in domestic work, swindle and false promises by brokers, better paying job in the Middle East, and failure in an exam were seen as the main cause of human trafficking. In addition to this, pressure from friends, family, and relative, conflict among family member, the success stories of returnees, to support of families were also seen as the cause of human trafficking. Furthermore, the study reveals that though there are opportunities in the homeland to change oneself, but there were cases that contributed for human trafficking. The study also identify the effects of human trafficking on youths were imprisonment, death, forced labour, long working hour, restriction of movement, negligence and denied of food, loss of life, and psycho-emotional harmed. Thus it is the belief of the researcher that the outcomes of this study were important to all concerned body to take the necessary measures for the sake of saving the lives of the youth from trafficking. Overall, the government should apply different possibilities of job creation that targeting youth beneficiary, and awareness raising program should be done in shaping the mind of youth about the effects of human trafficking. Furthermore, government and nongovernment organization, civil societies, and different layers of government from kabale levels to the regional government should follow up the activities of brokers and apply law enforcement mechanism to reduce the crime of trafficking in person; moreover, the justice system should apply the rule of law.
Key-word: human trafficking, causes, effects, youth, victims of trafficking, families of victims, negative cause, positive cause, Middle East, Dodola woreda
Table of contents
LIST OF TABLES VI
LIST OF FIGURE VII
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 3
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 5
1.3.1. General Objective 5
1.3.2. Specific Objective 5
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTION 6
1.5. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH 6
1.6. THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY 6
1.7. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 7
1.8. ORGANIZATION OF THE PAPER 7
CHAPTER TWO 10
REVIEW OF LITERATURE 10
2.1. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 10
2.1.1. Neoclassical Migration Theory 10
2.1.2. The New Economics of Labour Migration (NELM) 11
2.1.3. Migration System Theory 11
2.2. DEFINITION OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING 13
2.4. HUMAN TRAFFICKING VS HUMAN SMUGGLING 14
2.4.1. Source of Benefit 14
2.4.2. Trans-nationality 14
2.4.3. Victimization 14
2.5. COMPONENTS OF TRAFFICKING AND FORCED LABOUR 15
2.5.1. Recruitment 16
2.5.2. Transportation 16
2.5.3. Exploitation 16
2.6. “PUSH” AND “PULL” FACTOR 17
2.7. GLOBAL OVERVIEW OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING 18
2.8. HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN AFRICA 18
2.9. CAUSES OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN ETHIOPIA 19
2.9.1. Cultural practices, belief systems and behaviors of communities where trafficking exists 20
2.10. CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN ETHIOPIA 20
2.11. ACTORS INVOLVED IN THE TRAFFICKING PROCESS 21
2.12.1. FACILITATORS, SMUGGLERS AND TRAFFICKING 21
2.13. THE CONSTITUTION OF FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA 21
2.14. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 27
2.15. Conceptual Framework of variables 29
CHAPTER THREE 30
METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY 30
3.1. DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA AND POPULATION. 30
3.2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 32
3.3. DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY OF THE THESIS. 32
3.3.1. Research Design 32
3.3.2. The Methodology of the thesis. 32
3.4. SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE 33
3.5. DATA GATHERING TOOLS 34
3.5.1. Questionnaires 34
3.5.2. Interview 35
3.5.3. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) 35
3.5.4. Document studies 36
3.6. Methods of data analysis 36
3.7. Ethical Consideration 37
CHAPTER FOUR 38
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 38
General background of the respondents 38
4.1. THE SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTIC OF RESPONDENTS 38
4.1.1. Sex of the respondent 38
4.1.2. Age related information 39
4.1.3. Educational status of respondent 40
4.1.4. Occupational status of the respondents 40
4.1.5. Marital status of the respondents 41
4.2. RESPONDENTS VIEW ON THE CAUSE OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING 42
4.2.1. Push factor (supply side) cause of human trafficking 44
4.2.3. Pull factor (demand side) cause of human trafficking 45
4.4. ANALYSIS ON THE SITUATION OF TRAFFICKERS/BROKERS/ 52
4.3. RESPONDENTS VIEW ON THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING 54
4.3.1. Economic effects of human trafficking 54
4.3.2. Social effects of human trafficking 56
4.3.3. Psycho-emotional effects human trafficking 56
CHAPTER FIVE 58
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 58
5.1. CONCLUSION 58
5.2. RECOMMENDATION 60
APPENDIX 1 68
APPENDIX 2 69
APPENDIX, 3 72
APPENDIX, 4 79
APPENDIX, 5 85
APPENDIX, 6 91
APPENDIX, 7 94
APPENDIX, 8 96
1.1. Background of the study
As the United Nations human trafficking protocol to prevent, suppress, and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, and known as the Palermo Protocol (2000) by Supplementing the United Nations Conventions against Transnational Organized Crime defines trafficking in persons, in Article 3 (a) as the following. According to them human trafficking were defined as, the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud of deception. In addition to this, they define human trafficking as of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, to exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.
As human trafficking scholars suggest that, the available data on human trafficking were not based on concrete, reliable and comparable data. As Cwikel and Hoban, (2005b), Laczko (2005a), Laczko and Gramegna (2003), Lange (2011), Macklin (2003) there is high level of variability and unreliability in the global human trafficking data. It also explained in this definition, trafficking in persons is more than simply moving someone from one location to another against their will. In addition, it was forcing someone to work in poor conditions. The complex phenomenon of human trafficking is often confused with other forms of people movement, such as irregular migration and smuggling of migrants. As a result, people who have been trafficked were treated as criminals rather than victims.
Ethiopia has ratified major international instruments that criminalize trafficking in persons. The FDRE Constitution Article 18 (2) reads as; ‘No one shall be held in slavery or servitude’. ‘Trafficking in human beings for whatever purpose is prohibited.’ The revised Criminal Code of Ethiopia further incorporates the provisions that criminalize trafficking in persons, particularly of women and children (articles 596, 597, 598 and 635). Despite the international, regional, and national human rights standards, thousands of Ethiopians young ages were trafficked to different countries of the world including to the Sudan, South Africa, and the Middle East. However, there were very little or no reliable information on the nature of human trafficking in Ethiopia because trafficking in human done secretly and little crime were reported for fear of retribution (ILO, 2011)
As Wegayehu Tufa (2014) cited in Beyene, (2005) Traffickers can brainwashes young and productive age and make promises of glorious life as the result, they were engaged in human trafficking process. In addition to this, there are pressures from families, friends, and neighbors influences youth’s decision for trafficking. The victims of human trafficking can an easy prey to trafficking because of inappropriate information from peers and other nearby people. Peoples lent money to pay for the traffickers from their neighbors to send their young group. In addition to this the trafficked people also believe, that when he or she can go out they can make money in easy way at short time. Even if there is a chance of getting opportunity of work in homeland country, he or she can compare and calculate the time of money they make big asset in and outside country. Hence, they can make money in two or three years outside country, but they believe, as it was, take lifetime process working inside the country
Trafficked young ages were traumatized in many cases, they are beaten, the grill can be raped, and threatened, confined and/or deprived of food until they agree to the trafficker’s demands, and make them dependent on traffickers and as debt bondage to control and coerce them. Many are forced to have sex with multiple clients per day. They also suffer from a series of diseases associated with multiple rape and physical abuse. Worse still intimidation and violence are very common, and extreme, particularly in cases with “mafia” or organized crime connections (OSCE, 1999).
Victims of trafficking person could hardly care for their elderly and their children. This leads to the breakdown of families and neglect of children (Danilova, 2010). Human trafficking can also affect democracy and democratization in many developing nations in many ways. Among these the trafficked person can lose, his/her live during the trafficked process or has no health. Bellesa Jemal (2014) cited in Agrinet (2003) and PCI (2010) the ever-growing processes of human trafficking perpetuated by organized and sophisticated criminal enterprises. These criminal activities and the official corruption linked to trafficking undermine democratic institutions and challenge of the principle of the rule of law. While the trafficked persons go distance area, and as the result, they may lose their liver due to hardship they face on their journey. This can challenge the activities of the government (Gabriel, 2012)
1.2. Statement of the problem
Human trafficking is a complex issue that affects every corner of the globe. There are not a single country that is unaffected by the effects of ‘modern day- slavery’. Slavery, as commonly supposed was not eradicated during the nineteenth century, it had only expanded over time to form an enormous global trade system of human beings into what was known as human trafficking or ‘modern day slavery’ (Emser, 2013)
As Horwood (2009) cited in IOM (2009) human trafficking was defined as, the use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of abuse of power, or of a position of vulnerability. In addition to this human trafficking, giving or receiving of payments or benefits to obtain the consent of a person to having control over another person, for exploiting the labour. Trafficked persons are thus, considered as victims of human rights and labour standards violation. In addition to this, human trafficking refers to the organized, illegal entry of a person into a state of which the person is not a national or a permanent resident.
Human trafficking can bring social, economical, and political crisis to the country in general and individual in particularly. Most of Ethiopian young age becomes victims of human trafficking to earn a better livelihood in Middle East; however, the result of trafficking leads to many problems. The traffickers receive a huge amount of money from potential victims of trafficking and families. To pay this money, the families sell their properties, such as cattle, house, and rent farmland even selling their land illegally. The family of victim had also taken credit from different financial institution such as, office of credit and saving and from their relatives. Due to this, they get into long lasting trouble in their life by working for long hour. This can affect the country as a whole, and the trafficked person that get back empty hand, and their family in particularly (ILO, 2014).
Human trafficking is increasing in alarmingly in the world in general and in developing countries with no exceptionality in the study area in particular. The rationale behind among others are, the Ethiopian young age becomes the victims of human trafficking by the process of trafficking to life a better live are an overriding factor for young’s group in general. The victims of trafficking do not have legal permit to live in host country and can be affected psychologically, socially and, morally and get anxiety due to unexpected situation they are face in destination as well in home country. They live lonely and community with nothing almost only obeying order from the exploitative person. They rarely share their ideas with whom they are working together with their friends. In this way they were affected socially and politically (ILO, 2011).
The key drivers of traffickers to engage in human trafficking activates were to accumulate wealth from human of trafficking process through giving false promise and information. Brokers use different methods to encourage the poor youth to migrate to another place. They often promise the victims that they were got them employed in hotels and other service offering industries. Such false promises of steady employment as house cleaners, car drivers, and hotel service positions or attendants, motivate individuals to migrate to those places. This has become a very common method of taking victims from their homeland to a place that they know nothing about (Gudetu, 2014). Although the work of PEAs in Ethiopia officially considered as labor supply through legal recruitment means, there are cases in which the agencies engage in illicit recruitment and travel processes by receiving payments that prohibited in the proclamation 632/2009. The domestic workers fall under various kinds of exploitations in the destination countries by their employers.
Oromia regional state is not an exceptional to these problems. In west Arsi zone Dodola woreda, the causes of human trafficking and the problem attached to is prevailed. The trafficked persons thought to respond to the economic crisis of their family and become a heavy burden and work the entire times in household activities. In addition to this, the extreme abuses of youngster in a destination whose hope to change their live, and their family’s lives were very sad, when what they supposed was opposite. The family of victims were also faced the shortage of money to pay back they were borrowed for the process of sending their son or daughter. In addition to this, the families of victims were also not as such success from returnees (labour and social affair office of Dodola woreda, 2018)
Apart from the economic one, the social side of human trafficking were abuse of human right and these were included beating, confinement, and starvation, thrown from building, rape and in the worst form death. There were also death reports from the labour and social affair of Dodola district by human trafficking abuse. It is not difficult to imagine how mad problems of these. At all its stage, it was violating human rights. However, the International human rights instruments always dictate that, human rights should not be violated. However, the violations of human rights shade the country’s good image and affect the foreign relation between sending and receiving countries. Moreover, it affects the victims of trafficking and families of victims moral and psychological.
Dodola woreda was selected because; it is one of the major areas of the woreda in west Arsi Zone where the problem of human trafficking were more prevalent. Secondly, from the 23 kebeles in the district, four kebeles, Edo, Heraro, Berisa, and Serofta were selected purposively based on the magnitude of the problem of human trafficking. Thirdly, according to data obtained from labour and social affair office of Dodola woreda, there were about 206 victims of human trafficking in 2007 E. C; from which 4 were died 2 were badly harmed. Therefore, if this condition were continuing in the same rate, the live of victims were put endangers and they were affected economically, politically, socially and morally. If the problem human trafficking were unsolved, the community’s development were put endangered. With regard to the research gap, the researcher observed that, there had been relative researches done on the researcher’s title but what distinguish the researcher title from others is that it takes into consideration human trafficking were affecting more youth and productive age. The researcher had also observed that no research have been conducted in the study area within this specific topic. Thus, the researcher; was initiated to conduct this study on the selected topic and area of the study to give the possible suggestion on the effects of human trafficking through identifying the major causes of the human trafficking but, it may be difficult to total avoid this problem within this specific research.
1.3. Objectives of the Study
1.3.1. General objective
The overall objective of the study was tries to address the causes and effects of human trafficking on young group in Dodola Woreda with the following specific objectives.
1.3.2. Specific objective
To analyze why the youths were engaging in human trafficking in Dodola woreda.
To assess how human trafficking is affecting youths people politically, economically, and socially;
To analyze the key drivers of the traffickers’ to engage in human trafficking process in Dodola; and
To identify the main effects of human trafficking on youths in Dodola woreda.
1.4. Research question
Under this topic, the following research questions were to address:
1. Why the youths were engaged in human trafficking in Dodola woreda?
2. How human trafficking were affect the young group politically, economically, and socially in Dodola woreda?
3. What are the key drivers of the traffickers’ to engage in human trafficking process in Dodola woreda?
4. What are the main effects of human trafficking on youth in Dodola woreda?
1.5. Significance of the Research
The foremost purpose of this research is for completion of MA degree in Political science and International relation. It is a building stone for the researcher to continuing further education. It also affixes a significant element to the academic sphere; moreover, it adds knowledge to individuals who are interested in doing further research in this area of interest. It also expected to open a discussion and research interests in human trafficking and human security.
In addition to this, it also helpful for the government, and nongovernmental organization as well the community, at large in solving the recurrent problem. It also important to know the cause of problems of human trafficking; moreover, to recommend the possible strategies for better community development endeavors. It is also useful for the migrant is sending community, and their local administration to locate possible strategies for tracking and creating consciousness about human trafficking, specifically its cause and challenges.
1.6. Scope of the study
This research was used the term of ‘trafficking in human beings’ as defined in the Palermo Protocol. The research mainly focuses on cross border trafficking. Although external trafficking may be committed for different purposes, the scope of this research study was limited to human trafficking for labour purposes, with particular emphasis on the young group. In addition to this, the scope of this study was also looks into the cause, and effects of human trafficking in Ethiopia: cases from Dodola woreda Oromia National regional state. The study was focus on trafficked young peoples, those who went Middle East for better living conditions but vulnerable to exploitation particularly in Saudi Arabia, Bruit, and Kuwait. It was also described the causes of trafficking, and its consequences on victims of human trafficking and their family.
1.7. Limitations of the study
Because of the hidden and underground nature of human trafficking, it could be difficult to locate communities where trafficking exists. In addition to this, during the fieldwork, there were a shortage of statistical data on the total number of out trafficked and returnees. The researcher was to consult the Labour and Social Affairs offices but no significant statistical data on the number of returnees. Most of the trafficked were undocumented; hence, researcher faced inadequacy in statistical data on the district on the number of trafficked person; furthermore, victims of trafficking were a ‘hidden group’ and different factors such as cultural acceptability victims of trafficking, the clandestine and sensitive nature of trafficking in persons, as well negative attitudes towards failed trafficking experiences. This is true not only for victims still living in exploitative conditions but also for returnees who were victims of trafficking.
Traffickers had not easily accessible and wisely provide information, since they resort to clandestine operation and due to fear of being reported to the police. Key informants on the operations of traffickers are also difficult to find. They had limited information regarding the operations of brokers and other traffickers. In addition, the institutions involved in giving the data about human trafficking have no maintain easy-to-access, up-to-date, and organized data.
1.8. Organization of the paper
The researcher was organized this thesis into five main chapters. The first chapter of the research was deals with an introduction chapter. The introductory chapter was contained background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research question, the significance of the study, scope of the study, limitation of the study, and organization of the paper. The second chapter of the study was focus on presentation of a literature review of the thesis. This chapter was constitutes the theoretical part of the research production. It also explained the cause and effects of human trafficking, and its consequences. It was very essential and supporting part of study.
The third chapter was introduced the methodology that employed for the research. In addition to this, this chapter also describes the description of study area. The fourth chapter was presented the about the findings of the research. The last chapter of the research project was conclusion and its recommendation
Review of Literature
In this chapter, topic relevant literatures were reviewed in order to get a broader insight and understanding. The global as well as national meanings of human trafficking were discussed. The theoretical model of the discussion was also cover in this section. Human trafficking is a universal human right violating crime and a contemporary concern of states, international organizations, local, NGOs and individual scholars. The problem initiates discourses and resulted in various kinds of literature; books, research articles, dissertations, theses and different kinds of reports that are available on print and non print formats. For the purpose of this particular study, literature on human trafficking in general and trafficking of Ethiopian young age in particular were consulted.
2.1. Theoretical Framework
For purpose of this study the theoretical model that can explain the causes of the trafficking that is found to be appropriate for better understand are neoclassical theory, the new economics of labour (NEL) and system theory.
2.1.1. Neoclassical Theory
It is true that people trafficked for different reasons/factors. For adequately understand the causal factors underlining theories of trafficking have been developed in the past couple of decades. There are three main reasons why people were trafficked, and the factors that sustain trafficking are flows “…demand-pull factors in the destination area, supply-push factors in the origin area, and network factors that link origin and destination” (Martin 2003:10).
One of the main theories that attempts to explain people’s movement across borders is neoclassical theory. It operates at both macro and micro levels. A key insight of this theory is that international migration arises from geographic differences in the supply of and demand for labour. As a result, people in search of employment migrate from the low age country to the high wage country Massey et al. 2006:36). The assumption of this approach specific to trafficking “the supply and demand for labour is driven by socio-economic conditions in both the origin and destination countries, conditions heightened by the stratifying effects of globalization along gender, ethnic, and geographic lines” (Hebert 2012:89).
Neo-classical approach is optimistic about the impacts of trafficking on labour-sending counties due to high expectations of reduced poverty, unemployment and overpopulation. Further, Constant and Massey (2002) have fostered an assumption of Neo-classical perspective where the victims would not return to the home country as long as he/she benefits from low wages, education and prestige in the host country.
2.1.2. The New Economics of Labour theory (NEL)
New Economics of Labour has been developed recently with the purpose of challenging the assumptions and conclusions of Neo-classical Theory. NEL focuses on trafficking from the micro individual level to meso units such as families, households or other culturally defined units. In other words, a key insight of this new approach theory is that the decision to trafficking is not merely an individual decision, but also is a collective decision of households or families. Their aim is not only to increase income, but is also a risk management strategy in the context of market failures, in addition to failures in the labour market (Stark, 1984, 1991; Stark ; Levhari, 1982; Massey et al., 1993; Taylor, 1999). However, the theory suggests not to ignore individual behavior, but to study it in the context of a group (Stark, 1991).
“A number of empirical studies from diverse regions support the new economics of labour theories (NEL) hypothesis that migration and remittances have positive indirect effects on incomes in migrant sending households, easing capital and risk constraints on local production” (Taylor 1999). Based on the premises of NEL, Taylor (2004) states that, this theory remittance, savings both directly and indirectly contributes to the income of those households receiving remittances, and that the contribution may be significant.
2.1.3. System Theory
The core assumption behind this theory is that the movement of people contributes to change the economic, social, cultural and institutional conditions in both the receiving and sending country. De Haas (2010a) has identified that the Network Theory closely affiliated to the system theory. Further, the focus of the System approach is on both the macro and micro linkages of places linked to the migration process Fawcett and Arnold (1987); Kritz, Lim, and Zlotnik, (1992). Micro level factors include kinship and friendship systems, while macro level factors focus on economy, dominance, political systems, national policies, and cultural and social systems. Unlike the other models, the System Theory emphasizes on the mutual link between trafficking and development (De Haas, 2010a). Therefore, this theory is relevant for developing a theoretical framework that considers trafficking in a broader perspective.
Figure 1.summery of the theory
Source own owing
(Source own drawing form theory, 2018)
2.2. Definition of human trafficking
According to the statement on trafficking the protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, also known as the Palermo Protocol (Art. 3a UN, 2000) provides definition that could be universally applicable states as:
“Trafficking in persons shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs”.
As Gurnam Singh and Harbilas Singh (2013) cited in the US Department of State in its documents ‘Trafficking in Persons Report’ (2010) uses the term, “trafficking in persons” for “activities involved when one person obtains or holds another person in compelled service (US Department of State, 2010: NP), “using a number of different terms such as involuntary servitude, slavery, debt bondage, and forced labour. The US State Department, further, says that: …a person may be a trafficking victim regardless of whether they once consented, participated in a crime as a direct result of being trafficked, were transported into the exploitative situation, or were simply born into a state of servitude. At the heart of this phenomenon are the numerous forms of enslavement not the activities involved in international transportation (2010: NP).
International Organization for Migration (IOM) defines trafficking in migrants as an act when the following conditions were met. According to the statement of (IOM); An international border is crossed, departure, transit, entry or stay of a migrant is illegal; an intermediary or the trafficker is involved in the movement of the migrant providing services, such as supplying counterfeit identity documents, official or unofficial transportation and introduction into the illegal labour market in the destination country. The trafficker profits from such activities and that the transaction is voluntary, other than in cases of (Yussouf, 2008: 173).
According to the definition given, trafficking not only involves force to abduct a victim which in most cases, considered to commit by illegal individuals but also applies complex means of deception. Although the work of PEAs in Ethiopia is officially considered as worker supply through legal recruitment means, there are cases where the agencies engage in illicit recruitment and travel processes by receiving payments that is prohibited in the proclamation 632/2009. The domestic workers fall under various kinds of exploitations in the destination countries by their employers.
2.4. Human Trafficking Vs Human Smuggling
There is a general misconception that human trafficking and the smuggling of persons and illegal immigration are the same issue. The definition of human trafficking provided by the separate UN protocol on that phenomenon one can identify a number of distinguishing elements. First, trafficking necessities the threat of, use force, coercion, or deception against victims; however, smuggling migrants who have been smuggled have voluntarily consented to their smuggler; moreover, victims of trafficking have not consented or, if they have initially consented, the consent has been rendered meaningless given the abusive coercive or deceptive action of the trafficker. Second, smuggling necessities the crossing of international borders, but human trafficking can take place both across international borders, and within the state (Wegayehu, 2014).
According to Union Council Framework Decision on Combating Human Trafficking, there are three basic differences between human smuggling and human trafficking as summarized below:
2.4.1. Source of Benefit: The primary source of profit and thus the primary purpose of human trafficking is exploitation. In contrast, smugglers generate their profit through facilitating illegal entry or stay. After reaching destination country, the relationship between migrant and smuggler usually ends.
2.4.2. Trans-nationality: Migrant smuggling always has a trans-national dimension involving at least two countries. However, in case of trafficking it can be within the borders of a particular state.
2.4.3. Victimization: Smuggling does not necessarily involve the victimization of the migrant. Migrant smuggled generally consent to the smuggled. In contrast, victims of trafficking have either never consented or if they have given initial consent it became meaningless by the means by which the trafficker had gained control over the victim such as deception or violence. Smuggled person is part of crime and trafficked person is victim of crime (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2010)
Figure, 2 the difference between human trafficking and smuggling
(Source own drawing from literature, 2018)
2.5. Components of trafficking and forced labour
According to International Labour Organization (2011), Trafficking in Persons Overseas for Labour Purposes state trafficking in persons consists of three essential components:
1. Recruitment: by force or deception;
2. Transportation: within a country or across borders, legally or illegally, and
3. Exploitation: traffickers financially benefit through the use or sale of the victim.
Research Conducted by Play Therapy Africa Ltd (2011) state on Trafficking in Persons Overseas for Labour Purposes how people enter the process of trafficking through recruitment by other people. According to them, most are lured into the process by a false promise of an opportunity, deceived by misinformation or lies, or pushed by need or desperation. In some cases, victims are aware that they are to be employed in a given activity but do not know the conditions in which they were working. In other situations, victims were coerced, in extreme cases abducted. The recruitment also made by families, relatives, friends, neighbors, brokers, or recruitment agencies.
Once the victims are recruited, they are transported from one town, area, or country to another. This may involve someone or a group of people to facilitate and arrange the movement, provide for false travel documents and shelter along the way. There are instances where corrupt border guards, immigration or law enforcement personnel and officials are also involved. Transport providers may or may not know the nature of their cargo (International Labour Organization, 2011).
The main purpose of recruiting and transporting victims in this case, is to exploit them by engaging them, for instance, into prostitution, domestic servitude, forced labour, and, in some instances for body organs removal. In most cases, the main purpose is thus to profit from the exploitation of labour. The notion of exploitation of labour allows a link to establish between the Palermo Protocol and the ILO Convention No. 29 on Forced Labour. Article two, paragraph 1 of the latter Convention defines ‘forced or compulsory labour’ as “all work or service, which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which they said person has not offered himself voluntarily”.
Most employers feel they own the migrant workers because they paid for the recruitment and any other related fees, just as if they own any other property they have paid for. The lack of social and legal protection in the destination countries gives traffickers and employers power over trafficked victims. This power exercised through physical, emotional and sexual abuse and threat.
Figure 3: trafficking in Persons
Source: Human trafficking and smuggling of migrants in the context of mixed migration flows (IGAD RCP, 2015)
2.6. “Push” and “Pull” factor
According to Gurnam Singh and Harbilas Singh (2013), the “push” and “pull” are reinforcing factors that contribute to trafficking in persons. “Push” factors are those hostile social, economic, political conditions in the countries of origin which encourage or force the people to migrate for the greener pastures. These conditions include extreme poverty, unemployment, lack of education, political corruption and political instability and civil war or conflict situations in countries of origin. Poverty and unemployment put a person to enter into situation of exploitation without fully knowing about it, as they do not have many alternatives. Powerlessness and marginal position of poor and unemployed people in society provide traffickers an opportunity to exploit them. The visible gaps in the standards of living of people also lead to their victimization as they start regarding migration as only way to become rich. Difference between wages in home country and abroad is quiet huge and aggravate the danger (Wheaton, Schauer and Galli, 2010:123).
The “pull” factors are also responsible for flourishing the trafficking in human beings. It refers to such elements that exist in the destination countries and attract the people to migrate there. This category includes a globalized free-market economy that has increased the demand for cheap labour, goods and services. The labour from the third world countries is quite cheap, less demanding and harder working. Thus, because of hyper-capitalism, human beings have also become the commodities. This mutual beneficiary pattern of demand and supply has also given birth to transnational criminal networks that are earning from the migration of people and making them victims of trafficking (The Levin Institute, 2011: 13-14).
2.7. Global Overview of Human Trafficking
As Wegayehu Tufa (2014) cited in Laczko, (2005) an estimated of 600,000 to 800,000 men and women and men are trafficked across global borders every year. The report also added that the figures quoted above do not include millions who are victims of trafficking within their nations. All East African countries have recognized as source transit and destination. The study also shows that trafficking occur both international and across borders to other countries in the East and southern Africa and Trans continentally to Europe and the Middle East.
As Wegayehu Tufa (2014) cited in Endeshaw (2006) revealed that trafficking is not a new phenomenon, but it has recently reemerged globally. Global March show that trafficking of persons leaves no country untouched and the widespread global nature of the practice is on the rise. The author listed Ethiopia among countries affected by the practice (Allais, 2004)Trafficking of person has evolved in to one of the most tragic feature of contemporary global migration and the situation of victims is described as follows. Victims of trafficking were exposed to physical and psychological violence and abused, denied labor right. Are illegal before the law and are often found in a forced and unwanted relationship or dependency with their traffickers. (IOM, 2003)
2.8. Human Trafficking In Africa
A review of existing literature indicates that individual characteristics such as gender, socio economic status education, employment and personal aspiration related to an individual’s lively of being trafficked. The first evidenced of UN employment came not from statistical data but from reports about the appearance in various towns of people who obviously has no jobs. They came in increasing numbers, and lived in shantytowns in desperation and poverty. Street children as beggary who simply work on the stretch but are without families or homes are increasing in number in substandard Africa major cites irregular migration as well as trafficking young boy’s and girl’s was stimulated and indemnified by worsening youth unemployment and rapidly deteriorating socio economic condition and poverty (Annan, 2006)
The research reviewed focuses primarily on how the economic environment in people’s home communities contributes to their vulnerability to trafficking. However, some mention of other community or environmental characteristics may be important. This includes the lack of protected services for children trading to escape an abusive home, employer, or early marriage (Masudi, 2001). The vulnerability of working and abusive home, employer may be compounded by the fed and sometimes inability to reform home or to access support after migrating.
2.9. Causes of Human Trafficking in Ethiopia
As Gudetu (2013) state the cause of human trafficking states as it was the corrupt mode of human migration. Human migration cannot stop, but human trafficking can be. Even if there is no single country that succeeded in stopping human trafficking. Women’s unemployment and underemployment could partially be associated to their low level of education, and it encourages the process of human trafficking. It is an overt truth that women’s educational attainment was directly related to their better status in the society. As it can also be observed from the profile, of labour and social affair of Dodola woreda the number of the educational attainment of women out-migrates is low. Hence, poverty because of poor employment and unemployment is one area that exposed women to trafficking. Dishonest agents who claim to have established contacts with employers oversees process trafficking. These agents were place victims of trafficking in exploitative conditions (Gudatu, 2013:239).
Economic factors are also causes of migration to the Middle East. Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat (2014), Fransen ; Kuschminder (2009), Baker ; Aina (1995), Atnafu (2006) presented economic factors as the main driving force for Ethiopian youth migration to the Middle East. For local communities of Ethiopia, migration is the only viable option for alleviating their poverty.
Many youths of Ethiopia migrate to boost their material gains Selamawit, B (2013) states the factors that cause Trafficking as “People fall victim to trafficking for many reasons. Although the root causes of trafficking vary from country to country, there are however many factors that tend to be common to trafficking in general according to US Department of State (2012) report. Social, economic and political factors are major driving forces. Socially marginalized, economically deprived and poverty stricken individuals are primary victims of trafficking through deception and coercion.”
2.9.1. Cultural practices, belief systems and behaviors of communities where trafficking exists
Across the world, numerous belief systems, cultural patterns and practices affect potential human trafficking victims. An example of a cultural belief that was found to impose subjection was a study done on child trafficking in Thailand, where it was found that a typical belief pattern was for families to view their children as being responsible for helping to provide for the family through means of income, household help, and community labor (Taylor, 2005:413). In the developing world, it is typical to find a lack of accessible resources so parents was readily assign responsibility to their children in the allocation of care concerning “each child’s perceived potential economic, social and reproductive returns” (Taylor, 2005:414). A child’s birth order and sex are determinates of whether they are deemed as a helper child, particularly for the firstborn daughter. The common belief is that daughters are responsible for the welfare of the family especially their younger siblings and seeing to the well-being of their elderly parents (Taylor, 2005).
2.10. Consequences of Human Trafficking in Ethiopia
“The consequences of human trafficking can be social, political and economical. Most of Ethiopian women become victims of human trafficking in their process of migration to earn a better livelihood. Earning a better livelihood was an overriding factor for women’s migration in general and trafficking in particular. The result of trafficking is exploitation of victims for different purposes. Traffickers receive huge amount of money from potential victims and their families too. In most cases, this money comes from selling of movable and immovable properties, such as cattle and land. In addition, they take credit from siblings and neighbors. Women who are trafficked in most cases get back to their country empty handed, because they do not have legal permit for employment and their employers do whatever they like to exploit them. Hence, let alone getting their life improved, they get into long lasting trouble in their life” (Gudetu 2013:241)
Therefore, the economic impact of trafficking is capital, as it not only affects the migrant, who get back empty handed, but also their family and the country as a whole. Migration, which was thought to respond to the economic crisis of the family and the migrant, becomes a heavy burden to the entire household. Another consequence, which is not distinctly apart from the economic one, is the social side of human trafficking.
A statement quoted by Beydoun (2006) reads; Trafficking does not occur in a vacuum. It is a crime because of various and combined social situations and circumstances, legal systems, people and their needs. Trafficking is not one event, but a series of constitutive acts and circumstances implicating a wide range of actors. When seeking a solution, extracting one aspect of the equation would be futile (for example restricting migration) since the combined forces would continue to act (people’s need, social situations, poverty, violence, demand, and criminal intent) even with the elimination of one of its links.
2.11. Actors Involved in the Trafficking Process
2.12.1. Facilitators, Smugglers and Trafficking
As Habteyes (2016) cited in Wegayehu (2014) state, “Facilitators are typically neighbors or other person who knows the targets. This can also include close relatives and family members. The main tasks of the facilitators in the recruitment process are to seek out potential victims, convince victims and their families of the benefits of working abroad and arrange a meeting with the broker. They are beneficial; actually, they receive commissions from brokers for each successfully trafficked person. Working through facilitators benefits the brokers in many ways. There is a better chance of engaging the victims while and at the same time reducing suspicion of active recruitment. The arrangement also makes it easier for the broker in communities where he or she was not known. Additionally, the brokers are were not held responsible for the victim’s exploitation in the eyes of the community.
Likewise, Yamauchi (2003) as cited in Adamnesh (2006) stated that people migrate though different channels such as through family ties, networks, labor brokers, smugglers and traffickers to mention few. Equivalently, the study finding elaborated that almost all of the participants traveled to Saudi Arabia due to the push by smugglers and family/friends. The smugglers arrange transport, receivers to the host country, prepare false documents like passports, visas, and work permits.
2.13. The Constitution of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
The constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in its proclamation no.1/1995 article 18 declares prohibition against inhuman treatment and makes it clear that everyone has the right to protection against cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. No. 2 of this article prohibits trafficking in human beings for any purpose and states that no one shall be held in slavery or servitude. In addition, article 32 of the constitution guarantees the freedom of every Ethiopian to move and reside within the country, to leave the country whenever one wishes, and to return to the country. However, in practice, any Ethiopian who wishes to travel abroad for any reason is provided with a travel document or passport. The challenges associated with this freedom, is the situation of Ethiopian young aged who migrate to the Middle East and Gulf countries to seek for employment. The challenges include the issue of how to prevent such situations while respecting the constitutional and human rights of movement of all Ethiopian citizens.
Trafficking in human being was prohibited as provided under Article 18 (2) of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. According to Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Proclamation No.909/2015, Ethiopia has signed the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crimes and ratified the United Nations Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons especially Women and Children. In addition to this, it is found important to promulgate a law consistent with the Constitution and these international instruments; in accordance with Article 55 (1) of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, it is hereby proclaimed as follows: the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants Proclamation No.909/2015.
According to the Proclamation No.909/2015 of The Federal Negarit Gazette of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia human trafficker were defined in following. As to this proclamation, 1/ “human trafficker” or “migrant smuggler” means a person who: a) by any means, either directly or indirectly, in violation of the law or by his personal initiation, commits or attempts to commit the crimes of Human Trafficking and Smuggling of Migrants; b) Participants as an accomplice in the crimes of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants; c) Organizes other people to participate in the crimes or who provides order for organized criminal group; d) Solicits people from their residence to migrate by providing a promise; or e) In any way encourages, promotes or intentionally gives assistance for persons organized with common motive for the commission of the crime stipulated in this Proclamation; living either in the territory of Ethiopia or outside.
2/ “organized criminal group” means a structured group of two or more person living and operating in Ethiopia or elsewhere, existing for a limited or unlimited period of time and acting in concert with the aim of committing one or more offences stipulated under this Proclamation, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly a financial or other material benefit, and it includes association and groups organized for trafficking;
3/”transnational crime” means when the commission of the crimes stated under this Proclamation: a) involves more than one country; b) is committed under the territory of Ethiopia with its preparation, planning, direction, supervision or funding in another country; c) in committed in another country with its preparation, planning, direction, supervision or funding in Ethiopia or through another country; d) is committed by an organized criminal group engaged in criminal activity in more than one country; e) is committed under the territory of Ethiopia even another country with its effect in another country or in Ethiopia.
4/ “Exploitation” include the following: a) benefiting from prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation; b) labor exploitation, forced labor or servitude; c) slavery or practices similar to slavery; d) sexual servitude and enslavement; e) debt bondage or surrender as pledge for another; f) removal or taking of organs of the human body; g) forcefully engaging for begging; h) engaging children for military service.
5/ “slavery” mean the status or condition of a person over whom any or all the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised;
6/ “servitude” mean the conditions or the obligations to work or to render services from which the person cannot escape, prevent or alter.
7/ “debt bondage” means the pledging by the debtor of his personal service or labor or those of a person under his control as security or payment for a debt, when the length and nature of service is not clearly defined or when the value of the services as reasonably assessed is not applied towards the liquidation of the debt and resemble trafficking in human.
8/ “smuggling of migrants” means an act immigrating or emigrating individuals, in land, see and air, to country of which the person don’t have nationality, work or residence permit, with direct or indirect intention to procure financial or material benefit;
10/ “Refugee” means any person who full fills the criteria has stipulated under Refugee Proclamation;
11/ “victim” means a person against whom the offence stipulated under this Proclamation has been committed or any person who has sustained harm, including mental and physical injury, emotional suffering, economic loss or substantial violation of basic human rights due to the commission of the crime. The other point raised in Federal Negarit Gazette of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Proclamation No.909/2015 Crimes of trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants State Trafficking in Persons in 3/1 any person, for the purpose of exploitation, within the territory or outside of Ethiopia, and as a) at the pretext of domestic or oversees employment or sending to aboard for work or apprenticeship) by concluding adoption agreement or at the pretext of adoption; or c) for any other purpose; using threat or force or other means of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, promise, abuse of power or by using the vulnerability of a person or recruits, transports, transfer harbors or receives any person by giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment from 15 years to 25 years and with fine from 150,000 to 300,000 Birr.
2/ where the crime stipulated under sub-article (1) of this Article? a) is committed against child, women or anyone with mental or physical impairment; b) resulted in physical or psychological harm on the victim; c) is committed by using drugs, medicine or weapons as a means; d) is committed by public official or civil servant in abusing of power; or e) is committed by a person who is parents, brother, sister, a guardian or a person having a power on the victim; the punishment shall be rigorous imprisonment not less than 25 years or life imprisonment and with fine from 200,000 to 500,000 Birr.
3/ the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation shall be considered trafficking in persons even if this does not involve any of the means stipulated under sub article (1) of this article.
4. Assisting and Facilitating Trafficking in Persons For the purpose of promoting human trafficking, any person who: 1/ permits his house building or other permits in his own name or in his control to be used for human trafficking knowingly or ought to have known; 2/ publishes, stores, disseminates, imports or exports any publication; 3/ manages, runs or finances by organizing any job recruitment agency; 4/ knowingly arrange transportation, transport or facilitate the transportation of victim by land, sea or air; 5/ assist, produce, provide, holds and falsifies any fraudulent or false identity card or travel document or assist to get these documents through illegal means for the benefit of other person; or 6/ holds as debt bondage, forcefully snatches, conceals, destroys or causes to destroy the victim’s identity card or travel documents to restrain his right to movement or access to public service; shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment from 15 years to 25 years and with fine from 150,000 to 300,000 Birr.
5. Crime of Smuggling Migrant 1/ Any person, either directly or indirectly with the intention to procure financial or other material benefit, who causes migrants to cross border, attempts to cross or prepare to cross into or out from the territory of Ethiopia illegally shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment of 15 years to 20 years and with fine from 150,000 to 300,000 Birr. 2/ If the crime stipulated under sub-article (1) of this Article: a) is committed against child or women, or any person with mental or physical impairment; b) causes the victim to suffer a physical or psychological harm; c) is committed by using drugs, medicine or weapons; d) is committed by a person who has a similar criminal record; or e) is committed by public official or civil servant in abusing of power; the punishment shall be rigorous imprisonment not less than 20 years and with fine from 300,000 to 500,000 Birr.
6. Aggravated Circumstance where the offence stipulated under Articles 3 and 5 of this Proclamation results in sever bodily injury or death to the victim, where the offender commits the offence as being a member, a leader or coordinator of an organized criminal group or where the crime is committed in large scale, the punishment shall be a life imprisonment or death penalty, depending on the case.
7. Offences Related to Identity Card or Travel Documents Any person who produces, possesses, provides or transfers fraudulent or false identity card or travel documents to smuggle migrants to enter into and escape from the territory of Ethiopia by land, sea or air, shall be punishable with a rigorous imprisonment not less than 10 years and not exceeding 20 years and with a fine from 100,000 to 200,000 Birr.
8. Assisting Smuggled Migrant to Enter or Stay in the Territory of Ethiopia Notwithstanding the provisions of other laws, any person who, knowingly or where he should have known the importance of residence permit, identity card and other travel documents to foreigner to stay or to live in Ethiopian, assists smuggling of migrants to enter in to Ethiopia or assists the smuggled migrants to stay or to live in the territory of Ethiopia, shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment from 3 to 5 years.
9. Assistance to Illegal Stay in any Country Any person who, in order to obtain directly or indirectly a financial or material benefit, intentionally: 1/ assist, to stay in the territory of Ethiopia, a foreigner who is not a national or have no residence permit by violating the law and without complying with the necessary requirements to live legally or to stay an Ethiopian national elsewhere in other country 2/ facilitates the smuggling of another person into Ethiopia or to cross the border or to enter into another country by violating law; 3/ agrees to provide, provides or transfers false identity card or travel document, whereby he knows or should have reasonably known or there is a means to know that the document is to be used for the purpose of smuggling of migrants; shall be punishable with a rigorous imprisonment from 10 years to 15 years and with a fine from 100,000 to 500,000 Birr.
10. Destroying of Evidence and Blocking Testimony Any person who, intimidates by any means or bribes directly or indirectly, an informant, witness or a potential witness not to testify, to provide false testimony or to conceal an evidence in the process of criminal investigation, prosecution or court proceeding of the crime of trafficking in persons or smuggling of migrants or destroys or conceals an evidence by his own, shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment from 10 years to 15 years.
11. Concealing Crime and the Suspected Criminal Any person who conceals the suspected criminal, who is accused of committing the crimes stipulated under this Proclamation, hides a property used or planed for the commission of the crime or conceals the proceed of the crime or the source of the money used for the commission of crime or disguises or fails to report the source or the money, that he should have known the fact that either the source or money is a proceed of crime, shall be punishable with a rigorous imprisonment from 5 years to 10 years, depending on the cases.
12. Failure to Disclose Criminal Acts Whosoever, with regards to the crimes of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants stated on this Proclamation: 1/ having information about the preparation or evidence that may assist to prevent any harm before its commission, fails to immediately inform or give information or evidence to the police or any other competent authority, unless he adduces force majeure or adequate reason prohibiting disclosure, or gives false evidence shall be punishable with simple imprisonment; or if the possible harm of the criminal act is serious, the punishment shall extend to 5 years of rigorous imprisonment; 2/ having an information or evidence capable to arrest, prosecute or punish a suspect or person ready to commit the crime, fails to immediately inform or give information or evidence to the police or any other competent authority, unless he adduces force majeure or adequate reason prohibiting disclosure, or gives false evidence shall be punishable with a rigorous imprisonment not less than 5 years and not exceeding 10 years and a fine of 10,000 to 50,000 Birr.
13. Criminal Liability of Legal Persons 1/ Notwithstanding Article 90 (1), (3) and (4) of the Criminal Code of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, where any offence stipulated under this Part is committed by a direct or indirect participation of juridical person, or the crime is committed in cooperation with organized criminal group or through an illegal association or juridical person established for trafficking or smuggling:
2.14. Conceptual Framework
By taking review of various literatures, 11 independent variables were hypothesized for this study as the cause of human trafficking. However, what have been taken in to account that this is not the only factors that push or pull the process of human trafficking to Middle East that might exert positive or negative influences on the number of out migrate. In the study, the researcher was focus on the young group that were affected by the act of human trafficking. It is based on the recognition that each young person is unique, but all young people are shaped by developmental (including the biological and psychosocial of puberty), culture, gender, and environment.
As Shelley Joy (2012) cited in Barr (2010) Ostrager (2010); Johnson, Blum, and Greded in (2009) and much of literature highlight that young people do not understand or recognize the serious consequences of their action. As the prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain responsible for reasoning and decision making, and it is not fully developed until the mid twenties. This explain why the impulsive and emotional response of adolescence to risk taking is not always about a deficit in knowledge as many young people participate in high risking behaviors even though they know they should not (Muscari 2009; Admas 2009). These influence the young people to engage in human trafficking activities without calculating the consequence of the action that may affect their life. So the studies was try to investigating how the young person affected by the act human trafficking that they are shaped by culture, gender, environment, economy and other people and push and pull factor.
According to the statement of United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Trafficking in Persons Global Patterns Vienna, United Nations, (2006) stated trafficking is a crime against individuals. As them, trafficked persons most directly feel the consequences, and trafficking activities contravene fundamental human rights, denying people basic and broadly affect individual freedoms. Trafficking also has broad economic, social, political and cultural consequences. As a criminal act, trafficking violates the rule of law, threatening national jurisdictions, and international law. Further, trafficking in persons redirects the benefits of migration from migrants, their families, community and government or other potential legitimate employers to the traffickers and their associates. Difficult as it is to measure accurately the scope of human trafficking, it is equally difficult to measure its impact.
2.15. Conceptual Framework of variables
Figure 4. The causes and effects of human trafficking
(Source: own drawing, 2018)
THE METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
3.1. Description of the Study Area and population.
Dodola woreda is one of the 18 woreda’s of West Arsi Zone, which is, found in the central part of Oromia in Ethiopia. It has a total area of approximately 143246 hector with an altitude ranging from 2370 to 3500 above sea level, which is almost within the range of 95% dega and 5% waina dega climate zone. The annual mean temperature oscillates between 13oc-26oc, while the average annual rainfall is between 800-1200mm. It is bordered to the south by Adaba woreda, to the northeast by Kofale, to the North -West by Kokosa and to the West by Nansabo woreda. Currently this woreda has 23 Rular kebeles and has 4 rural towns and on the basis of 2007, CSA, the woreda has a total population of 186, 907, of which, 92,471 were male, and the left 94,436 shows female sections. Out of this total population, 30,250 indicate the urban residents or inhabitants of Dodola district. Here, majorities of the inhabitants (80.65%) were Muslim whereby 17.89% followed by 1.3% indicated the followers of Ethiopian Orthotics Christianity and protestant respectively. Among the 23 woredas of West Arsi Zone, it is one of the best woreda being characterized by having comfortable weather condition for life in general and fertile land for the farm. Here, the study populations are the entire group of people to which a researcher intends the results of a study to apply (Aron ; Coups, 2008). Therefore, the subjects of this study were victims of human trafficking, families’ of victims, policy officer, labour and social affair office, and youth and sport office of dodola woreda.
The study was conducted in the Dodola district, West Arsi, Oromia region in Ethiopia. The reason for selecting Dodola as my study area is the following factors. As data obtained from labour and social affair office from 2014-2018 there was the highest number of migration among West Arsi Zone, Dodola was the second level in returns. Second, it is because of the researcher’s personal experience and familiarity with the language and culture of the region. The study was selected focus on Edo, and Heraro town, as well as Barisa, and Serofta kebales because of the occurrence of a higher level of trafficking in persons than in the other kebales of the woredas. For instance, from the 2014 deportees from Saudi Arabia the highest numbers, and Kuwait, Beirut were small cases of trafficking victims were found respectively (Dodola woreda office of Labor and Social Affairs, 2018).
Figure 5. Map of study area description
Map of Dodola woreda Map of West Arsi zone
Source: (Dodola woreda administrative office, 2018)
3.2. Research methodology
In chapter two of this proposal, the relation between an existing body of knowledge and important issues involved in assessing the causes and effects of human trafficking. This chapter explained the methodology that used in this research and the different techniques that utilized while collecting data including how the primary and secondary data collection. The study was employed both qualitative and quantitative research approach.
3.3. Design and the methodology of the thesis
3.3.1. Research Design
In this research, both descriptive and explanatory research designs were used. The reason to choose this research design was it enabled to describe and explain the intended objective of this study. In order to address these stated objectives, the researcher was used both quantitative and qualitative (mixed) research approaches; however, the qualitative data types were given more attention since it is important to study the research participants’ viewed and experience in-depth/details. As to Marshall and Ross man (1995), the strength of qualitative methodology lies in its uses in descriptive research since it often employed for deeply rooted studies that attempt to interpret the social reality. The issues related to human trafficking are one aspect of the human problem; and, qualitative analysis believed to provide sufficient understanding of the subject (Roger, 2003).
3.3.2. The Methodology of the thesis
This method allows the researcher to investigate initial participant responses by using open-ended questions ask why or how with full freedom and flexibility. The reason why such a method is used is to enable informants to express their ideas in their own words and get the full picture of the problem. Hence, the researcher has primarily used the statements of the trafficking of young aged returnees to establish a pattern of the experiences, treatments, and problems they face throughout their passage and in a destination. Quantitative and qualitative research methods combined as complementary rather than as rival camps in data collection, analysis, and interpretation. The quantitative and qualitative methods complement each other when used in combination and allow for more complete to analysis. Hence, methodological triangulation was employed in this study to understand the whole process of causes and its effects of human trafficking. The qualitative method employed in the investigation of the problem and the researcher used both first and second-hands sources of data collection (Green et.al, 1989).
While designing mixed methods of study, the following issues need consideration: priority, implementation, and integration (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). This study used sequential explanatory mixed methods design, consisting of two distinct phases. In the first phase, the quantitative (numeric) those statistical data was collected through questionnaires. In the second phase, qualitative data was gathering through structured and semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion, and documents studies. The qualitative data analysis was refined and explained results by exploring participants’ view more in depth.
According to Lofland (1995), sequential mixed methods of data collection strategies involve collecting data in an interactive process whereby the data collected in one phase contribute to the data collected in the next. Thus, in this study the informants were quantitative, to obtain the categories of the respondents depend on those returnees from abroad by the act of human trafficking was identified and the frequency of the values to determine the level of the causes. while qualitatively, get to know them personally what have experienced in their life by using questions such as how, and why is happening, what are the challenges, and what are the key driver? To answer the how, what and the why questions, one should focus on people and settings, looking for the meanings that existed in, emerged from, and were consequential for, those settings. Because of these, the sequential mixed research method selected by the researcher to determine the frequency of the factors, and compared the variables; focus on underlying reasons, opinions, feeling, perception, on problems of the human trafficking.
3.4. Sample size and sampling technique
Purposive sampling is used to select participants or specific sites for the study intentionally by the researcher (Kothari 2004:59 and Singh 2006:91). Hence, the researcher in relation to the specified criteria that were assumed important for a particular research question (Kothari 2004:59) purposefully selected participants of this study. Police officers, victims of trafficking and their families, officials from the labour and social affairs offices and representatives of the youth and sports affairs, and districts court judges’ were selected by purposive sampling technique.
Snowball sampling, which is part of purposive sampling, was used to get the target group of trafficking victims. The main strategy of snowball sampling involved to identify the people with relevant attributes and asking them to pinpoint the other people who have similar characteristics or challenges (Bruce 2001:33).
Through purposive sampling, the informants were chosen for an interview. During the selection of participants for an interview, the researcher was looking into consideration the respondents’ age, expertise, social and educational status, and gender.
The total numbers of respondents for this research were 52. Out of these respondents, 35 were males and, 17 were females. Among this 33 were rights holders who were victims of trafficking and the families of victims. From this, 26 of the participants were from the victims of trafficking groups; out of which 10 were females, and 16 were males, who came back from Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The families’ of victims were 8; from this, 6 males and, 2 females. The majority of the sampling was from the rights holder at the age of 18 up to 30. The remaining 18 samples were from the relevant of duty bearers. 6 respondents out of the 18 duty bearers were female, and; 12 were males. Among these 7 Police officers, from these 5 males and 2 female, and 6 officials from the labour and social affairs offices 4 male and 2 female; and, 2 from youth and sport office and both were 2 females; and, 4 from districts court’s judges, and all are males.
3.5. Data gathering tools
The type of data that was being used for this study is quantitative and qualitative. Because through these techniques the numerical value of the sample and clear description and explanation of the past and current factors have been discussed. The first hand and second hand source of data were available in this study. The primary data were gathered via questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussion while the secondary data was collected through published and unpublished relevant documents, materials, reports of the conference, and researches result. Data collection tool for this study treated as a matter of design that was boost the construction of both internal and external validity as well as the reliability of the study that were started by planning for data collection, distribution of questionnaires and conducting of interviews. The data gathering tools employed in this study are as follow:
Taylor (1998:55) explained, “Questionnaires are preferred in the study because they give respondents complete freedom of response. Both open-ended and close ended questionnaire were applied to collect the necessary data. The questionnaires were mainly used because it is appropriate to obtain varieties of options from a large population within short time. To make respondents understand the questionnaire, it was prepared in English and translated into Afan Oromo. The questionnaires were designed for Police officers, and representatives of the youth and sports offices, and districts court judges’ to get information on the nature, scale, socio-economic aspects of human trafficking and as well as its constraints.
The most common sources of data collection in qualitative research are interviews, and review of documents (Holt-Jenson, 1999:11). This study was conducted via person-to-person interview format during data collection. Interviews highly structured style was conduct, for in whom officials from the labour and social affair and the close-ended questionnaire were used primarily to gather socio-demographic information. For the most part, however, interviews are more open- ended and less structured. Frequently, the interviewers asked the same questions of the same categories of participants (For example victim of trafficking, labour, and social affair officials) but the orders of the questions, the exact wording, and the type of follow-up questions were varied considerably.
The researcher was used both structured and unstructured interview in which carefully worded questionnaire was administered in structured; however, the interviewer did not follow rigid form in the case of unstructured. This was encouraged in capturing of respondents’ perceptions in their own words and this is a desirable strategy in qualitative data collection. This allows the researcher to identify the causes and effects of human trafficking from the experience of respondent’s perspective. The interviewers sought to be encouraged, free and open responses, and there is a tradeoff between comprehensive coverage of topics and in-depth exploration of a more limited set of question. The Interviewers has also trained to deviate only minimally from the question wording to ensure uniformity of interview. Interviews were conducted with officials from the labour and social affairs offices and to get information on policy issues, challenges they faced in applying anti-human trafficking, its goal is to elicit rich, detailed material that can be used in the analysis.
3.5.3. Focus Group Discussion (FGD)
FGD was conducted with the selected local community of returnees’ family members. Totally, there were seven FGDs of eight discussants. The analysis was base on the transcripts of taped interviews in Afan Oromo and converting into English. Then it was being analyzed by the researcher thematically.
3.5.4. Document analysis
As Lincoln and Guba (1985: 16) defined a document as “any written or recorded material” not prepared for the purposes of the evaluation or at the request of the inquirer. This technique is preferred because of its ability to provide supplementary information and flexibility, which help in producing descriptive information. For the purpose of this study, Public records such as census and vital statistics reports were observed. Both published and unpublished literature on causes and effects of human trafficking as well as internet sources were consulted. Through this study, the researcher was attempts to review of the relevant written documents about the subject (causes and effects of human trafficking) the written documents has consisted of Dodola district labour and social affair recorded documents, publication, reports presented at conferences, internet, and government documents.
3.6. Methods of data analysis
Mixed data analysis is a complex process that involves moving back and forth between inductive and deductive reasoning (Merriam, 1988). Data collected by qualitative methods are usually voluminous and the analysis does not involve using a set of formula like it does with statistical analysis used in quantitative methods. Therefore, in this study, the researcher was employed mixed data analysis strategy much like to go about organizing, analyzing, numerating and interpreting data. The first step in analyzing this research involved organizing the data for this purpose which essentially means analysis using of the following as data, words derived from interviews, notes of description, from questionnaires, and documents whereby the methods of organizing such data was different depending upon the research strategy or data collection technique. The interview data, for instance, were organized by grouping answer together across respondents. The questionnaires were analyzed compared, and tabulated by frequency and supported by an explanation.
Data analyses of this study were based on inductive analysis, which means that the patterns, themes and categories of analysis produced from the data. These were emerged out of the data rather than being decided prior to data collection and analysis via understanding, examining, tabulating or recombining the problem to identify the cause and effects of human trafficking in Dodola woreda by 2018. The report data examined and analyzed based on data collected from the distributed questionnaires, policy documents and interviews with participants. The responses of the subjects were categorized in score tables, with varying percentages calculated interpretations and drawing conclusions is done in accordance with a number of each item. For the case of qualitative data, field notes have been written and work edited at the end of each working day to ensure accuracy in recording consistency information given from the respondents. After the questionnaire designed, the data was reviewed to test its validity and relevance. In addition, the data gathered in the questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive statics. Its importance descriptive frequency, percentages were computed. Therefore, the collected data were presented to the reader mainly in statement format, and tabulation, Finally, Summary of findings, conclusion, and recommendation was made based on data collected.
3.7. Ethical Consideration
A strict code of conduct must adhere to while doing research. Because there are varying opinions across cultures and countries on what defines ethical behavior, the ethical clearance was obtained from University of the Aksum. Permission had obtained from Dodola labour and social affair offices. Informed oral consent was obtained from the study participants after explaining the purpose and objective of the study. The respondents were told that they have the right to withdraw from giving the response at any time during the interview. To ensure the confidentiality and privacy of participant’s names or codes that led to identifing the respondent for the third party were not recorded throughout the study.