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Another theory that was utilized in this study is the Particle Packing Theory by Kumar & Santhanam (2003). This theory states that there is a need for a comprehensive understanding on the composition of the variety of concrete mixtures proportion’s characteristics both newly made and in hardened states. A concrete’s applicability to building construction is directly affected by the degree and packing of its composition. Hence, there is a need to have knowledge of the concept of particle packing and its effect on concrete performance to enable a mixture designer to select from a wide range of cement replacement materials. Selecting the right composition for a concrete mixture is important because if done incorrectly an unexpected behavior is often encountered on the resultant concrete. A more viable strategy is to design the concrete mixtures based on optimal packing of the granular particles, and improved flow properties of the cement paste using a superplasticiser.

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