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Ans 1)
Introduction: role of leader in motivating his or her subordinates
Leaders require that leadership style which is appropriate for themselves, their subordinates and the project they work for. Leadership culture is defined by the collective action of formal and informal leaders acting together to achieve organizational goals that ultimately marks the difference. The leadership is both leaders themselves and the relationship among them; the skills and behaviour of the leaders are required to execute the organization strategy and policies. The collective leadership capabilities of the leaders acting together in the groups and across the boundaries to implement strategies.
1. Pay employees as they worth
Employees’ salaries should be consistent with respect to what other companies are paying in same industry at that geographic area. Companies should never loose great people because of underpaying them underpaying them.
2. Provide employees pleasant place to work
Office environment plays a very important role to make them feel good and motivating environment. Also it does not require much of investment.
3. Self-development opportunity for employees
Employees are more expressive and result oriented when they are given opportunities to learn new skills and they are provided with good trainings in advance with latest technologies. This makes employee’s work at par with great zeal of work.
4. Team collaboration and participation
Many employees feel that their hard work is not appreciated well and encouragement of the team is very much important for 100 percent input to get output
5. Encourage happiness in employees
Happy employees are enthusiastic and positive members of the team, and their attitude is infectious.

6. Don’t punish failure
Mistakes are part of work, but the key is to learn from mistakes and not to repeat but valuable learning s and doing work accordingly to enhance improvement and bring betterment of work.so punishing is not the solution at all. But honesty in work is most important.
7. Set clear goals
Setting clear work priority for employees is very important and must be timely aware of targets is important for them to plan and do work accordingly also to coordinate with other department
8. Don’t micromanage
No one likes a boss who is constantly looking over her shoulder and second-guessing her every decision.
9. Avoid useless meetings
Meetings are good to plan the work but at times can incredible waste of time. Create an agenda for your meetings and distribute it in advance. Invite only the people who really need to attend, start the meeting on time, and then end it as quickly as you possibly can.
10. Setting Goals
Using the participative leadership style, include team members in the decision-making process. If include employees in the business planning process, they typically feel more engaged.. Employees appreciate when their skills, knowledge and expertise are recognized.
11. Improving Morale
During difficult economic times, employee morale can decrease as bonuses and raises shrink. Effective leaders recognize there’s more to employee satisfaction than salary. Using the charismatic leadership style, you can motivate and inspire your workforce by creating a positive view of the future.
12. Improving Processes
Using the transactional leadership style focus on getting work done. Effective leaders clearly define roles and responsibilities so everyone knows what is expected of them.
13. Managing Change
Transformational leaders help their subordinates manage change effectively. They recognize that people experience change differently. Motivating your team on an ongoing basis requires follow-through and commitment to change.
Leader and managers qualities:-
Visionary
Rational
Passionate
Consulting
Creative
Persistent
Flexible
Problem-solving
Inspiring
Tough-minded
Innovative
Analytical
Courageous
Structured
Imaginative
Deliberate
Experimental
Authoritative
Initiates change
Stabilizing
Personal power
Position power

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Three main skills leadership processes have are technical, human and conceptual
Technical skill: – capability to use information, perform the specific tasks, methods, technique and tools are essential and get from experience, education and training.
Human skills: – . Human skills include accepting of motivation and purpose of effective leadership. Human skills are the capability and results in working with and through individuals
Conceptual skills: – Through Conceptual knowledge leaders act to according to the objectives of the total business rather than only on the basis of the goals and needs have direct team. Conceptual skills provide skills to understand the complexities on the whole organization.
There are three major approaches of leadership theory.
1) Historical approach
2) Classical approach
3) Contemporary approach
Trait theory: – Trait theory of leadership provides the skills to identify qualities which helpful when leading with others and jointly, these appear as a universal leadership style. Example includes understanding, fierceness, good decision making. Trait theories assume that leaders contribute to number of ordinary individually traits and features and that leadership emerges from these traits. According to trait theory every person will be born with some traits. Trait theory says that every leader will have certain traits that make them more suited to leadership than others. A person would have these traits from birth which will be his characteristics which makes him more suitable to be leaders than others. Traits are the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader, such as intelligence, values, self-confidence and appearance
Behaviour theory:-According to behaviour theory leaders are made not born. This theory is completely against the traits theory. Traits theory says that leadership qualities come from birth whereas the classical leadership style like the behavioural theory says that they come from practice and not from birth. It says that leadership is defined, hence any person can learn those qualities required to be leader and can successfully lead when there is need for it. Leadership qualities can be adopted by looking at others. Perhaps any leader can adopt the correct behaviour with appropriate training.
Contingency theory:-contingency approach a model of leadership that describes the relational ship between leadership styles and specific organizational situations. An early, extensive effort to combine leadership style and organizational situation into a comprehensive theory of leadership was made by Fiedler and his associates. Contingency theory is a refinement of the situational viewpoint and focuses on identifying the situational variables which best predict the most appropriate or effective leadership style to fit the particular circumstances.
Transactional approach: -. A transactional leader is one who treats leadership as an exchange, giving followers what they want if they do what the leader desires. And a transformational leader is a leader who treats leadership as a matter of motivation and commitment, inspiring flowerers by appealing to higher ideals and moral values. Hence, transactional leadership simply involves an exchange that leads to desired outcomes and transformational leadership motivates us to do more than we originally expected to do.
Participative theory:-participative theory says that whatever the decision or whenever the decision is need to be made, involve everyone who is attached to that. Don’t take decision solely. Reason is when everyone come together to take the decision they feel involved in it. In participative type of leadership people are more committed because they are involved in decision making. The drawback of this style would be it can confuse a leader as which course of action to be taken as there are more ideas. This can be time consuming because more people are involved decisions cannot be made quickly.
Conclusion;-

Leaders encourage team members to improve processes to reduce errors, minimize waste and improve customer satisfaction. Effective leaders recognize that people doing the work typically have the best insight on how to improve operations. By rewarding team members for their performance, this type of leader focuses on production. Team members motivated by external rewards such as bonuses and overtime pay thrive under this type of leadership
Ans 2 :
Introduction:

“It is a network between personal and social relationship that builds up very quickly to make comfortable environment based on informal groupings with a formal organisation”.
Informal groups are formed and over the period of time people participation keeps changes because of operation of social and psychological. There is interdependence among the members be¬cause each one needs the other’s company.
Types of Informal Groups

According to their characteristics, they can be classified into four groups namely,
1. Apathetic groups
2. Erratic groups
3. Strategic groups, and;
4. Conservative groups.

1. Apathetic groups: are not much active and have less grievances and problems. They are basically characterised by lack of leadership cohesiveness and internal disunity.
2. Eratic groups :This type of group have very much inconsistent behaviour and autocratic leadership
3. Strategic groups: they considered to be shrewd people and consistently put pressure on management to attend their problems.
4. Conservative groups: they have moderate unit internally and not much pressure for their objectives and self-assurance they have.

Reason people form informal group is:

1. Satisfy the social needs:
There are many people in organisation from different backgrounds and so their needs differ
People form informal group to fulfil and have security,affiliation,esteem and self-actualisation needs. The cultural unit may meet both friendship and ego needs.

2. Proximity and interaction:
This refers to physical proximity and frequent interaction interactions The prime examples of this are horizontal informal groups.

3. Similarity:
It says that different people have same interest and likings who understand each other temperament and behaviour are likely to be more closure to understand each other better and their problem. These people have same set of beliefs and characteristics.

4. They maintain the social and cultural values the group members are supposed to have in common:
Group members tend to share the same beliefs and values as a result of background, education, or cultural heritage.
5. They provide group members not only opportunity for status but also opportunity for social interaction and fulfilment:
In large organisations an individual worker is nobody and no recognition they might get so to overcome all those insecurities and anxiety also informal group is formed for companion ship and an environment filled with fun. .An informal group gives him importance far beyond his formal organisational role.
6. They provide necessary information for their members

7. They influence the work environment:
Informal groups also play a regulatory role. They influence or regulate the behaviour, dress, or work standards of their members through positive and negative means. Positive means include acceptance, support, affiliation and negative methods refer to threats of ostracizing non-complying members.

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