center-5000502920UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA
HINGOL NATIONAL PARK
11000065000UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA
HINGOL NATIONAL PARK
-5000617220590005769610Submitted to: Dr. ARSHAD
Nida IqbalRoll #:-BZOF15M019
5 OCTOER, 2018
045000Submitted to: Dr. ARSHAD
Nida IqbalRoll #:-BZOF15M019
5 OCTOER, 2018
445003559175590005769610Department of ZOOLOGY
BS ZOOLOGY 7TH SEM (REG)
6050045000Department of ZOOLOGY
BS ZOOLOGY 7TH SEM (REG)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Definition of national park
Hingol national park
Date of establishment
Reason of establishment
Best time to visit
Desert valleys with steep slope
natural water bodies
Steep cliff mountains
VI. Major threats to HNP:
Human population pressure and impact of developmental activities
Collection of firewood
VII. Developmental activities of park
DEFINITION OF NATIONAL PARK:-
National park is the reserved land declared by national government for the protection and preservation of natural environment and its natural flora and fauna, and to prevent this area from hunting, pollution, cutting of trees and other vegetation. (IUCN, 1969).
A view of Hingol National Park (Khan, WPF).
HINGOL NATIONAL PARK (HNP):-
Geographically, Hingol national park is located at 65.51’East and 27.72 North.
HNP is present in three districts; Lesbela, Gwadar, and Awaran of Baluchistan Province, approximately at 190 km to west of Karachi. (Khan and Baig, 1993).Total area:-
Total area of HNP is 6,190 km2 (619,043 hectares).
Date of establishment:-
HNP was established in 1997 after Dhrun wildlife sanctuary. (IUCN, 1997).Elevation:-
Elevation of HNP ranges from 100 to 1600 meters.
Reasons of establishment:-
HNP was established to support 35 species of mammals, 65 species of amphibians and reptiles, 185 species of birds. Some 250 plant species were recorded in the initial surveys. Moreover, this park is excellent habitat for 3000 ibexes, 1500 urials and more than 1200 Chinkaras.
Best time to visit:-
Best time to visit HNP is from Mid-October to Mid-March. (Satakzai, 1994).
Location map of HNP. (IUCN, 1997)
Hingol national park (HNP) is the 2nd largest Park of Pakistan. The park is basically southern extension of Sibi desert having extensive patches of drift sand scattered throughout the region. The Hingol valley has fantastic scenery of towering cliffs, pinnacles, and buttresses, the river winding between. HNP is named due to the Hingol River which flows in center of HNP and enters in the Arabian Sea. (DMP and PAMP, 2008).
HNP contains a variety of topographical features, varying from arid sub-tropical forest in the north to arid mountains in the west. Large tracts of the NP are covered with drift sand and can be classified as coastal semi desert. For the purposes of park operation, the area is divided into three zones namely;
i) Marine Range ii) Aghor Range iii) Inland Range
HNP is reflecting contrast of four ecosystems. It has deserts, Arabian Sea, Rugged Mountains and Open plains.
Topographical features of HNP(WWF)
Some of the topological features of HNP are following,
In HNP, coastal plains are present which are bluish in color. These are present along the high water line in the sea. (Wikipedia, 2009).
DESERT VALLEYS WITH STEEP SLOPE:-
Large area of HNP consists of sandy mountains. This land cover is classified on the basis of high contrast grey appearance with rough texture due to variation in elevation values.
In HNP estuarine is present at the place where Hingol River enters the Arabian Sea. (Pritchard, D.W, 1965).LAND SOIL:-
Land soil of HNP is sandy and saline. The variation of soil occurs from greyish to yellow color. Here land soil is single land cover.
NATURAL WATER BODIES:-
In HNP, natural water bodies including Hingol River, oceanic water, water channels, small lakes and streams are present. In this area, secondary water channels remain dry throughout years except the rainy season.
The Hingol River runs through the HNP and before disgorging into the sea forms an estuary which provides habitat to a number of migratory water birds and marsh crocodiles. The river is 350 miles long and is the longest river in Balochistan.It winds through the Hingol valley between high cliffs The River flows all year long, unlike most other streams in Balochistan which only flow during rare rains.
Grasses and shrubs lands are mostly present in plain areas on the eastern side of park.
Sand dunes and some flood plains are also present in HNP. Flood plain is the part of land in which water of flood remains for particular time.
STEEP CLIFF MOUNTAINS:-
HNP consists of steep cliff mountains which are areas of mountains with steep slope. Whity Clay Mountains are also present in this area. Boundary Delineation of Hingol National Park, 2009.
Topographical features of HNP, (WWF, 2008)
HNP has diversed habitat and support wide variety of plant species. Dominant plants species of HNP are Acacia senegal, Acacia nilotica, Prosopis cineraria, Salvadora sp., Ziziphus jujuba, Euphorbia, Tamarix spp. (Brohi, M.A. and Fakhri, S. 2006).
Detail of some flora in HNP is as following
1. Botanical name: Acacia nilotica (L.) Del.
Family: Fabaceae-MimosoidaeHabit: Tree
Local name: Babur
Part used: Gum, bark
Ethnomedicinal uses: Gum (Khor) is mixed with wheat flour and sugar is roasted in Desi ghee and is used as
tonic. The bark of young branches dried under shadow and powder is given in diarrhea
2. Botanical name: Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.Family: Fabaceae-MimosoidaeHabit: Tree
Local name: KhorPart used: Gum
Ethnomedicinal uses: Gum (Khor) obtained from is mixed with wheat flour and sugar is roasted in Desighee and is used as tonic
3. Botanical name: Calotropis procera (Will.) R. Br.
Family: AsclepiadaceaeHabit: Shrub
Local name: MurpadPart used: Leaves
Ethnomedicinal uses: Yellow leaves are slightly roasted and obtained juice after squeezing. Few drops are
poured into ears to remove pus. The ash of leaves is dusted on wound to heal
MEDICINAL FLORA OF HINGOL NATIONAL PARK IN BALUCHISTAN
4. Botanical name: Capparis cartilaginea Decne.
Family: CapparaceaeHabit: Shrub
Local name: KiripPart used: Leaves
Ethnomedicinal uses: The juice of the leaves is poured into ears to kill worms
5. Botanical name: Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew.Family: CapparaceaeHabit: Large Shrub
Local name: KulerPart used: Tender shoots
Ethnomedicinal uses: Tender shoots are made into paste and used as blister on boils
6. Botanical name: Cassia italica (Mill.) Lam.
Family: CaesalpiniaceaeHabit: Herb
Local name: Dadhar WalPart used: Leaves, flowers
Ethnomedicinal uses: Tea made by boiling flowers is given to pregnant woman to increase labour pain. It is
supposed to be an aid to facilitate delivery. Leaves and flowers are used as laxative in
7. Botanical name: Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.Family: Fabaceae-CaesalpinioidaeHabit: Subshrub
Local name: TirmanhPart used: Roots
Ethnomedicinal uses: The root is used as tooth stick to relieve toothache
8. Botanical name: Commiphora wightii (Arn.) BhandariFamily: BurseraceaeHabit: Small Shrub
Local name: GugurPart used: Resin
Ethnomedicinal uses: Resin of the plant is used in preparation of pills to treat piles. The same is burnt into
fire used as fumigants to keep snakes away from their homes
9. Botanical name: Corchorus depressus (L.) Stocks
Family: TiliaceaeHabit: Herb
Local name: MondiaPart used: Whole plant
Ethnomedicinal uses: The plant is crushed in water along with candy which is given as cooling agent.
10. Botanical name: Corchorus tridens L.
Family: TiliaceaeHabit: Herb
Local name: MundaloPart used: Leaves
Ethnomedicinal uses: Crushed leaves are applied on cuts, wounds and burns to heal
11. Botanical name: Crotalaria persica (Burm.f.) Merr.Family: Fabaceae-FaboidaeHabit: Subshrub
Local name: RikachikPart used: Whole plant
Ethnomedicinal uses: Plant is crushed and boiled in water and given in constipation
12. Botanical name: Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naud.
Family: CucurbitaceaeHabit: Runner
Local name: ChibarwalPart used: Fruit
Ethnomedicinal uses: The ripened fruit is eaten and reported as mild laxative, used in constipation. (Jafri, 1966; Nasir ; Ali 1970-1989; Ali ; Nasir 1990-1991; Ali ; Qaiser, 1993-2008; Batanouny, 1981; Boulos, 1991; Bhandari, 1978; Qureshi, 2004).
Percentage of part used in preparing various herbal remedies from the indigenous species.
Detailed inventories of wildlife were undertaken in 2006 and have completed in the first half of 2007. Hingol is known to support at least, 35 species of mammals, 65 species of amphibians and reptiles and 185 species of birds. This park is excellent habitat for 3000 ibexes, 1500 urials and more than 1200 Chinkaras. Detail of wildlife fauna in HNP is as following,
Some mammals found in this region are following,
Leopard (Panthera pardus), Wild cat (Felis silvestris), Caracal (Caracal caracal), Bengal Fox (Vulpes bengalensis), Sand Fox (Vulpes bengalensis), Blandfords Urial (Ovis vignei blandfordi), Golden Jackal (Canis aureus), Sind Ibex (Capra aegagrus blythi), Chinkara (Gazella bennettii), Honey Badger (Mellivora capensis), Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata), Hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), Porcupine (Hystrix cristata), Wild Boar (Sus scrofa), Desert Hare (Lepus tibetanus), House rat (rattus rattus), Grey wolf (Canis lupus), Striped Hyena (Hyena hyena), Urial Sheep (Ovis Vignei), Indian crested Porcupine (Hystrix indica), Indian grey Mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii), Grey spiny Mouse (Acomys cineraceus), Mouflon (Ovis orientalis). ( Draft management Plan HNP,2008).
Leopard (Panthera pardus) Caracal (Caracal caracal)
Sand Fox (Vulpes bengalensis) Blandfords Urial (Ovis vignei blandfordi)
Sind Ibex (Capra aegagrus blythi) Chinkara (Gazella bennettii)
Honey Badger (Mellivora capensis) Wild Boar (Sus scrofa)
Urial Sheep (Ovis Vignei) Mouflon (Ovis orientalis)
Some of the reptiles found in this region are following,
Mugger Crorcodile (Crocodylus palatris), Moniter Lizards (Varianus albigularis), Yellow Moniter Lizard (Varanus flavescens), Chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleo). (Aleem Ch, 2007)
Mugger Crorcodile (Crocodylus palatris) Moniter Lizards (Varianus albigularis)
Yellow Moniter Lizard (Varanus flavescens) Chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleo)
Birds included in this region are following,
Houbara Bustard (Chlamydotis undulate), Grey Patridge (Perdix perdix), Stone curlews (Burhinus capensis), double-banded Sand Grouse (Pterocles bicincutus), Spot-billed Pelican (Pelecanus philippensis), Bonellis Eagle (Aquila fasciata), Pelican (pelecanus conspicillatus), Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo), Hoopoe (Upupa epops), Black –crowned Sparow Lark (Eremppterix nigriceps), Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus), Lanner falcon (Falco biarmicus), Red-necked falcon (Falco chicquera), Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax), Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Griffin Vulture (Gyps fulvus). (Grewal et al; 2002).
Grey Patridge (Perdix perdix) Houbara Bustard (Chlamydotis undulate)
Stone curlews (Burhinus capensis) double-banded Sand Grouse (Pterocles bicincutus)
Spot-billed Pelican (Pelecanus philippensis) Hoopoe (Upupa epops)
Black–crowned Sparow Lark(Eremppterix nigriceps) Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)
Main fishes found in Hingol River are Golden Mahasheer (Naziritor zhobensis), Botchee.
Mahasheer (Naziritor zhobensis)
MAJOR THREATS OF HNP:-
Different animals including Urial sheep, Chinkara and different birds are being hunted by people for different purposes and it leads to threatened species. Houbara Bustard visits the HNP in winter. Now the population of these birds have been declined that visit in winter due to their hunting.
Human population pressure and impact of developmental activities:-
There are about 172 villages located in the park and 5700 people are living there. Population is growing at high rate there. Developmental activities such as construction of houses, roads, hotels, shops etc are progressing there. Due to these developmental activities and population pressure, wild habitats are destroying.
Collection of firewood:-
People living in area of HNP cut the different flora for collection of firewood to use in houses. It is potential threat to park land cover area. A lot of vegetation has already been lost near Aghor area due to the recent floods in Hingol River in July 2007.
Due to the human developmental activities in park, habitat of wildlife has been losing. Different animals migrate from there due to loss of habitat.
(kylanpaa et al; 1997).
Currently, 20 staff members, 18 game watchers and 2 deputy rangers are responsible for management of park. They are under the supervision of park manager, who reports to the secretary and conservator wildlife, livestock, forest, environment and tourism. HNP management project is one of the three sub-projects of protected area management (PAMP) funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) through world bank. The goal of program is to conserve globally significant habitats and biodiversity through active participation of custodial communities of area. (IUCN; 1997).CONCLUSION:-
Hingol national park is the 2nd largest park of Pakistan. This area was declared reserved in 1988. It contains a variety of topographical features and vegetation, varying from arid sub-tropical forest in the north to arid mountains in the west. Large tracts of the NP are covered with drift sand and can be classified as coastal semi desert. HNP supports various threatened flora and fauna. The Marsh Crocodile, Olive Ridley, green marine turtles, endemic and threatened species of fish and schools of dolphins are known to be found in Hingol River. The park is an excellent habitat for wild animals such as Ibexes, Urial sheep, Chinkaras and variety of birds such as Houbara Bustard, Pelicans, Falcon etc. Threats to park include hunting, human developmental activities, habitat destruction and loss of vegetation. PAMP and GEF are responsible for developmental and management activities of park.
International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural resources, 1969.
Khan, W.A (March,2012), Wild life of Pakistan (Volume 1: Issue 1: January, page # 5).
IUCN (1997) Protected Area Management Project Vol 1-7 (Vol 1 could not be traced yet even at IUCN Office.)
Khan, A.A and Baig, A.R (1993, (PFI).
Satakzai, G.M, (1994), Forest ; Wildlife Department, Balochistan.
Management Plan HNP (Draft): Park Manager Hingol National Park. Balochistan Forests ; Wildlife Department, Uthal, Balochistan(Accessed May 2008).
World wildlife fund (WWF),9(March, 2009) Boundary Delineation of Hingol National Park.
Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia:Online Source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coastal_plain (Accessed 13 March, 2009).
Pritchard, D. W. (1967): What is an estuary: physical viewpoint. p. 3–5 in: G. H. Lauf (ed.) Estuaries, A.A.A.S. Publ. No. 83, Washington, D.C. (Accessed 11 March, 2009).
Boundary Delineation of Hingol National Park, GIS Laboratory, WWF – Pakistan.March 2009.
Brohi, M.A. and Fakhri, S. 2006: Survey of Small Mammals of Hingol National Park Balochistan. Rec. Zool. Surv. Pakistan, 17: 7 – 10.
Aleem, Ch. 2007, Large reptiles at Hingol National Park, Balochistan.(Approx 133PP.) Forest and Wildlife Department, Quetta, Balochistan.
GREWAL, B., PFISTER, O. AND HARVEY, B., 2002. A photographic guide to the birds of India, and the Indian Sub-continent, including Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Kylanpaa, J., Pyhala, M. and Rajput, R.A., 1997. Report of Ornithological expedition to the Hingol National Park. 9-12 May 1997, (Unpublished Report).