The Bauhaus Movement
Hajar Ahmed Alshezawi
Art 325-502 History of Design
Dr. Atteqa Ali
27th June 2018
Recently in the 20th century the Bauhaus Movement was the one that brought a real change to architecture, art and designs. This movement inspires me and has got my attention because it combined and mixed all type of arts in a geometric and simple forms, As a result the creativity developed. Reading about Bauhaus let me notice that it was special as it rejected the traditional designs and values so it brought modernity, Functionality also is one of the Bauhaus’s characteristics because they created forms and designs that serve utilitarian purposes. The Bauhaus aim was to combine creativity with manufacturing in Europe specially in Germany after they were separated in and this is the reason behind its creation, Here we can see that the Bauhaus was influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement, which has obtained to limit the difference between fine and applied arts, and to combine creativity with manufacturing, Bauhaus artists were also influenced by modernist designs coming out of America, particularly from the “Prairie School” architecture.
The story began when Walter Gropius the founder of the school decided to develop art and industry by joining crafts with the fine arts. He started by employing different artists from different backgrounds and different visions and professions such as the Swiss painter Johannes Itten, the German sculptor Gerhard Marcks first and then he hired the Swiss painter Paul Klee, the Russian painter Wasily Kandinsky, the Russian Constructivist artist and architect El Lissitzky and others. Gropius grouped those artists to serve in uniting arts and letting painters, craftsmen and sculptors work on cooperative projects, he wanted as well to develop craftsmen skills so they can be at the same level of those involved in fine art instead of just practicing applied art and decorative art “There is no essential difference between the artist and the craftsman.” he said, and finally to strengthen his relationship with the artisans and the owners of key industries in the country in order to achieve and meet his vision.
As a consequence of Gropius’s vision the movement brought a several technological, social and political changes to the world. According to the BCC, politically the Bauhaus have caused anxiety and fear for the Nazism, It is an art school but what is the reason behind this anxiety? The principles of the Bauhaus were in contrast to the principles of Nazism as the Bauhaus represented a universal view that was in sharp contrast to National Socialism. The Bauhaus called for cosmopolitan and modernity while Nazism encouraged nostalgic and nationalistic, the Nazism tried to close Bauhaus school several time during the World War | period and they even describe it by the cultural bolshevism.
All of that took a place between years 1919 to 1933, at the first two years the school creation, they had classrooms and workshops on metalwork, bookbinding, weaving, printmaking, and painting and then more workshops were added such as the wood and stone sculpture, pottery, cabinet making, glass painting, as well as the wall painting.
Then in 1921, the leader of the Dutch De Stijl design movement Theo van Doesburg start teaching the style of architecture in the school, Later on Gropius reshaped his original concept of Bauhaus, and the first exhibition for Bauhaus’s students was opened as well.
In 1923 the fame of the school reached its peak, and Gropius launched a new emblem “Art and Technology, New Unity”, which renewed all Bauhaus’s activities, unfortunately Bauhaus faced an economical issues as the Nationalist government of Germany reduced the school’s funding to the half, so Gropius established the “Circle of Friends of the Bauhaus” to help school surviving. As I mentioned before the Bauhaus was forced to close so they moved from Weimar city to Dessau in 1925, and they start publishing books, now the Bauhaus is the “School of Design”. In 1928 Meyer the assistant of Gropius tried to cooperate with the Russian state art school “Vkhutemas” but this action makes Nazism even angrier. After all these dilemmas, Dessau’s city council planned to close the school, by a desperate try they opened a private institute but after Hitler’s victory the Nazis closed the school in 1933.
By closing the school you can not stop the influence of it, the Bauhaus never died contrary it become the international style, Gropius’s vision effected the hole world’s design and many designers around the world adopted the school’s concept an methods.
Here are some of the most important designs that represent the Bauhaus Movement:
Walter Gropius, Bauhaus building in Dessau, Germany (1919-1925).80010021717000
Marcel Breuer, Club Chair The Wassily Chair, (1925).
Herbert Bayer, Universal Bayer, (1925).
In my point of view the Tea Pot (1927) that was designed by Marianne Brand and manufactured by Bauhaus Metal Workshop in Germany was the most unique design that really described the Bauhaus. Her Tea Infuser and Strainer were made out of nickel silver and ebony, with of H. 2-7/8 in. (7.3 cm) dimensions. This Tea Pot had a huge spread and it influenced the designs of mass-market kitchenware throughout the twentieth century.
An understanding of basic geometric forms lies behind this style, leading to a tea-pot that is a smaller amount a exploit of fine accomplishment than an indication of however basic forms are often combined to provide stunning objects for daily use.
Marianne Brandt, Tea-Pot, (1927).
Brandt’s design follows it function simply, it depends on simple and geometric shapes, and overall it is roundly pot that depends on circle and semicircle shapes.
There is no funkey colors, for the Bauhause it is always depent of basic colors, Brandt’s desgin is grey and black they are the original colors of the used material, The texture of the body is smooth while the handle is woody, ThisTea-Pot is consider as a dish or a pot for a tea.
To sum up, the Bauhaus German Art School that was created by Walter Gropius between 1919 to 1933 brought a huge impact on art and designs today regarding their combination of crafts and the fine arts. Started in Weimar from 1919 to 1925 and then it moved to Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and it closed in Berlin from 1932 to 1933 under the pressure from Nazism. The influence of the Bauhaus on design education was significant. One of the main goals of the Bauhaus was to unite art, craft, and technology, and this methodology was incorporated into the Bauhaus’s curriculum.
In my opinion this movement was a really significant and it increased the level of creativity; A new way of thinking was born, we have got a new geometric and simple forms of mixed arts, also modern and functional designs appears. Until these days the functionalist way and the love of the aesthetics of large areas and sharp geometries still shape the design of art and industry, and designers still adopting the credo of “less is more”.
A new way of thinking. (n.d.). Retrieved June 25, 2018, from http://www.bauhaus-movement.com/en/
Borteh, L. (2018). Bauhaus Movement Overview and Analysis. Retrieved June 26, 2018, from https://www.theartstory.org/movement-bauhaus-artworks.htm#pnt_1Cook, W. (2017, November 10). The endless influence of the Bauhaus. BBC News. Retrieved June 27, 2018, from http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20171109-the-endless-influence-of-the-bauhausSiebenbrodt, M., ; Schöbe, L. (2012). Bauhaus. Retrieved June 27, 2018, from https://books.google.ae/books?id=QN5L1HWBlVEC;printsec=frontcover;dq=bauhaus design movement;hl=en;sa=X;ved=0ahUKEwiIgLffxPDbAhXmJcAKHTRhD2gQ6AEIOzAD#v=onepage;q;f=false
Tea Infuser and Strainer. (n.d.). Retrieved June 28, 2018, from https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/491299Wolf, Tom. From Bauhaus to Our House. Mark Seliger, 2004.