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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Overview
The following section demonstrates the methodology used in this paper. The research design, sample size, case study and the way data was collected as well as data processing and analysis.
Research methodology
The research problem is the force behind the study’s form. A study can have various forms according to the problem at hand. However, this study is the academic one which usually seeks explorations, descriptions, and or explanations (Zikimund, 2001). This study’s form is descriptive one which connects to the questions such as who, what, where, how. This kind of study ignores explaining what reasons forced such instance to happen (Robson, 1993).
The Research Design
A case study design was used in this paper. According to Malhotra (2012) a case study research is a search for knowledge in an experimental form which looks into current result from the environment. Moreover, the environment’s phenomenon has to be not obviously noticed by several manifests from various sources applied.
Study Area
The study will be conducted in Kinondoni municipal, Dar es Salaam. Different retail shops were used in this case study. This targeted area attracts more retailers because it is the municipal with higher income residents in the city (URT, 2003). Therefore, an adequate number of the respondents are expected to provide enough data and information.

Population and Sampling
Tanzania’s national census of 2012 showed that Dar es Salaam small and medium enterprises which are registered and the ones which are not registered are more than 12,000 (twelve thousand). This means all municipals such as Temeke, Ilala, and Kinondoni were being taken into account, before the introduction of new municipals; Ubungo and Kigamboni. But, this study only dealt with the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) which are in Kinondoni municipal.
The sample is the certain amount or number of subjects picked from the population and used for the purpose of giving information about the whole group (Kothari, 2004). Therefore, this study used only 100 SMEs in Kinondoni municipal.
Sampling techniques are strategies which help to get and use several samples that will be useful for the study (Zikimund, 2001). The respondents qualified for this study were selected by using purposive sampling procedure. Therefore, by doing so only required data for the study were selected (Adam and Kamuzora, 2008).
Types of Data and Data Collection
Primary data is original as well as new data which is gathered solely from a primary source (Kothari, 2004). Therefore, only primary data was used in this study.
Since this study used primary data, thus a survey method was used by a researcher. Also, an instrument of the structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire has different ways for extracting data from respondents through a systematic prior set and tested question (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 2009). The questionnaire that was used by this study is attached in Appendix A1.

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Data Analysis
Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 23 which is computer software mainly for research and statistics was used for enter, code, analyze data, and interpret them. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis in order to give a general idea of how SMEs are affected with or without property risk management practices. Frequencies, percentages and crosstabs were of great use in analysis and finally, hypotheses testing.
Therefore, information is shown through graphs and tables. Furthermore, percentages and crosstabs present the degree of awareness, main risks faced and finally techniques of managing risks. In short, the study’s specific objectives were appreciated.
Reliability and Validity of the Study
When outcomes are stable and without changing over time as they will be applied to a different measurement are said to be reliable (Kothari, 2004). Pilot study was done in order to test the questionnaire if it is relevant and whether it would gather the required information. After that, the questionnaire was edited then deployed. Therefore, the information gathered is valid (Malhotra, 2012). Scale used is the one which has been used in various researches for the sake of proven reliability for this study.

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