Codification of English and Dictionaries
Standardization of English refers to the process of reshape the language by its speakers and writers which it operates on the phonology, lexicon, and syntax of a language . The standardization has various stages which are selection , codification , elaboration & implementation , the essential component in the process of standardization is codification ( is an ongoing process to the creation and the use of style and language guide ) , in this stage the first dictionaries and grammar textbooks is produced .
Codification of the sentence structure of a language isn’t just writing the syntactic principles of the language , yet by and large implies that maybe a couple or more guidelines from various dialects should be picked as the ‘ standard ‘ one . Codification suggests than that set up or established standard variety , and generally this will be based on one of the varieties or dialects of the language .
Codification of English language can be followed back in Britain , in the eighteenth century , but in the United States the codification of English was chiefly started and undertaken by Noah Webster . On orthographic and lexical level , Britain traits its present lexicographical work of Samuel Johnson .
Some specialists contend that the earliest codification of English started in the 16th century by means of the distribution of grammars and dictionaries the majority of which are proposed to educate the English dialect to the rural squires for the most part after the Union Act of 1536 amongst Wales and England . The standard English was mainly codified between the 16th and 17th centuries .
The codification procedure was described with three primary impacts which were paramount :
The kings English in the form of lrgal and administrative language
Scholarly English which was as worthy language that was for the most part utilized by great literature and also for printing and publishing .
The English of education and church or ordinarily alluded to as “Oxford English ” there was no point in which the state involve .
Every year , numerous English words include to the dictionary in some way and determine what they mean , the question that confused the people is ” how a new words gets added to the dictionary ” , actually the answer is simple ‘ the editors study the language and they carefully monitor which words and phrases people use most often and how they use them ‘ .
Each day most editors devote a bit of time to reading different sections of published material such as books newspapers, magazines, and electronic publications in look for any interesting new words or phrases , new spellings and new uses for existing words or phrases , understanding what it means how it use and determine if a word belongs in the dictionary .
When the editors found something interesting they marked the word , this process called ” reading and marking ” , the marked words or phrases are then input into a computer system then create something known as citation which has three elements : the word itself , an example of the word used in context and bibliographic information about the source from which the word and example were taken ( magazine , newspaper, etc ) .
Before a new word can be entered to the dictionary , editors must find enough citations to prove it ( Note : a large number of citations might even make a word more difficult to define ) , however , the citation should provide clear definition and come from many sources or will be rejected .
As we know dictionaries are very useful tools for finding the meaning of words, however there is two kind of dictionaries : Descriptive dictionaries and Prescriptive dictionaries . But the question is to which a dictionary is considered to be a prescriptive or descriptive dictionary ?
When the dictionaries describe the language as it is being used , include nonstandard spelling then we can say that the dictionary is Descriptive Dictionary and when the dictionaries prescribe how language should be used i.e. more concerned about correct or standard English then we can say that the dictionary is Prescriptive Dictionary .
Prescriptive means the dictionary explains there are language rules that should be followed and that specific structures or uses ought to be kept away , that why the prescriptive dictionary not really exist so dictionaries are based on descriptivist principles ( which largely using corpora and citation files as their source data ) because that’s how dictionaries are made , so for more data on utilizing words in a standard way, use a a sentence structure content or reference unless you have one of only remaining prescriptive dictionaries .