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Contents
1 Introduction 1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
1.2 Need of Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
1.3 Target Community of Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
1.4 Scope of Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
1.5 Objective of Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
1.6 Gantt Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
2 Literature Survey 4 2.1 Quectel M95 GSM modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
3 Design Methodology 7 3.1 System Requirements and Specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
3.1.1 General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
3.1.2 Specication of data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
3.1.3 USSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
3.1.4 Specications for SMS via GSM /GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
3.1.5 Specications for Voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
3.1.6 Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
3.2 Block diagram and description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 3.2.1 Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
3.2.2 Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
3.2.3 Block diagram Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
3.2.4 Working: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
3.3 Hardware design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
3.3.1 RF: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
3.3.2 Audio: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
3.3.3 SIM Card: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
3.3.4 Power supply: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
3.3.5 Power On: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
3.3.6 UART Port: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
3.3.7 Functional Diagram: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
3.3.8 Renesas microcontroller: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
3.3.9 Audio IC (P89170): . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
3.3.10 Quectel M95 GSM Modem: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
3.3.11 Power Supply Designing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
3.3.12 LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
3.4 Software Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 3.4.1 Modern tools used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
3.4.2 Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
3.4.3 Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40

3.5 PCB Design and Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
3.5.1 Introduction to PCB: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
3.5.2 Manufacturing process of printed circuit board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
3.6 Noise immunity of system and environment related aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
4 TEST PROCEDURE AND RESULTS 52 4.1 Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
4.1.1 Bread board testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
4.1.2 Trouble Shooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
4.2 Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
5 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE 55 5.1 Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
5.2 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
5.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
5.4 Future scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56

List of Figures
1.1 Gantt Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
2.1 SIM 900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
3.1 Tranmitter Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
3.2 Receiver Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
3.3 DTMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
3.4 Hardware Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
3.5 SIM cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
3.6 Functional Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
3.7 Renesas Microcontroller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
3.8 Design of Network and Status LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
3.9 GSM module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
3.10 Block diagram of power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
3.11 circuit diagram of power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
3.12 step-down transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
3.13 full wave bridge rectier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
3.14 positive half cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
3.15 output waveform of full wave bridge rectier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
3.16 electrolytic capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
3.17 aluminum electrolytic capacitor indicating positive and negative terminals . . . . . .27
3.18 pinout diagram of LM7812 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
3.19 relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
3.20 Schematic of Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
3.21 Actual view of Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
3.22 LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
3.23 Screenshot of Altium software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
3.24 Screenshot of OrCAD software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
3.25 Screenshot of VB software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
3.26 Screenshot of Commchk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
3.27 Gold wave software used for voice recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
3.28 Main Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
3.29 User Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
3.30 parameter Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
3.31 Main Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
3.32 Process ow for PCB Designing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
3.33 Manufacturing Process of Printed Circuit Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
3.34 Screen printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
3.35 Bottom layer of power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
3.36 Relay Board Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
3.37 Bottom layer of main circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
3.38 PCB Layout of main circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49

3.39 Typical EMI/RFI Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
3.40 Typical Noise Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
4.1 power supply simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
4.2 3.3V power supply simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
4.3 Simulation of LED interfacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
4.4 Output at the receiver end . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54

List of Tables
2.1 Comparison between GSM modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
3.1 General features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
3.2 Specication of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
3.3 USSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
3.4 Specications for SMS via GSM /GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
3.5 Specications for Voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
3.6 Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
3.7 Keypad commands description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
3.8 RF Receiving Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
3.9 Turns per volt of transformer for 50Hz frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
3.10 Pin Details of 7812 IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
3.11 GSM Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
3.12 IVRS Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40

Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Introduction
This Project is a very good example of embedded system as all its operations are controlled by in-
telligent software inside the micro-controller. The aim of this project is to control i.e. to ON/OFF
control of different motors, the electrical or electronic appliances connected to this system from any-
where in the world. For this purpose user can use any type of Mobile. This way it overcomes the
limited range of infrared and radio remote controls. Using the convenience of SMS and Phone calls,
this project lets you remotely control equipment by s ending text messages and all of which can be
preprogrammed into the controller and easily remembered later.Short Message Service (SMS) is de-
ned as a text-based service. That enables up to 160 characters to be sent from one mobile phone to
another. In fact, SMS has taken on a life of its own; spawning a whole new shorthand language thats
rapidly many industries have been quick to make use of this technology, with millions of handsets
currently in use. Seeing the illiteracy in India we overcome the problem of reading and writing text
messages by providing the facility of voice calls with the help of IVR system which would be more
helpful and benecial to rural and uneducated farmers. With this in mind, weve designed the project
to work with Quectel M95 GSM modem. Some wise individual once aforementioned that system
could be a system wherever we will nish off the machine whenever we’d like. Thats the distinction
between controlled and uncontrolled system. Our project is regarding create this system economical
and dynamic. Because the name instructed the automated management is for dominant the motor
from remote place,look over its operational conditions; get feedback from the motor itself. Our target
is to manage the motor from distant place by mobile DTMF tone and conjointly get feedback by
SMS whereas it’s in ON or OFF condition. We tend to conjointly make sure the safe operation of the
motor by police investigation the voltage of the supply and guarantee feedback from system whereas
it’s over or below voltage. Once more we tend to conjointly get these feedback by SMS additionally.
GSM network is all over in our country thats why we decide GSM network to control our motor
conjointly transferring feedback data through it. We tend to jointly use GSM network as a result of
if we tend to use it then we tend to dont have to be compelled to establish further instrumentation
for networking. To transmit feedback signals we tend to use GSM electronic equipment at the motor
nish jointly generate management signal by mobile DTMF as a result of it’s terribly simple to get
DTMF by mobile station and send feedback SMS by electronic equipment additionally. In industrial
sector we tend to hope our project is become handy and value effective to control motor and provides
its protection.
1

1.2 Need of Project
Many industries have been quick to make use of GSM based technology, with millions of handsets
currently in use. As new models with “must have” features hit the market, older models become
virtually worthless and if not recycled, end up in landll. With this in mind, we have designed the
Quectel M95 GSM modem.Since it has very Good range an accuracy as compared with SIM 300 and
SIM 900.
1.3 Target Community of Project In Industrial starter motor
In agricultural elds
VTS
Industry PDA
Personal Tracking
Wireless POS
Smart Metering
1.4 Scope of Project
Problems caused due to the existed systems are doesnt provide any power status, motor on/off status.
Some of the systems are purely SMS based systems. But many of farmers didnt know about SMS. So
our intension behind is minimizing the work of farmers, improving the use of irrigation, maintaining
optimal usage of electricity to provide an interactive system to farmers .The main aim of this project
is to provide exibility to trigger the motor pumps from any location in an easy way.
1.5 Objective of Project
The main objective for designing the project is that to develop user friendly testing software. Thats
benets minimum time required for testing Quectel M95 GSM modem.Quectel M95 GSM modem
use in industrial starter motor which is our company requirement. Quectel M95 GSM Modem because
previous GSM series SIM 300 & SIM 900 having lot of problem rst common problems found in
that series. Modem initialization time is very high in SIM300 and SIM 900. It takes approximately
5 to 10 minutes for initialization where Quectel M95 GSM Modem it takes only 1 minutes time for
initialization.
2

1.6 Gantt Chart
Figure 1.1:
Gantt Chart
3

Chapter 2
Literature Survey
History GSM is a global system for mobile communication GSM is an international digital cellular
telecommunication. The GSM standard was released by ETSI (European Standard Telecommuni-
cation Standard) back in 1989. The rst commercial services were launched in 1991 and after its
early introduction in Europe; the standard went global in 1992. Since then, GSM has become the
most widely adopted and fastest-growing digital cellular standard, and it is positioned to become
the worlds dominant cellular standard. Todays second-generation GSM networks deliver high qual-
ity and secure mobile voice and data services (such as SMS/ Text Messaging) with full roaming
capabilities across the world. The Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) network is
a cellular telecommunication network with a versatile architecture complying with the ETSI GSM
900/GSM 1800 standard. Siemens implementation is the digital cellular mobile communication sys-
tem D900/1800/1900 that uses the very latest technology to meet every requirement of the standard.
Now a days most likely used GSM modems are SIM 300 and SIM 900 that are triband and quad band
GSM modem respectively. Comparing with newer version of GSM modem i.e. Quectel M95 GSM
modem is compact in size, Ultra low power consumption and extended temperature range. Figure 2.1:
SIM 900
The detailed comparison between GSM modems is shown in below table
2.1 Quectel M95 GSM modem
M95 is one of the smallest Quad-band GSM/GPRS modules in LCC castellation packaging with
the compact size of 19.9 23.6 2.65mm, Ultra low power consumption and extended temperature
range. With surface mounted technology, the low prole and small size of LCC package makes
M95 easily embedded into the low-volume applications and ensures the reliable connectivity with
the applications. This kind of package is ideally suited for large-scale manufacturing which has the
4

Product Features SIM 300 SIM 900 M95
Power Consump-
tion High Power Con-
sumption Medium Power
Consumption Less Power Con-
sumption Audio Interface Single Channel Single Channel Multi Channel
GPRS GPRS Mobile
Station Class B GPRS Class
10 Max.
85.6kbps(downlink) Class 1-12 con-
gurable max
85.6kbps (uplink
and downlink) Size 40+/- 0.15*33+/-
0.15*3.3+/-
0.3mm 24*24*3mm 19.9*23.6*2.65mm
Weight 8g 3.4g 3g
Table 2.1:
Comparison between GSM modem
strict requirements for cost and efciency. Built-in unique QuecFOTATM technology allows M95 to
update the rmware remotely. Additional features such as integrated TCP/IP protocol stack, serial
multiplexer and enhanced AT commands guarantee fast and reliable transmission of data, voice, SMS
via GSM/GPRS network and extend the functionality of the application without adding cost.Its tiny
size and Ultra low power consumption makes M95 a very cost effective and feature-rich platform
that is quite suitable for a wide range of M2M applications such as VTS, Industry PDA, Personal
Tracking, Wireless POS, Smart Metering and many other M2M applications. Enck, W., Ongtang,
M., McDaniel, P. 1, A Study of Android Application Security Android is an OS designed for smart-
phones. Depicted in Figure 1, Android provides a sandboxed application execution environment. A
customized embedded Linux system interacts with the phone hardware and an off-processor cellular
radio. The Binder middleware and application API runs on top of Linux. To simplify, an applica-
tions only interface to the phone is through these APIs. All application is executed within a Dalvik
Virtual Machine (DVM) running under a unique UNIX uid. The phone comes pre-installed with a
selection of system applications, e.g., phone dialer, address book. Applications interact with each
other and the phone through different forms of IPC. Intents are typed interprocess messages that are
directed to particular applications or systems services, or newscast to applications subscribing to a
particular intent type. Persistent content provider data stores are queried through SQL-like interfaces.
Background services provide RPC and callback interfaces that applications use to trigger actions or
access data. Finally user interface activities receive named action signals from the system and other
applications. Binder acts as a mediation point for all IPC. Access to system resources (e.g., GPS
receivers, text messaging, phone services, and the Internet), data (e.g., address books, email) and IPC
is governed by permissions assigned at install time. The permissions requested by the application and
the permissions required to access the applications interfaces/data are dened in its manifest le. To
simplify, an application is allowed to access a resource or interface if the required permission allows
it. Permission assignmentand indirectly the security policy for the phoneare largely delegated to the
phones owner: the user is presented a screen listing the permissions an application requests at install
time, which they can accept or reject. Skurski and Swiercz 2 propose a control system based on VNC for Symbian OS smartphones.
This system was designed to improve application testing systems in mobile devices due to the lack
of resources in mobile devices and the high cost of test environments. Also the solution proposed
could be used to perform remote conguration. As part of the Android platform exists the Android
Debug Bridge (ADB) protocol 3 to provide debug functionality on devices. The platform integrates
this protocol and it offers a service of server when is congured on the device. Other aspect to
be considered is the remote visualization mechanisms that are useful for achieve a remote display
of the devices. The most popular system designed to perform remote control of devices is Virtual
5

Networking Computing 4. There are a large number of implementations to this solution including
applied to Android software stack. It has an open protocol and it is widely deployed in the open source
community. This solution adapts very well to provide part of the functionality of the architecture,
and it will be studied further.This paper focuses on the control of Android platforms. This is an open
platform that allows using other technologies (also open). In addition, Android platform allow the
development of new ideas easily and test them with a set of open standards . The prototype generated
as implementation of the proposed architecture will be provided also as free software. According to
data released by Nielsen 5, half of the consumers who recently purchased a smartphone chose an
Android smartphone.
6

Chapter 3
Design Methodology
3.1 System Requirements and Specications
Key Benet
One of the smallest Quad-band GSM/ GPRS modules
Easier soldering process with LCC package
Embedded Class-AB amplier
Power consumption as low as 1.3mA
Embedded powerful Internet service protocols, multiple Sockets and IP addresses
eCall / ERA-GLONASS (Supported in specic rmware)
QuecFOTATM
Jamming detection
DTMF decoding
3.1.1 General Features
7

Sr. No. Features Parameter Value
1 Quad-band 850/ 900/ 1800/
1900 MHz 2 GPRS Multi-slot
Class 12, 1 12 cong-
urable 3 GPRS Mobile
Station Class B
4 Compliant to
GSM Phase 2/2+ Class 4
(2W @ 850/
900 MHz)
Class 1(1W @
1800/1900MHz) 5 Supply Voltage
Range 3.3 4.6V 4.0V
nominal 6 Low Power Con-
sumption 1.3mA @
DRX=5 1.2mA
@ DRX=9 7 Operation Tem-
perature -40 C to +85 C
8 Dimensions 19.9 x 23.6 x
2.65mm 9 Weight Approx. 3.0g
10 Control via AT
commands GSM 07.07
,07.05 and other
enhanced AT
Commands Table 3.1:
General features
3.1.2 Specication of data 1 GPRS Class 12 Max. 85.6 kbps
(uplink and
downlink) 2 PBCCH Support
3 Coding Schemes CS 1, 2, 3, 4
4 CSD Up to 14.4 kbps
Table 3.2:
Specication of Data
8

3.1.3 USSD
1 Non Transparent
Mode Yes
2 Protocols PPP/ TCP/ UDP/
HTTP/ FTP/
SMTP/ MUX Table 3.3:
USSD
3.1.4 Specications for SMS via GSM /GPRS 1 Point-to-point
MO and MT 2 SMS Cell Broad-
cast 3 Text and PDU
Mode Table 3.4:
Specications for SMS via GSM /GPRS
3.1.5 Specications for Voice 1 Speech Codec
Modes Half Rate (HR)
Full Rate (FR)
Enhanced Full
Rate (EFR)
Adaptive Multi-
Rate (AMR) 2 Echo Arithmetic Echo Cancel-
lation Echo
Suppression
Noise Reduction Table 3.5:
Specications for Voice
9

3.1.6 Interfaces
1 SIM/ USIM 3V/ 1.8V
2 UART 2 Interfaces
3 Analog Audio
Chanel 2 Embedded
Class-AB am-
plier in one
channel 4 RTC Backup Yes
5 Antenna Pad Yes
Table 3.6:
Interfaces
3.2 Block diagram and description
3.2.1 Transmitter Figure 3.1:
Tranmitter Side
10

3.2.2 Receiver
Figure 3.2:
Receiver Side
3.2.3 Block diagram Description Renesas Micro controller:
The RENESAS MCU is True Low Power Platform (as low as 66 a/mhz, and 0.57 a for RTC + LVD),
Supply voltage is 1.6 V to 5.5 V operations, 16 to 512 Kbyte Flash, 41 DMIPS at 32 MHz, for General
Purpose Applications.
LED indication:
Power ON/OFF: When external power supply to controller green led will glow and it is show
power is given to unit.
OL (RED): Over Load Fault. When current is owing from circuit beyond settable range this
led will glow.
SMS/CALL (RED): Communication Indication When user call or sending SMS to unit this led
will automatically ON
NETWORK (RED): Network Indication when SIM card detect and mobile tower range is there
this led will glow.
Max232 IC:
Max232 IC is in SMD Package so it is very small in size due to that it requires less space. The
11

Max232 is used to transmit the Pc data to the Microcontroller and also from controller to Pc. It is
also used to shift the voltage level low to high a vise a versa. The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver
that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply TIA/EIA-232-F voltage levels from a single
5-V supply. Each receiver converts TIA/EIA-232-F inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels.
Current Transformer (CT):
This Device is mainly used to monitor the Current .The CT is used to set the Starting Current of the
Motor. A current transformer is an instrument transformer, used along with measuring or protective
devices, in which the secondary current is proportional to the primary current and it differs from it
by an angle i.e. approximately zero. Current transformer supply the protective relays with current of
magnitude proportional to those of power circuit but sufciently reduce in magnitude. Input current
for CT is 5A and output is 5mA
GSM Modem:
The GSM modem of Quectel M95used since it Has very Good Range an Accuracy As compared
With SIM 300 and SIM 900. M95 is a Quad-band GSM/GPRS engine that works at frequencies of
GSM850MHz, GSM900MHz, DCS1800MHz and PCS1900MHz. The M95 features GPRS multi-
slot class 12 and supports the GPRS coding schemes CS-1, CS-2, CS-3 and CS-4. With a tiny prole
of 19.9mm 23.6mm 2.65mm, the module can meet almost all the requirements for M2M applica-
tions, including Vehicles and Personal Tracking, Security System, Wireless POS, Industrial PDA,
Smart Metering, and Remote Maintenance and Control, etc. M95 is an SMD type module with LCC
package, which can be easily embedded into applications. It provides abundant hardware interfaces
like Audio and UART Interface. Designed with power saving technique, the current consumption of
M95 is as low as 1.3 mA in SLEEP mode when DRX is 5. M95 is integrated with Internet service
protocols, such as TCP/UDP, FTP and PPP. Extended AT commands have been developed for you to
use these Internet service protocols easily.
Power Supply :
When we give single phase supply to GSM base controller for external power green led will glow and
it is show power is given to unit.The primary function of power supply is to convert electric current
from a source to the correct voltage and frequency to power the load. Other function that power
supplies may perform include limiting the current drawn by the load to safe levels.
We required 3.3V power suopply for Renesas microcontroller, 4V for audio IC (P89170), and 12V
power supply for relay.
When we give single phase supply to GSM base controller for external power green led will glow
and it is show power is given to unit.
Relay:
Relay is an electrically operated switch. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by
a separate low power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by a one signal.
Here we have used the relay to Switch the Motor On an off we have used Leone Company relay
which operates on 6V DC its Function is SPDT that is single pole Double Throw and it has magnetic
coil in it.
Quectel M95 GSM modem:
M95 is a Quad-band GSM/GPRS engine that works at frequencies of GSM850MHz, GSM900MHz,
DCS1800MHz and PCS1900MHz. The M95 features GPRS multi-slot class 12 and supports the
GPRS coding schemes CS-1, CS-2, CS-3 and CS-4.
With a tiny prole of 19.9mm 23.6mm 2.65mm, the module can meet almost all the requirements
for M2M applications, including Vehicles and Personal Tracking, Security System, Wireless POS,
Industrial PDA, Smart Metering, and Remote Maintenance and Control, etc.
12

M95 is an SMD type module with LCC package, which can be easily embedded into applications. It
provides abundant hardware interfaces like Audio and UART Interface.
Designed with power saving technique, the current consumption of M95 is as low as 1.3 mA in
SLEEP mode when DRX is 5.
M95 is integrated with Internet service protocols, such as TCP/UDP, FTP and PPP. Extended AT
commands have been developed for you to use these Internet service protocols easily.
DTMF Figure 3.3:
DTMF
3.2.4 Working:
The MICROSTART GSM CONTROLLER has inbuilt Interactive Voice Response System (IVRS)
controlled, start/stop and remote monitoring. User can control the motor by voice call and SMS only
by entering the password, so it provides security to the user.The unit can be installed at all places
where controlling is needed for three-phase motor. It will monitor and measure all three phase volt-
ages. The controller displays the fault occurred in the system through LEDs and accordingly send the
SMS to the registered numbers, so that the user will be aware of the current status of the motor. Also
the system will be providing the information in the regional language so that any ordinary person can
handle that system. The signal conditioning block is use to make voltage within the positive range
which can be read by the ADC which is in microcontroller.The SPDT relay is used as a switch, to
ON/OFF the motor.
The microcontroller continuously monitor the RYB phase and if voltage is under, over voltage or not
within the range then it will OFF the motor and send the corresponding message to user through GSM
modem.LEDs are used for corresponding indication like dry run, SPP, power on, etc. IC aP89170 is
used for sound recording(clip).
13

1 Press 1 MOTOR ON For Switch ON
the Site Motor 2 Press 3 MOTOR OFF For Switch OFF
the Site Motor 3 Press 4 SET CURRENT For Storing the
Motor Current in
Memory of GSM
Controller 4 Press AUTO MODE For Auto Mode
Selection Unit
Button Should
be on AUTO
Position 5 Press 6 RESET FAULT For Clear the
Faults Occurred 6 Press 7 CHANGE PASS-
WORD For changing ex-
iting password 7 Press 8 MANUAL
MODE For Manual
Mode Selection
Unit Button
can be on any
Position 8 Press 9 STATUS For Current Sta-
tus Off Motor and
Starter Table 3.7:
Keypad commands description
3.3 Hardware design Figure 3.4:
Hardware Architecture
14

3.3.1 RF:
M95 provides an RF antenna pad for antenna connection.M95 comes with grounding pads which are
next to the antenna pad in order to give a better grounding. To minimize the loss on the RF trace and
RF cable, take design into account carefully. It is recommended that the insertion loss should meet
the following requirements: GSM850/EGSM900 is less than 1dB. DCS1800/PCS1900 is less than
1.5dB. 1 GSM850 less than –
109dbm 2 EGSM900 less than-109dbm
3 DCS1800 less than –
109dbm Table 3.8:
RF Receiving Sensitivity
3.3.2 Audio:
Working voltage parameter of audio characteristic ranges from 1.2 to 2.0 and its unit is V. Similarly,
Current parameter ranges from 1.2 to 2.0 and its unit is uA.
3.3.3 SIM Card:
The SIM interfaces supports the functionality of the GSM Phase 1 specication and also supports the
functionality of the new GSM Phase 2+ specication for FAST 64 kbps SIM card, which is intended
for use with a SIM application Tool-kit.
3.3.4 Power supply:
The power supply is one of the key issues in designing GSM terminals. Because of the 577us radio
burst in GSM every 4.615ms; power supply must be able to deliver high current peaks in a burst
period. During these peaks, drops on the supply voltage must not exceed minimum working voltage
of module. For the M95 module, the max current consumption could reach to 1.6A during a transmit
burst. It will cause a large voltage drop on the VBAT. In order to ensure stable operation of the mod-
ule, it is recommended that the max voltage drop during the transmit burst does not exceed 400mV.
3.3.5 Power On:
The module can be turned on by driving the pin PWRKEY to a low level voltage, and after STATUS
pin outputs a high level, PWRKEY pin can be released. After the STATUS pin goes to high level,
PWRKEY can be released.
3.3.6 UART Port: There are seven lines on UART interface.
Contain data lines TXD and RXD, hardware ow control lines RTS and CTS, other control
lines DTR, DCD and RI.
15

Figure 3.5:
SIM cards
Used for AT command, GPRS data, etc.
Multiplexing function is supported on the UART Port. So far only the basic mode of multi-
plexing is available.
Support the communication baud rates as the following:300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600,
14400, 19200, 28800, 38400, 57600 and 115200.
Support the following baud rates for Auto bauding function:
4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600 and 115200
3.3.7 Functional Diagram:
The following gure shows a block diagram of M95 and illustrates the major functional parts.
Radio frequency part
Power management
The Peripheral interface
Power supply
Turn-on/off interface
UART interfaces
Audio interfaces
SIM interfaces
RF interface
RTC interface
16

Figure 3.6:
Functional Diagram Figure 3.7:
Renesas Microcontroller
3.3.8 Renesas microcontroller: The expanding family of Renesas RL78 microcontrollers consists of both general-purpose and
application-specic devices. These increasingly popular MCUs make possible ultralow-power appli-
cations by giving system designers advanced power-saving features and high-performance operation. Because the devices offer important capabilities such as an innovative Snooze mode that allows
serial communication and ADC operation while the CPU is inactive, RL78 MCUs are demonstrably
superior solutions for a vast span of battery-powered applications. Analog Integrations 10-bit ADC up to 17 channels with 2.125 s conversion time 8-bit DAC up
to two channels Comparators (2 ch) with high-speed 70 ns (typ.) response time A comparator with
two multiplexer inputs for four external inputs each PGA with max x32 gain and internal connection
to comparator and ADC inputs
Extended Features DTC, ELC and MAC for highly efcient signal processing Timer RD for
17

motor applications IrDA support RL78 common platform with 32-64 KB ash and 24-64 pins Mi-
gration path from R8C takes advantage of thecommon peripherals
3.3.9 Audio IC (P89170):
A P89170 series high performance Voice OTP is fabricated with Standard CMOS process with em-
bedded 4M bits EPROM. It can store up to 170 sec voice message with 4-bit ADPCM compression at
6KHz sampling rate.8-bit PCM is also available as user selectable option.Three trigger modes,simple
Key trigger mode,Parallel CPU trigger mode and CPU serial commandmode, facilitate different user
interface. User selectable triggering and output signal options provide maximum exibility to vari-
ous applications.Built-in resistor controlled oscillator,8-bit current mode D/A output and PWM direct
speaker driving output minimize the number of external components. PC controlled programmer and
developing software are available.
3.3.10 Quectel M95 GSM Modem:
Design of Network and Status LED: Apply Ohms law,
Current for LED=1mA
Input voltage =4V
RLED=4/(1mA)=4Kohm
Standard value of RLED=4.7Kohm
Transistor BC847 is used to protect LED from overvoltage and overcurrent. Figure 3.8:
Design of Network and Status LED
Development Board consists of M12/M10 Quectel modem, Sim card slot, Regulator for Power
supply for modem, RS232 Port for Serial Communication, External Antenna connector, RJ11 con-
nector for Voice Output.
18

Figure 3.9:
GSM module
Fig.3.9 GSM Module
This is Quectel M95 GSM module mounted on a PCB with SIM Tray and other necessary con-
nections. Very useful for rapid prototyping of newer designs and circuits involving GSM Module.
Quectel Modules are very popular in the market.Its tiny size and ultra-low power consumption makes
M95 a very cost effective and feature-rich platform that is quite suitable for a wide range of M2M ap-
plications such as VTS, Industry PDA, Personal Tracking, Wireless POS, Smart Metering and many
other M2M applications.
Hardware Specications
Quectel M95 Quad Band GSM Module
Voltage Supply- 3.7VDC to 4.2VDC
GSM- Speaker, Mic, TTL Rx and TTL Tx Outputs
Provision for GSM Antenna/Wired Antenna
Applications
GPRS Connectivity for serial/legacy devices such as Energy Meters, SCADA Systems, PLC,
Machine Automation devices, RFID etc.
Accurate timing for clocks and other systems from GPRS
GSM/GPRS based reporting systems
Advantages
This device is developed by us and fabricated in India
GSM Module with valid IMEI imported legally
Tested for reliability and ruggedness
19

3.3.11 Power Supply Designing
Figure 3.10:
Block diagram of power supply Figure 3.11:
circuit diagram of power supply
Description The electrical power is almost exclusively generated, transmitted and distributed in
the form of ac because of economical consideration but for operation of most of the electronic de-
vices and circuits, dc supply is required. Dry cells and batteries can be used for this purpose. No
doubt, they have the advantages of being portable and ripple free but their voltages are low, they need
frequent replacement and are expensive in comparison to conventional dc power supplies.
20

Now days, almost all electronic equipment includes a circuit that converts ac supply into dc supply.
The part of equipment that converts ac into dc is called DC power supply. In general at the input
of the power supply there is a power transformer. It is followed by a rectier (a diode circuit) 1a
smoothing lter and then by a voltage regulator circuit.
From the block diagram, the basic power supply is constituted by four elements,
i. Transformer
ii. Rectier
iii. Filter
iv. Regulator
The output of the dc power supply is used to provide a constant dc voltage across the load. Let us
briey outline the function of each of the elements of the dc power supply. Transformer is used to
step-up or step-down (usually to step-down) the-supply voltage as per need of the solid-state elec-
tronic devices and circuits to be supplied by the dc power supply. It can provide isolation from the
supply line-an important safety consideration. It may also include internal shielding to prevent un-
wanted electrical noise signal on the power line from getting into the power supply and possibly
disturbing the load. It is used to supply the power to ADC and microcontroller, LCD, etc.
Design of power supply
i. Transformer
Step-down transformer is one whose secondary voltage is less than its primary voltage. It is designed
to reduce the voltage from the primary winding to the secondary winding. This kind of transformer
steps down the voltage applied to it. As a step-down unit, the transformer converts high-voltage, low-
current power into low-voltage, high-current power. The larger-gauge wire used in the secondary
winding is necessary due to the increase in current. The primary winding, which doesnt have to con-
duct as much current, may be made of smaller-gauge wire. Figure 3.12:
step-down transformer
Design of step down transformer:
The following information must be available to the designer of the transformer. 1) Power output.
2) Operating voltage. 3) Frequency range. 4) Efciency and regulation. Size of core is one of the
rst consideration in regard of weight and volume of a transformer. This depends on type of core and
winding conguration used. Generally following formula is used to nd Area or Size of the Core. Ai
= Wp / 0.87
21

Where Ai = Area of cross section in square cm.
Wp = Primary Wattage.
For our project we require +5V output, so transformer secondary winding rating is 9V, 500mA.
So secondary power wattage is,
P2 = 9 * 500mA
= 4.5Watt
So,
Ai = 4.5 / 0.87
= 2.4
Generally 10 So,
Ai = 2.8
a) Turns per volt: – Turns per volt of transformer are given by relation. Turns per volt = 100000 / 4.44
f * Bm * Ai
Where,
F = Frequency in Hz.
Bm = Density in Wb / Square meter.
Ai = Net area of the cross section.
Following table gives the value of turns per volt for 50 Hz frequency. 1 Flux density 0.76
Wb /sq m 1.14 1.01 0.91 0.83
2 Turns per Volt 45
/ Ai 40 /
Ai 45 /
Ai 50 /
Ai 55 /
Ai Table 3.9:
Turns per volt of transformer for 50Hz frequency
Generally lower the ux density better the quality of transformer. For our project we have taken
the turns per volt is 0.91 Wb / sq.m from above table.
Turns per volt = 50 / Ai
= 50 / 2.8
= 17.85
Thus the turns for the primary winding is,
220 * 17.85 = 3927
And for secondary winding,
9 * 17.85 = 160
Wire size: – As stated above the size is depends upon the current to be carried out by winding
which depends upon current density. For our transformer one tie can safely use current density of 3.1
Amp / sq.mm.
For less copper loss 1.6Amp/sq.mm or 2.4sq.mm may be used generally even size gauge of wire are
used.
R.M.S secondary voltage at secondary to transformer is 9V. so maximum voltage Vm across sec-
ondary is
= 9 * 1.141
= 12.727v
Thus we have used transformer of 25:1 turns ratio.
ii. Rectier
D.C output voltage Vm across secondary is,
22

Vdc = 2 * Vm/pi
= 2 * 12.727/3.14
= 8.08 V
P.I.V rating of each diode is
PIV = 2Vdc
= 2 * 8.08
= 16.16 V
Maximum forward current, which ow from each diode, is 500 mA. So from above parameter, we
select diode IN4007 from the diode selection manual.
Rectier is a device which converts the sinusoidal ac voltage into either positive or negative pulsating
dc. P-N junction diode, which conducts when forward biased and practically does not conduct when
reverse biased, can be used for rectication i.e. for conversion of ac into dc. The rectier typically
needs one, two or four diodes.
Rectiers may be either half-wave rectiers or full-wave rectiers (centre-tap or bridge) type. The
output voltage from a rectier circuit has a pulsating character i.e., it contains unwanted ac com-
ponents (components of supply frequency f and its harmonics) along with dc component. For most
supply purposes, constant direct voltage is required than that furnished by a rectier. To reduce ac
components from the rectier output voltage a lter circuit is required.
Thus lter is a device which passes dc component to the load and blocks I ac components of the rec-
tier output. Filter is typically constructed from reactive circuit I elements such as capacitors and/or
inductors and resistors. The magnitude of output dc voltage may vary with the variation of either the
input ac voltage or the magnitude of load current. So at the output of a rectier lter combination a
voltage regulator is required, to provide an almost constant dc voltage at the output of the regulator.
The voltage regulator may be constructed from a Zener diode, and or discrete transistors, and/or in-
tegrated circuits (ICs). Its main function is to maintain a constant dc output voltage.
However, it also rejects any ac ripple voltage that is not removed by the lter. The regulator may
also include protective devices such as short-circuit protection, current limiting, thermal shutdown,
or over-voltage protection. Figure 3.13:
full wave bridge rectier
This type of single phase rectier uses four individual rectifying diodes connected in a closed
loop bridge conguration to produce the desired output.
The main advantage of this bridge circuit is that it does not require a special centre tapped trans-
former, thereby reducing its size and cost. The single secondary winding is connected to one side of
23

the diode bridge network and the load to the other side as shown below. The four diodes labelled D1
to D4 are arranged in series pairs with only two diodes conducting current during each half cycle.
During the positive half cycle of the supply, diodes D1 and D2 conduct in series while diodes D3 and
D4 are reverse biased and the current ows through the load as shown below.
The Positive Half-cycle Figure 3.14:
positive half cycle
The Negative Half-cycle
As the current owing through the load is unidirectional, so the voltage developed across the load
is also unidirectional the same as for the previous two diode full-wave rectier, therefore the average
DC voltage across the load is 0.637Vmax. During the negative half cycle of the supply, diodes D3 and D4 conduct in series, but diodes D1
and D2 switch OFF as they are now reverse biased. The current owing through the load is the same
direction as before.
24

Typical Bridge Rectier
However in reality, during each half cycle the current ows through two diodes instead of just
one so the amplitude of the output voltage is two voltage drops ( 2 x 0.7 = 1.4V ) less than the input
VMAX amplitude. The ripple frequency is now twice the supply frequency (e.g. 100Hz for a 50Hz
supply or 120Hz for a 60Hz supply.) Although we can use four individual power diodes to make a
full wave bridge rectier, pre-made bridge rectier components are available off-the-shelf in a range
of different voltage and current sizes that can be soldered directly into a PCB circuit board or be
connected by spade connectors. The image to the right shows a typical single phase bridge rectier
with one corner cut off. This cut-off corner indicates that the terminal nearest to the corner is the
positive or +ve output terminal or lead with the opposite (diagonal) lead being the negative or -ve
output lead. The other two connecting leads are for the input alternating voltage from a transformer
secondary winding. Figure 3.15:
output waveform of full wave bridge rectier
iii. Filter
RC=Vdc/Idc
=8.08/(500mA)
Let ripple factor=0.12V
C=2900/(RI x RF)
=2900/(16.54 x 0.12)
=961uF
So select the standard capacitor of 1000uF
25

For the capacitor
Vrating greater than Vm
Vm=12.72V
Therefore Vrating of the capacitor Vcap=25V
So, select lter capacitor of the rating 25V, 1000uF. Figure 3.16:
electrolytic capacitor
An electrolytic capacitor is a sort of capacitor that utilizes an electrolyte to obtain greater capac-
itance than the other type of capacitors. An electrolyte is a gel or uid in which concentration of
ions is very high. Electrolytic capacitor is a general term used for three different capacitor family
members:
1. Aluminium electrolytic capacitors
2. Tantalum electrolytic capacitors
3. Niobium electrolytic capacitors
26

Figure 3.17:
aluminum electrolytic capacitor indicating positive and negative terminals
Almost all the electrolytic capacitors are polarized which means the voltage of anode must be al-
ways higher than the cathode. The ability of large capacitance makes them highly useful for sending
low-frequency signals. They are extensively used for noise ltering or decoupling in power supplies.
The advantage of large capacitance comes with few drawbacks as well. Drawbacks include leakage
currents, equivalent series resistance and a limited lifetime. Electrolytes are made up of aluminum or
tantalum and few other metals.
A special type of electrolytic capacitors with capacitances of hundreds and thousands of farads are
known as super capacitors. They are also known as double-layer electrolytic capacitors.
Characteristics:
Capacitance Drift:
-The electrical characteristics highly depend on the type of electrolyte used and the anode. The ca-
pacitance of electrolytic capacitors has large tolerances 20 Applications:
1. Used to reduce voltage uctuations in various ltering devices.
2. Used in output and input smoothing to lter when DC signal is weak with AC component.
3. They are extensively used for noise ltering or decoupling in power supplies.
They are used for coupling signals between amplier stages and also to store energy in ash lamps
iv. Voltage Regulator A voltage regulator is an electronic circuit that provides a stable dc voltage
independent of the load current, temperature and ac line voltage variations. It may use an electrome-
chanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate
one or more AC or DC voltages. Voltage sources in a circuit may have uctuations resulting in not
giving xed voltage outputs. Voltage regulator IC maintains the output voltage at a constant value.
7805 IC, a voltage regulator integrated circuit (IC) is a member of 78xx series of xed linear voltage
regulator ICs used to maintain such uctuations. The xx in 78xx indicates the xed output voltage it
provides. 7805 IC provides +5 volts regulated power supply with provisions to add heat sink as well.
Lets look into some of the basic ratings to get an overview.
7812 IC Rating
Input voltage range 7V- 35V
Current rating Ic = 1A
Output voltage range VMax =12.2V, VMin =11.8V
27

Figure 3.18:
pinout diagram of LM7812
Pin Description of 7812 IC
The difference between the input and output voltage appears as heat. The greater the difference PIN NO. PIN Function DESCRIPTION
1 INPUT Input voltage
(14V-37V) In this pin of the
IC positive unreg-
ulated voltage is
given in regula-
tion. 2 GROUND Ground (0V) In this pin where
the ground is
given. This pin
is neutral for
equally the input
and output. 3 OUTPUT Regulated output;
12V (11.8V-
12.2V) The output of the
regulated 12V
volt is taken out
at this pin of the
IC regulator. Table 3.10:
Pin Details of 7812 IC
28

between the input and output voltage, the more heat is generated. If too much heat is generated,
through high input voltage, the regulator can overheat. If the regulator does not have a heat sink to
dissipate this heat, it can be destroyed and malfunction. Hence, it is advisable to limit the voltage to
a maximum of 2-3 volts higher than the output voltage. So the two options are, design your circuit
so that the input voltage going into the regulator is limited to 2-3 volts above the output regulated
voltage or place an appropriate heat sink that can efciently dissipate heat.
3.3.12 Relay
The Single Pole Double Throw SPDT relay is quite useful in certain applications because of its inter-
nal conguration. It has one common terminal and 2 contacts in 2 different congurations: one can
be Normally Closed and the other one is opened or it can be Normally Open and the other one closed.
So basically you can see the SPDT relay as a way of switching between 2 circuits: when there is no
voltage applied to the coil one circuit receives current, the other one doesnt and when the coil gets
energized the opposite is happening. Figure 3.19:
relay
Terminal Pins A Single Pole Double Throw Relay comes with ve terminal points.
The terminals are COIL, COIL, COM, and NO, and NC.
Terminal Descriptions
1 COIL
This is one end of the coil.
2 COIL
This is the other end of the coil. These are the terminals where you apply voltage to in order to give
power to the coils (which then will close the switch). Polarity does not matter. One side gets positive
voltage and the other side gets negative voltage. Polarity only matters if a diode is used.
3 NO
This is Normally Open switch. This is the terminal where you connect the device that you want the
relay to power when the relay is powered, meaning when the COIL receives sufcient voltage. The
device connected to NO will be off when the relay has no power and will turn on when the relay
receives power.
29

Figure 3.20:
Schematic of Relay Figure 3.21:
Actual view of Relay
4 NC
This is the Normally Closed Switch. This is the terminal where you connect the device that you want
powered when the relay receives no power. The device connected to NC will be on when the relay
has no power and will turn off when the relay receives power.
5 COM
This is the common of the relay. If the relay is powered and the switch is closed, COM and NO have
continuity. If the relay isn’t powered and the switch is open, COM and NC have continuity. This is
the terminal of the relay where you connect the rst part of your circuit to.
Features
1. MI-1 pole series relay cover switching capacity 10A.
2. Slim type and small occupying area can offer high density P. C. Board technique.
3. Insulation distance of 8mm min. is designed. By using insulation that meets JIS insulation class
E, a dielectric strength of 5000V min. and surge resistances of 1000V min. are possible.
4. Employment of suitable plastic materials to be applied to high temperature and various chemical
30

solutions.
5. Complete protective construction from dust and soldering ux.
3.3.12 LED Figure 3.22:
LED
Features
1. Popular T-1 3/4 colorless 5mm package.
2. High luminous power.
3. Typical chromaticity coordinates x=0.30, y=0.29 according to CIE1931.
4. Bulk, available taped on reel. ESD-withstand voltage: up to 4KV
5. The product itself will remain within RoHS compliant version.
Descriptions
1 The series is designed for application required high luminous intensity.
2 The phosphor lled in the reector converts the blue emission of InGaN chip to ideal white.
Applications
1 Outdoor Displays
2 Optical Indicators
3 Backlighting
4 Marker Lights
3.4 Software Design
3.4.1 Modern tools used ALTIUM for PCB making
OrCAD- For circuit diagram
Visual Basic
Commchk for RS232 cable testing
31

Gold wave software for DTMF voice recording
Altium: Figure 3.23:
Screenshot of Altium software
Altium Limited is an Australian owned public software company that provides PC-based electron-
ics design software for engineers. Founded in Tasmania, Australia 1985, Altium now has regional
headquarters in Australia, China, United States, Europe, and Japan, with resellers in all other ma-
jor markets. The company was known as “Protel” until 2001. Schematic capture module provides
electronic circuit editing functionality, including:
Component library management
Schematic document editing (component placement, connectivity editing and design rules def-
inition)
Integration with several component distributors allows search for components and access to
manufacturer’s data.
SPICE mixed-signal circuit simulation
Pre-layout signal integrity analysis
Net list export
OrCAD:
OrCAD is a proprietary software tool suite used primarily for electronic design automation (EDA).
The software is used mainly by electronic design engineers and electronic technicians to create elec-
tronic schematics and electronic prints for manufacturing printed circuit boards.
The name OrCAD is a portmanteau, reecting the company and its software’s origins: Oregon +
CAD. OrCAD PCB Designer is a printed circuit board designer application, and part of the OrCAD
circuit design suite. PCB Designer includes various automation features for PCB design, board-level
32

Figure 3.24:
Screenshot of OrCAD software
analysis and design rule checks (DRC). The PCB design may be accomplished by manually tracing PCB tracks, or using the Auto-Router
provided. Such designs may include curved PCB tracks, geometric shapes, and ground planes.
PCB Designer integrates with OrCAD Capture, using the component information system (CIS) to
store information about a certain circuit symbol and its matching PCB footprint.
Visual Basic Figure 3.25:
Screenshot of VB software
Visual Basic is a third-generation event-driven programming language and integrated develop-
ment environment (IDE) from Microsoft for its COM programming model rst released in 1991.
Microsoft intended Visual Basic to be relatively easy to learn and use. Visual Basic was derived
from BASIC and enables the rapid application development (RAD) of graphical user interface (GUI)
applications, access to databases using Data Access Objects, Remote Data Objects, or ActiveX Data
33

Objects, and creation of ActiveX controls and objects.
A programmer can create an application using the components provided by the Visual Basic pro-
gram itself. Over time the community of programmers has developed new third party components,
keeping this programming language to modern standards. Programs written in Visual Basic can also
use the Windows API, which requires external function declarations.
Furthermore, new third party functions (which are open source) using part VB6 source code and
part embedded machine code, make the Visual Basic 6.0 applications faster than those designed in
C++.The nal release was version 6 in 1998 (now known simply as Visual Basic).
Though Visual Basic 6.0 IDE is unsupported as of April 8, 2008, the Visual Basic team is committed
to It Just Works compatibility for Visual Basic 6.0 applications on Windows Vista, Windows Server
2008including R2, Windows 7, and Windows 8 In 2014 there are hundreds of thousands of developers
who still prefer Visual Basic 6.0 over Visual Basic .NET. Moreover, in recent years some developers
lobbied aggressively for a new version of Visual Basic 6.0. A dialect of Visual Basic, Visual Basic for
Applications (VBA), is used as a macro or scripting language within several Microsoft applications,
including Microsoft Ofce.
34

Introduction of AT COMMANDS
AT commands are a set of commands that has been standardized to communicate with terminal
equipments such as modem, mobile phone as well as control them. Most GSM modems supports AT
commands. The command set is quiet elaborate. However, only a small part of it is related to SMS
operations. The most frequently used commands are:
AT+CMGS – To send a short message
AT+CMGR To read a short message from the GSM module
AT+CMGL To list SMS short messages stored in the GSM module
AT+CMGD To delete a short message from the GSM module
AT+CMGF To convert the message into machine instruction format
AT+CPMS To select the SMS memory
AT+CNMI To remind mode set up when receive a new message.
As the low level function interface to the GSM modem, these commands play a fundamental role in
the software developing of the gateway program.
35

Here, XXXX is the 4 digit password
Sr.No Action Needed SMS Command Details
1 To Add Reg-
istered Mobile
Number *XXXXA ( 10-Digit
Mobile no.)hash 2 To Delete Reg-
isterd Mobile
Number *XXXXD (10-Digit
Mobile No.)hash 3 To Get Registerd
Mobile Number
List *XXXXLSThash
4 To Start Motor *XXXXONhash
5 To Stop Motor *XXXXOFFhash
6 To Set Motor
Current *XXXXSPChash
7 To Change Pass-
word *XXXXCPWD(4 Digit
New Password)hash 8 To Load Factory
Setting *XXXXLFShash
9 To Get Motor
Status on Site *XXXXSTShash
10 To Check Param-
eter Settings *XXXXPSEThash
11 To Check Mea-
surement Values *XXXXREADhash
12 To Stop Outgo-
ing SMS From
Starter Unit *XXXXDSMShash
13 To Start Outgo-
ing SMS From
Starter Unit *XXXXESMShash
14 To Start Password
Protection (SMS
and CALL) *XXXXEPWDhash
15 To Stop Password
Protection (SMS
and CALL) *XXXXDPWDhash
16 To Reset All
Faults Occurred *XXXXRSTFhash
17 To Set Power On
Time *XXXXPOT(3 Digit
Value)hash 18 To Set Auto
Switch Time *XXXXAUT(3 Digit
Value)hash 19 To Set Set Start
To Delta Change
Over Time *XXXXSDT(2 Digit
Value)hash 20 To Set Under
Voltage *XXXXUV(3 Digit
Value)hash 21 To Set Over Volt-
age *XXXXOV(3 Digit
Value)hash 22 To Set Unbalance
Voltage *XXXXUNBAL(2
Digit Value)hash 36

Here, XXXX is the 4 digit password
23 To Set OL/Dry
Reset Time *XXXXODR(4 Digit
HHMM)hash 24 To Set Dry Run
Trip Percentage *XXXXDRY(2 Digit
Value)hash 25 To Set Over Load
Current Trip Per-
centage *XXXXOLC(3 Digit
Value)hash 26 To Set Motor
OFF Time *XXXXSTMR(4 Digit
HHMM)hash 27 To Enable Motor
OFF Timer *XXXXETMRhash
28 To Disable Motor
OFF Timer *XXXXDTMRhash
29 To Enable Dry
Run Protection *XXXXEDRYhash
30 To Disable Dry
Run Protection *XXXXDDRYhash
31 To Enable Auto
Mode Operation *XXXXEAUTOhash
32 To Disable Auto
Mode Operation *XXXXDAUTOhash
33 To Enable Over
Load/Current
Protection *XXXXEOLhash
34 To Disable Over
Load/Current
Protection *XXXXDOLhash
35 Help Menu *XXXXHELPhash
Table 3.11:
GSM Commands
37

Commchk:
Figure 3.26:
Screenshot of Commchk
Commchk is used to analyze information on a serial line by intercepting the information and al-
lowing you to view the captured information in either a HEX format or in an ASCII format. The
information captured may also be saved in les stored on disk. Commchk performs this function
by routing any information read from com1 to com2 and any information read from com2 to com1,
while capturing the information for display and or saving to a le. Commchk will split the screen into
2 windows, an upper window and a lower window. the upper window will display the information
captured from com1 and sent to com2. The lower window will display the information captured from
com2 and sent to com1. This program was developed to allow analyzing information being send
from a host computer to a slave computer to determine the source of errors that were getting into the
system. Alternatively, Commchk can be used to allow a computer that does not have a modem to
access the modem of a second computer.
Gold Wave Software
GoldWave is a commercial digital audio editing software product developed by GoldWave Inc, rst
released to the public in April 1993.
Features
Gold Wave has an array of features bundled which dene the program. They include:
Real-time graphic visuals, such as bar, waveform, spectrogram, spectrum, and VU meter.
Basic and advanced effects and lters such as noise reduction, compressor/expander, volume
shaping, volume matcher, pitch, reverb, re-sampling, and parametric EQ.
Effect previewing
Saving and restoring effect presets
38

Figure 3.27:
Gold wave software used for voice recording
DirectX Audio plug-in support
Batch processing and conversion support lets you convert a set of les to a different format and
apply effects.
Multiple undo levels
Edit multiple les at once
Support for large le editing
Storage option available to use RAM
3.4.2 Algorithms
1. Start
2. Initialize timer, interrupt, counter, GSM modem
3. Read ADC and calculate voltage and current
4. If starter is in auto mode give the call to the registered no
5. Wait for command
6. If*xxxxa(10-digit mobile no.)hash then add registered mobile number, if not go to next.
7. If*xxxxd(10-digit mobile no.)hash then delete registered mobile number, if not go to next.
8. If *xxxxlsthash then to get registered mobile number list, if not go to next.
9. If *xxxxonhash then start motor, if not go to next.
10. If*xxxxoffhash then stop motor, if not go to next.
11. If *xxxxspchash then set motor current If not go to next
12. Check all command given in the Following table
13. Stop
39

1 To Select IVRS Language 1 *XXXXLAN1hash *1234LAN1hash
2 To Select IVRS Language 2 *XXXXLAN2hash *1234LAN2hash
3 To Select IVRS Language 3 *XXXXLAN3hash *1234LAN3hash
4 To Select IVRS Language 4 *XXXXLAN4hash *1234LAN4hash
5 To Add Reg-
istered Mobile
Number *XXXXA(10-
Digit Mobile
No.)hash *1234Amob no.hash No Number
6 To Delete Reg-
istered Mobile
Number *XXXXD(10-
Digit Mobile
No.)hash *1234Dmob no.hash –
7 To Get Regis-
tered Mobile
Number List *XXXXLSThash *1234LSThash –
8 To Start Motor *XXXXONhash *1234ONhash –
9 To Stop Motor *XXXXOFFhash *1234OFFhash –
10 To Set Motor
Current *XXXXSPChash *1234SPChash –
11 To Change Pass-
word *XXXXCPWD(4
Digit PWD)hash *1234CPWD1234hash 1234
12 To Load Factory
Setting *XXXXLFShash *1234LFShash –
13 To Get Motor
Status on Site *XXXXSTShash *1234STShash –
14 To Check Param-
eter Settings *XXXXPSEThash *1234PSEThash –
15 To Check Mea-
surement Values *XXXXREADhash *1234READhash –
Table 3.12:
IVRS Commands
3.4.3 Flowchart
40

Figure 3.28:
Main Unit Figure 3.29:
User Setting
41

Figure 3.30:
parameter Setting Figure 3.31:
Main Form
42

3.5 PCB Design and Layout
Printed circuit boards may be covered in two topics; technology and design. Printed circuit boards are
called PCB in short. Printed circuit consists of conductive circuit pattern applied to one or both sides
of an insulation base, depending upon that ,it is called single side PCB or double sided PCB(SSB and
DSB). Conductor materials like silver, brass, aluminum and copper are most widely used. The thickness of Figure 3.32:
Process ow for PCB Designing
the conducting material depends upon the current carrying capacity of circuit. Thus a thicker copper
layer will have more current carrying capacity.
43

3.5.1 Introduction to PCB:
The printed circuit board usually serves three distinct functions:
1) It provides mechanical support for the components mounted on it.
2) It provides necessary electrical interconnections.
3) It acts as a heat sink that is it provides a conduction path leading to removal of most of the heat
generated in the circuit.
3.5.2 Manufacturing process of printed circuit board Figure 3.33:
Manufacturing Process of Printed Circuit Board
The conductor pattern which is on the master lm is transferred on copper clad laminate by two
methods:
1) Photo resists printing.
2) Screen printing.
1) Photo resists printing
Photopolymer resist is a light sensitive organic material like KPR (Kodak Photo Resist) which is
applied to the board as thin lm. The photo resist when exposed to ultraviolet light hardens or
polymerizes. Once it is polymerized, it becomes insoluble to certain chemical solvents known as
developers.
The developer dissolves the portion which is masked or which is not exposed to light. Thus the pat-
tern that is to be drawn on PCB is derived from the artwork which is photographic process. This is
transferred to a master lm on 1:1 scale. This can be reduced to any small size thus miniaturization
is possible. The pattern is transferred to a mask. This mask is kept on PCB. The whole process is
known as Image Transfer.
The unpolymerized or masked portion is washed away in developer leaving wanted copper pattern
on board KPR or photo resist is then removed.
Requirements of photo resists
1) It should have good resolution and light sensitivity.
2) It should be resistant to developers which are used to remove unwanted copper.
3) It should have possibility to strip after unwanted copper is removed.
4) Its cost must be less.
44

Photo resist is normally applied by:
1) Flow coating OR
2) Roller coating OR
3) Dip coating OR
4) Spraying
Screen printing Figure 3.34:
Screen printing
This technique is similar to the one used in printing industry. The copper foil is covered with
printing ink where the conducting paths are going to be. The screen which is used for pattern is
of either stainless steel or polymer mesh which is dimensionally accurate and ne mesh. The open
meshes of screen correspond to the pattern. PCB is placed under the screen. Printing ink is placed at
one end of the screen, and by means of a rubber squeegee it is pushed through open meshes. Printed
circuit board is then removed for drying. After drying board is washed in ferric chloride which acts
as etchant. Etching is chemical process by which unwanted copper is removed. The portion which
is covered by ink is not removed, that is the pattern remains intact. Later ink stripping is done with
trichloroethylene.
Protection of copper tracks
Copper when exposed to atmosphere for a long time gets tarnished and problems arise at the time of
soldering.
The tracks can be protected by applying lacquer or varnish depending upon the thickness of the track.
Copper is also protected by plating. There are three methods of plating.
1) Immersion plating
2) Electro less plating
3) Electroplating
Immersion plating utilizes tin and its alloys and gold. It is done by chemical replacement from
coating material salt solution. This method is simple and less costly.
In electro less copper coating electric current is not used. Instead, a chemical reducing agent is used
which supplies electrons for reaction in which copper is reduced from its ionic state.
In electroplating, a DC current is passed between two electrodes, and a thin coating is deposited on
cathode when immersed in electrolyte.
Etching
45

Removal of unwanted copper, to give nal copper pattern is known as etching. Solutions which are
used in etching are known as etchants.
1) Ferric chloride
2) Cupric chloride
3) Chromic acid
4) Alkaline ammonia
Out of these chemicals, ferric chloride is widely used because it has short etching time and it can
be stored for a longer time. Rinsing follows etching.
Solders and soldering techniques
Solders are special alloys which are used to get either a mechanically strong joint or electric joint of
low contact resistance. Solders have low melting points compared to metals to be joined. Therefore
when solder is heated, molten solder wets the metal, spreads and joints. Any contamination on the
surface of the metal to be joined acts as a paired and hampers the action of wetting.
Solders are divided into two groups, soft and hard. Soft solders have lower melting point and lower
tensile strength. Soft solders are largely tin lead alloys and silver based compositions. Fluxes are
auxiliary materials used while soldering is done.
1) They dissolve and remove oxides and contaminants from surface of metals to be soldered.
2) They protect the metal surface and molten solder from oxidation.
3) They reduce the surface tension of molten solder.
4) They improve the ability of solder to wet the metal.
1. Active or acid uxes: they are prepared on the basis of active substances, such as hydrochlo-
ric acid, chlorides and uorides of metals, etc. these uxes intensively dissolve oxide lms on the
metal surface and thus make for better adhesion of the solder to the base metal, the residue must be
thoroughly removed after soldering Active uxes are not used in soldering the circuit wires of radio
devices.
2. Acid free uxes: these are rosin and rosin base material with the addition of inaction substances
such as alcohol and glycerin. Activated uxes: these include rosin base uxes containing activating
agents in small quantities, such as hydrochlorides and phosphates of aniline, salicylic acid and hy-
drochlorides of diethyl amine. A high activity of some of these uxes makes the preliminary removal
of oxides after degreasing unnecessary. Figure 3.35:
Bottom layer of power supply
46

Figure 3.36:
Relay Board Layout
47

Figure 3.37:
Bottom layer of main circuit
48

Figure 3.38:
PCB Layout of main circuit
49

3.6 Noise immunity of system and environment related aspects
Noise lter Figure 3.39:
Typical EMI/RFI Noise
Noise lters add noise to the active layer or to the selection. Noise is dened as a high-
frequency electrical distortion of the voltage waveform. It is comprised of unwanted and inter-
fering voltages and currents generated by motors, ofce equipment, industrial equipment, etc.
It is commonly referred to as conducted (EMI/RFI). Noise can be further broken down into
three types: Line to Neutral, Line to Ground, and Neutral to Ground. Line to Neutral noise is
called normal mode, and Line to Ground/Neutral to Ground is called common mode. Figure 3.40:
Typical Noise Paths
Filter capacitor
Capacitors are reactive elements, which make them suitable for use in analog electronic lters.
The reason for this is that the impedance of a capacitor is a function of frequency, as explained
in the article about impedance and reactance. This means that the effect of a capacitor on a
signal is frequency-dependent, a property that is extensively used in lter design.Analog elec-
tronic lters are used to perform a predened signal processing function. An example of such
a function is a low-pass lter (LPF), which passes through low frequencies, but blocks high
frequencies. Another example is the high-pass lter (HPF), which passes through high fre-
quencies but blocks low frequencies. These are some basic lter types which can be combined
50

to create other more complicated lters, such as band-pass or notch lters.
Electronic lters can be realized in many different ways. They can be made using analog com-
ponents only, such as capacitors, inductors, resistors, transistors, and operational ampliers.
They can also be realized using digital technology digital signal processing circuits that con-
sist of a specialized computer or microcontroller and software appropriate for the application.
Analog lters are further divided into passive and active lters. Active lters use amplifying
circuits and components such as transistors and opamps, while passive lters use resistors, in-
ductors and capacitors exclusively. The advantage of passive lters is that no power source is
needed apart from the processed signal itself, while the advantage of active lters is reduced
size and cost.
The capacitance value needed to supply the power supplies output current (I) with the specied
amount ofripple current (Vrms) with full wave rectication is:
C = I Where Vrms = V(p-p) for f = 60Hz
Vrms x 4f 2
C = 2.4 I I = DC Load current of power supply in milliamps Vrms
A more general formula is:
C I x Vdc Where Vdc = Vm – Vp-p
VrmsVm 4 2
Vm = max. voltage of input waveform
Vp-p = peak to peak ripple voltage
51

Chapter 4
TEST PROCEDURE AND RESULTS
4.1 Testing
Testing is nothing but the physical checking of the all components and all possible condition to avoid
problem in the circuit functioning. Testing done with so many checking instruments as per the circuit
requirement and conditions
4.1.1 Bread board testing
In bare board testing we should have to check the following points
1. Continuity of the track
2. Over etching or under etching if any
3. Shorts if any
4. VCC and GND tracks
4.1.2 Trouble Shooting
After the PCB is prepared the conductivity test is carried out. First pin-to-pin conductivity is checked.
The necessary IC interconnections are also checked. The resistance value of all the resistor are
checked and then completed with the value denoted by colour-coding is done. The capacitors are
also checked to see whether they are working or short or open. The diodes are tossed for priority.
The diodes are cracked for their forward resistance and reverse resistance. After carrying out all the
possible testing, the jumper wires are also tested for conductivity.
4.2 Simulation Results
52

Figure 4.1:
power supply simulation Figure 4.2:
3.3V power supply simulation
53

Figure 4.3:
Simulation of LED interfacing Figure 4.4:
Output at the receiver end
54

Chapter 5
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
5.1 Advantages User friendly software.
Less time required for testing GSM modem
System is wireless
best microcontroller used for high performance
By using software we can test 100 modems at a time hence high speed.
5.2 Applications In Industrial starter motor.
In Agriculture elds.
VTS
Industry PDA
Personal tracking
Wireless POS
Smart metering
5.3 Conclusion
The project we have undertaken has helped us gain a better perspective on various aspects related
to our course of study as well as practical knowledge of electronic equipments and communication.
We became familiar with software analysis, designing, implementation, testing and maintenance con-
cerned with our project.
55

5.4 Future scope
Home automation security system using GSM modem with sms
GSM based campus display system
Electric line man safety using microcontroller with GSM module
Railway track security system using GSM modem
Bank security system using GSM and PIR sensor
56

REFERENCES
1. Herman Chung- HwaRao, Di-Fa Chang and Yi-Bing Lin, iSMS: An Integration Platform for
Short Message Service and IP Networks, IEEE Network, pp.48-56, March/April (2001).
2. Jeff Brown, Bill Shipman and Ron vetter, SMS: The Short Message service , IEEE Computer
Society, pp.106-111, December (2007).
3. VeenaDivyak, AyushAkhouri,A Real time implementation of a GSM based Automated Irrigation
Control System using drip Irrigation Methodology (Volume 4, Issue 5, May 2013).
4. Books:GSM and Personal Communications Handbook-SiegmundRedl, -Matthias Weber- Malcom
W. Oliphant.
5. Sougata Das, Nilava Debabhuti, Rishabh Das, Sayantan Dutta, Apurba Ghosh, Embedded System
for Home Automation Using SMS, University of Burdwan,Golapbag (North)
6. Anand Jadhav, Jayashree Bage, Prof. P.S.Badgujar, Smart Android App for Controlling Single
Phase Motor , ISSN : 2454-9150 Vol-02, Issue 12, Mar 2017
7. K.Anusha, T.Suresh, K.Niranjan Reddy, GSM Based Automation System for Agricultural Field,
IJCSMC, Vol. 4, Issue. 1, January 2015, pg.236 241
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