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De Grauwe (2005) notes ‘the evidence of direct cause and effect relationship between school-based management and improved outcomes is minimal. But he recognizes that various factors of school-based management influence student outcomes including the control of quality of school leadership and teaching. In contrast, Eskeland and Filmer (2002) find a stronger correlation between increased autonomy and student test scores amongst the sub-sample of “poorest” primary urban Argentinean schools. Most of studies reported on the effect of School Board reforms shown the moderate effect on school outcomes (World Bank, 2011).
2.3.4.6. Limitations and Challenges of School Governance Bodies
It is proved by empirical studies that good governance contributes to improving the practices of management at the level of institutions, improvement which in turn causes an increase in the success rate of students. The governance bodies can play a role in strengthening the quality of management of institutions by contributing to the improvement of the functioning of the institution. These bodies could strengthen the effectiveness of the learning and teaching environment, as well as improving the academic success rate (Ranson, 2005a).
Moreover, many limitations were addressed to the implementation and the operation of school governance bodies including on non-clarification of missions, roles and responsibilities of these bodies and the inability to effectively accomplish their missions. Decentralization and the autonomy of the schools take the form by the delegation of responsibilities to school boards even if in some countries, the practices of school boards have not received the necessary support for its effective implementation. These new powers of school governance bodies are initiated by the educational reform without prior preparation. The leaders and members of school boards are often volunteers (Pont et al., 2008, p.97).

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