EDUCATION IN PRACTICE 1A
In this essay I’ll talk about the impact of my previous personal learning experiences on my professional identity and educational values.
The main activity of students of any age or educational level is to learn, but the problem is teachers don’t care so much about transmitting knowledge or teaching, just that they learn.
The question I ask to myself is if teachers know the learning strategies and know what to do for students can take advantage of knowledge in the future.
It is also true that there are time resources are devoted to implementing teacher-directed teaching methodologies. However, there is little concern about providing students with the resources to learn.
DEFINICIÓN DE APRENDIZAJE, WHAT WE KNOW, AND MOST THEORIES OF LEARNING ARE BASED ON: OBSERVATION, INTROSPECTION AND EXPERIMENTATION. (DIFFERENT WAYS OF LOOKING AT LEARNING).
The education is so important for transferring knowledge and try to promote learning for gain/develop knowledge, skills, attitudes or values. (quitar conocimiento).
According Núñez and González- Pumariega, 1996, to learn, it is necessary for the student to be cognitively able to cope with the learning tasks and to be motivationally oriented towards learning, or at least towards the effective resolution of those tasks.
Las personas desde que nacen van aprendiendo en múltiples contextos y diversas situaciones, por lo que se describen los diferentes tipos de contextos de aprendizaje, formal, no formal e informal
People since they were born are learning in different contexts such as school, family and society… Children learn very quickly and absorb knowledge as if they were sponges. They start learning from their family, by imitation of what they see in their environment… When children start the school, a very important scholar stage, learn to relate to each other, to talk about their feelings and to create their own personality and that is when learning the social context begins.
“…school practices and classroom actions are influenced by the social circumstances within which they occur. However, it has also been argued that individuals can, and will, have effects on future social changes as they exercise their agency”
(Pollard 2014: 143)
If students have confidence in themselves, they feel self-competent, they are motivated… the level of involvement in the learning process increases. The aim of achieving learning is optimal and meaningful. (The object is to achieve an optimal and meaningful learning)
Over the years, education has been changing. Long ago it used to work individually, it has now been shown that teamwork increases learning. The curriculum has also changed because before the girls needed a different one, now a days a common curriculum is used to all adapting to specific needs and preferences, it is indispensable the attention to diversity and support the inclusion. Finally, I want to say that now everybody can pursue to higher studies.
Society, education, ways of teaching, ways of learning change, and teachers need to be aware of these changes. According Pollard, Anderson, Maddock, Swaffield, Warin and Warrick, 2008, p.117, “…teachers must continually adapt: they must know themselves and the situations in which they work, and they must be able to make astute strategic judgments as they seek to achieve personal and professional fulfilment and to resolve the dilemmas posed by idealism and pragmatism”.
To achieve an optimal and meaningful learning it’s necessary teachers have knowledge and understanding about the different learning theories and its importance as well as the cognitive, social and emotional stages of the students to know the needs.
*** Learning is essential in our lives. It is important to make theories about it to achieve achievements and to know its bases to solve problems and to get a better adaptation to the environment that surrounds us.
THEORIES OF LEARNING
The first theory of learning that I’m going to talk about is behaviourism.
Behaviorism arose from the work of Watson, an American psychologist, who said that psychology did not focus on people’s minds but on the conduct of each one. His work was based on Pavlov’s experiments, who had studied animal responses to conditioning.
Nowadays, behaviourism is more associated with Skinner by checking Watson’s theories in a laboratory and the learning is less mechanical than before. (escribir abajo)
When we are born our mind is a blank slate. All behaviour is learnt from the environment and It’s the result of stimulus – response.
With regard to education, the experiential learning has greater effect than by rote learning. Skinner assert it stating, “Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten.”
“A failure is not always a mistake, it may simply be the best one can do under the circumstances. The real mistake is to stop trying.” ? B.F. Skinner
Piaget studied constructivism, different mental structures are modified and combined through experience through the adaptation to the environment and the organization of our mind.
Learning is thanksgiving given to new circumstances and changes. Our perception of the world is renewed as we grow. This process is made up of schematics that we mentally ordain. Adaptation takes place through a process of assimilation and another of accommodation.
Process of assimilation modifies the external reality, for example, if we have met a bad teacher, we are going to think all they are bad teachers. When we know another teacher and we see that teaches well, cares for their students, is empathetic… we will have to change our idea about the teachers and begin to recognize that there are also good. In the latter case we would be talking about the process of accommodation, which changes our mental structures.
Concerning education, he said that children have an active role in learning.
Vygotsky’s social constructivism focuses on the social basis of learning in people. The social context gives students the opportunity to carry out more complex than they can do for themselves.
Technologies are very important in this theory because they share information, knowledge, ideas… with other people.
Por otro lado, Vygotsky se centra también en el aprendizaje a través del juego. Este ayuda a los niños/as a memorizar, recordar, explorar, mostrar atención, interpretar diferentes roles sociales de forma divertida, fácil y sin conciencia de que están aprendiendo. Los niños se ayudan unos a otros, enseñando también se aprende.
On the other hand, Vygotsky also focuses on learning through the game. This helps children to memorize, remember, explore, show attention, interpret different social roles in a fun, easy and without awareness of what they are learning. Children help each other, teaching is also learned.
En primer lugar, aprenden de los objetos que les rodean, su nombre, su uso… y luego aprenden a darle a dichos objetos la función de otros parecidos.
También conocemos el juego socio-dramático en el que toman gran interés por el mundo de los adultos y juegan a imitarlo.
In the first place, they learn about the objects that surround them, their name, their use … and then they learn to give these objects the function of other similar ones.
We also know the sociodramatic game in which they take great interest in the world of adults and play to imitate it.There are many ways to teach and learn and that is why it depends on the experiences we have, the environment in which we live, the people we live with every day… the learning and knowledge acquired vary between people and others.
Some of the learning experiences that have marked my life were the exchanges I could do when I was in the high school but I’m going to talk about my Holland’s exchange.
My high school exchange program in Netherlands was one of the experiences that deeply influenced my life. This opportunity occurred thanks to our teacher. She was so excited for the feedback’s we students gave about the previous year experience in France, that she decided to propose us the same program, but this time in Netherlands. We all thought it was a good idea, so we sort out to organize the trip. At that time, our high school received a scholarship from the Junta de Andalucía for delivering several projects. Thanks to that scholarship we were able to add to the program a visit in Belgium for one week. Here we could practice French (remember my high school was teaching French) before joining for eight days the English-speaking families appointed to host us during the exchange program.
The high school where we went during the exchange is called Niftarlake College. It’s in Maarssen (Utrecht). It’s bigger than my old high school and it has a lot of students with different nationality. The social class is high compared with Spain. The high school has dining hall because the lecture time was from 8.30 am until 17.00 pm and an incredible football team. The subjects are more ludic than in Spain and you learn in a fun way. Almost all students go to Niftarlake College by bike which has a large bicycle parking.
A European Commission report (2008/08) concludes that the organisation of the education system in the Netherlands is:
– Compulsory full-time education 5-18 years old
– Pre-primary – ISCED 0 4-6 years old
– Primary – ISCED 1 6-12 years old
– Lower secondary general – ISCED 2 12-15 years old
– Upper secondary general – ISCED 3 15-18 years old
– Tertiary education – ISCED 5A 18-24 years old
In Netherlands families can pick up from a large pool of primary and secondary education institutes. The Dutch system offers various education programs based on different religious and culture. The University of Utrecht is the most important university in the Netherlands and one of the most prestigious in Europe.
In my opinion the most important aspects of the trip were the relationships with both the family and the new friends I met. In the high school, teachers and student welcomed us with posters, music, food etc. Thanks to their Ice-breaking activity, we were asked to introduce ourselves. This way it was very easy getting knows new people. The family I visited, was very nice with me. I lived with my exchange’s partner, Eline who was the same age as me, her brother and her parents, however I had my own bedroom. On the weekends, they would take me on a tour and so I could visit many new places around there. Moreover, I met a lot of friends in the high school, in some parties organised by Eline’s friends, during trips with my Spanish classmates and my teachers from Spain.
Utrecht is a very historical city in Netherlands. You can find there many monuments and famous places to visit, as well as museums, theatres and cinemas. Talking about religion, a large portion of the population is Christian, followed by Islam and Hinduism. I felt that people from Netherlands have a similar attitude of Spanish people. I think people from there are like Spanish, or at least the people I knew. They are friendly, respectful and trying to involve me in their plans even if I was a foreigner, speaking another language and only a newcomer.
In my exchange in Holland, I was able to learn a lot about the culture there, the language, because they weren’t Spanish, and I had to strive to be able to communicate with them, so I met new friends, I’m still keeping in touch with them. I visited a lot of wonderful places like Amsterdam, as the capital of the Netherlands, Bruges (Belgium) and Keukenhof, the largest tulip park I had ever seen. I could know how education is in another country, I learned to be independent, self-confident and to solve my own problems. These are many reasons why I am studying as an Erasmus student, I wanted to live a new experience, to know the education from Scotland, a new culture, practice English, new friends, etc.
En conclusión, desde mi punto de vista el aprendizaje es algo esencial en la vida de cualquier ser vivo. Es un proceso social que reorganiza el cerebro y, por lo tanto, produce un cambio.
De cualquier experiencia, situación, ambiente o contexto podemos adquirir conocimientos o habilidades de diferentes formas, lo que implica que haya varias teorías vinculadas al aprendizaje.
Aprender es adquirir y procesar la información que obtenemos del medio y aplicarla a nuestra propia experiencia, modificando los conocimientos previos para reflejar los nuevos en las situaciones que surjan.
Por la buena experiencia que he tenido con los profesores a lo largo de mi experiencia escolar, he tenido claro desde pequeña que quería estudiar educación, para enseñar y repercutir en mis alumnos de la misma forma en la que lo hicieron mis profesores. Siempre buscando los mejor para el alumnado, adaptándose a nuestras necesidades, exigencias y poniéndose siempre en nuestro lugar antes de actuar.
Como siempre he pensado, estudiar para aprender, aprender para enseñar y enseñar para disfrutar.
“ENSEÑANDO SE APRENDE”
“ESTUDIAR PARA APRENDER, APRENDER PARA ENSEÑAR Y ENSEÑAR PARA DISFRUTAR”
Núñez, J.C. y González-Pumariega, S. (1996). Procesos motivacionales y aprendizaje. En J.A. González-Pienda, J. Escoriza, R. González y A. Barca (Eds)., Psicología de la instrucción. Vol.2: Componentes cognitivos y afectivos del aprendizaje escolar. Barcelona: EUB
Department for Education, 2016. Behaviour and Discipline in Schools: Advice for Headteachers and School staff.
Novak, J.D. and Gowin, D.B., 1984. Learning how to learn. Cambridge University Press.
Skinner, B.F., 1964. Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten. Public Policy, 415, pp.826-3172.
Berk, L.E., 1994. Vygotsky’s theory: The importance of make-believe play. Young children, 50(1), pp.30-39.