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IMPLICATIONS OF MALE –TEACHERS DOMINATION IN TEACHING MIXED PRIMARY SCHOOL: BARRIER TO ADDRESING SPECEFIC NEEDS OF GIRL PUPILS
DISTRICT- HARGEISA, SOMALILAND

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Thesis proposal submitted to School of Graduate Studies and Research
Master of International Development Studies
Golis University
Hargeisa, Somaliland
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In partial fulfillment of the requirements for Master
Master of International Development Studies

Guled Ahmed Hashi

Chapter One: Introduction

1.1 Introduction
Female teachers play important role increasing girls enrollments in the schools, the percentage of female teachers in a basic education system is less then male teachers in the schools, this may causes girls drop out because girls pupils have special needs which they can’t share with male teachers; so background of the study focus over all barriers girls education and role of female teachers in the school s.

1.2 Background of the study

Women and the teaching profession is an area that is particularly pertinent to the education MDGs and EFA goals. Developing countries are currently working towards overcoming the dual challenges of education expansion and universal provision while ensuring quality and equity. In the context of countries that have achieved the goals of Universal Primary Education (UPE) and gender parity in education, historical analysis indicates that an influx of women into the teaching profession has been central to these successes (Cortina and San Roman, 2006).
On the other hand, the progressive prioritization of girls educational within the context of policy commitments to education for all at global and national level over the past 20 years has led to improvements in girls’ participation in education in Africa and the venturing of girls into fields from which they have hither to been excluded. The social and economic benefits of educating girls have been widely acknowledged by both governments and international agencies. Commitments have been made at various levels including internationally, at the 2000 Dakar conference and the UN General summit, with world leaders committing to eliminating gender disparities in education by 2005 and achieving universal primary education and gender equality in education by 2015. Some governments translated these commitments into action by employing affirmative action policies and strategies. Just how effective have these policies been? (E. Sutherland-addy,2008).

Even though there has been effort to encourage and support for girls but reality that most of African countries don’t success to overcome barriers for girls educations .

On the occasion of the World Teachers’ Day, celebrated each year on 5 October, Euro stat, the statistical office of the European Union, publishes data on the gender and age structure of the teaching staff in the EU.
In all EU Member States, primary school teachers in 2014 were predominantly female. The share of women reached 90% in 11 Member States, with the highest proportions in Lithuania, Hungary, Slovenia (all 97%) and Italy (96%). The situation was less imbalanced in Denmark (69%), Greece (70%) and Luxembourg (75%). At EU level, 85% of people working as primary school teachers were women. 1 out of 3 teachers in EU primary schools were 50 or more years old in 2014. In Italy, more than half of teachers fell in this age group (53%). High shares were also registered in Bulgaria, Germany (both 42%) and Lithuania (41%). In Africa, One of the most compelling arguments for increasing the number of women teachers in schools relates to the positive impact that doing so has on girls’ education. There is evidence to show a correlation between the number of women teachers and girls’ enrollment, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In countries where there are more or less equal numbers of male and female primary teachers, there is close to gender parity in student intake. In contrast, in countries where women constitute only 20% of teachers, there are far more boys than girls entering school.1 However, as highlighted in recent research from Nepal, such large-scale trends mask more complex patterns at the local level.2 The relationship between women teachers and girls’ enrollment is more than a simple cause and effect, as there are many factors that prevent girls from attending school some of which also impact on the number of women teachers. Increasing the number of women teachers has to be accompanied by other strategies to promote girls’ education, such as ensuring that the timing of the school day fits with girls’ domestic workloads, and ensuring a high quality of education in a safe and secure environment. Unesco 2003, p.60.
Comparing between European and African countries there is a big variations, the majority of African teachers are male, and students willing to have female teachers as CCE Report No. 12 stated ” The presence of female teachers was considered a major attraction, just as the headship of schools by women was widely acknowledged and celebrated by the children in those schools in Nakpirpirit. In the words of girl 21(school 5) what has made me stay in school, we learn about good hygiene; at least our head teacher is a women not a man”
In Somaliland ,According UNICEF Education Report In 2011 “Somaliland has a total of 896 primary schools; however this report captures the information of only 839 schools. The size of the education system (number or schools, enrolment and teachers) varies significantly in the different regions and within districts in the same region. The largest concentration of schools was found in Maroodi-Jeex (160) and inside the capital district, Hargeisa (72), followed by Sanaag, Sool, Togdheer and Awdal. The lowest number of schools were found in Hawd and Salal regions, although these new districts are relatively small in terms of population size.
The highest concentration of teachers is, again in Maroodi-Jeex with a total number of 1,561 teachers, followed by Awdal (789) and Sanaag (741). The region that has the lowest number of teachers is Hawd. The teacher distribution is very unequal as the Pupil-to-Teacher Ratio for Maroodi-Jeex is 36:1 as compared to the one in Togdheer which is 45:1. The percentage of female teachers’ was only 16% while Male teachers were 84%.
The gender gap does not vary considerably between districts: the proportion of girls accounted for about 43% across Somaliland with Sanaag, Saraar and Awdal reaching 46% and Odwayne 39%. Highly populated regions like Maroodi–Jeex and Togdheer reach 40% and 42%, respectively. However, there are still a great number of girls outside of the primary school system, with a Gender Parity Index (GPI) equal to 0.74, with significant differences between regions.
Problem Statement

On 2013 Report conducted by Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs stated that Somaliland Primary Male teachers are 81% while Female teachers are 19%.
There is huge gap between Male teachers and female teachers in Somaliland, this problem is negatively influences girl pupils in Somaliland, because girls have special needs that they couldn’t share with Male teachers. I have been working education projects, I found that one of the reasons that girls drop out of the school is lack of Female teachers and Female mentor, girl pupils needs extra counseling , advices that male teachers can’t or sometimes culture restrict male teachers to talk about girls such as menstruations periods, using school toilets and how to use sanitary kits which available in some primary schools.
One of the surprising things is that girl most girl pupils in primary school don’t use Toilet due to shy and lack of female teachers who can motivate to use, most of girls complaining about kidney diseases caused by lack of using toilet for hours.
Main Objective
The major objective of the study is to investigate implications of male-teachers domination in teaching mixed primary schools and addressing specific needs of Girl pupils in Hargeisa Somaliland

Specific Objectives
The specific objectives of this study will be
? To analyze the ratio of female teachers to male teachers in selected primary school
? To explore the specific needs of girls in the primary school
? To identify girls major challenges in pursuing their primary school
? To evaluate the retention levels of girls in primary schools
? To suggest the possible solutions could take to address specific needs of girls
? To understand to role of Ministry of education recruiting female teachers and profession of women’s education
Research Questions
1. What is the ratio of female teachers to male teachers in selected primary school Hargeisa/Somaliland?
2. What are specific needs of girls in the primary schools ?
3. What are the major challenges girls to pursuing in the primary school?
4. What are the retention levels of girls in primary schools ?
5. What are the suggestions possible solutions could take to address specific needs of girls ?
6. What is the role of NGOs to address girls needs and empowerment of girls pupils ?
7. What is role of Ministry of education for recruiting and training female teachers ?

Scope of the study
Geographical scope
This study will be done in public primary schools specifically two districts out of eight district in Hargeisa Somaliland( 26 June and Ibrahim Kodbur districts ) which is recognized in ministry of education.

Content scope
This content is all about Implications of male teachers in mixed primary school: Implications of male-teachers domination in teaching mixed primary schools: Barrier to addressing specific needs of Girl pupils in Hargeisa, Somaliland.
Time Scope
Duration of the study will take four months April to August 2018

Justifications
I have seen girl pupils in primary schools drop out , specifically the most populated city in Somaliland Hargeisa, school haven’t clear and organized documentation about why girls in the school are left to school, female teachers are very few according to male teachers in primary school in Somaliland specially Hargeisa this needs to take seriously to the account and investigate what caused for this problem .
Significance of the study
After completed this study it will help government institutions, INGOs/NGOs, School and community to understand importance of Female teachers. This study will try to come up the solution of girl pupil needs, the value of female role models and female mentors in the primary schools, also this study will beneficial to the other researchers by providing necessary knowledge and information to be used in further research of Implication of male teachers domination in teaching mixed primary schools.

Limitation of the study

It is anticipated that poor school documentations which is influence to get exact numbers of drop out and reasons about it, sensitivity of gender issues in Somaliland context which may some of the schools think advocating gender equality and spreading western ideology. Lack of qualitative application analysis not available in Somaliland or it costs more money to purchase, financial will also be challenges as I will need transportation, printing papers, FGD/KII refreshment and using Enumerators if possible. Finally girls pupils feel shy to share their specific needs and express themselves .

Conceptual Framework

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

These two diagrams explaining cause and effect of this two variables and dependability of each other, In other words domination of male teachers to the female teachers and how this effect girls educations, performances and their status, for instance recruiting female teachers can decrease numbers of girls drop out in schools, lack of female mentors also causes low self-esteem for girls.

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