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Infancy (0-2 years)
Physical: Physical development of an infancy in their first two years of life, infants go through a period of rapid growth and development. New born babies can also demonstrate a number of reflexes: for example, swallowing and sucking reflex, they would swallow and suck anything in their mouth, rooting reflex is where the baby will turn their head toward the side you have stroked their cheek etc.
Social: Social development is when the child starts to speak in their baby language, for example mama, dada. They also start touching and grabbing stuff or putting toys in their mouth. Play games like Peek-a-boo.
Emotional: Emotional development is when the child throws tantrums because they don’t know how to react. For example chucking toys across the room.
Cognitive: this is when they start to say proper words lie “mom” and “dad”.
Childhood (3-10 years)
Physical: Physical development Gross and Fine Motor Development. The term “gross motor” development refers to physical skills that use large body movements, normally involving the entire body. In the sense used here, gross means “large” rather than “disgusting.” Gross motor also involves larger muscle groups used for accurate, precise movement e.g. walking, running, skipping, jumping, throwing, climbing and many others.
Social: This is when the child starts to make development of friendships, Common to have gender based friendships, Social play – cooperative play begins and Listening to others. For example holding hands and hugging a friend.
Emotional: This is when the child starts to learn how to share and cooperate – experiences emotions such as love, hate, fear and jealousy. They will also experience a range of new feelings and will have to learn how to handle them.
Cognitive: This is when the child’s Communication and Language development improve greatly and can now use full sentences, e.g. “can we get some sweets ” and can count and start to sequence and order events. This is the stage where they also learn to read and write.
Adolescence (9-18 years):
Physical: This is when both sexes are capable for reproduction, both sexes’ changes in body shape and growth of body hair. This is also the stage when Girls – menstrual cycle, growth of breasts, hips widen and Boys – penis growth, sperm production, voice breaks.
Social: This is when development of sexual and intimate relationships, Friendships with both sexes, wider social circle etc. for example, falling in love.
Emotional: This is when conflicts with parents and other adults, Self-concept becomes more formed, own identity formed, Desire for independence and Mood swings. E.g. lashing out at parents, wanting to party till late.
Cognitive: This is when an ability to think about concepts and ideas – Abstract thinking, Can think in a more logical way to solve problems, Ability to remember large amounts of information and also Begins to question the world and develop own views.
Early Adulthood (19-45 years):
Physical: This is the stage when they Reach maturity. Also towards the end of this life stage, their physical capabilities begin to decline. Fertility starts to drop for both men and women, and the signs of aging appear. E.g. muscle strength weakens, reaction time slows downs, sensory abilities, and cardiac functioning.
Social: This is when less hectic social life with parenthood responsibilities, Social life and friendships often focused on working life and colleagues. E.g. when all children’s have moved out and can spend time with friends.
Emotional: Sometimes this can lead to people choosing to cohabit, marry or go through a civil ceremony. This can also lead to Steady relationships create a sense of security and allows them to give and receive love. E.g. losing a partner, marrying a partner, getting a promotion.
Cognitive: This is when qualifications for career achieved also some people often reach their productive peak at work, they often get promoted to jobs where specialist training or education is needed.
Middle Adulthood (46-65 years):
Physical: This is when physical capabilities begin to decline – skin loses elasticity, wrinkles appear more obvious, muscle tone slackens, senses become less precise – Hearing, sight, taste etc.
• Menopause
• Hormonal changes for both men and women
– Women produce less oestrogen and men less testosterone. These hormonal changes mean that women will go through the menopause and in men, sperm production decreases.
Social: This is when social life becomes less intense for many which then social life involves less physical activity. If children and have grown up and left home, the parents have less responsibility and more money to spend on themselves – so they can go out more to socialise with friends more often.
Emotional: This is mid-life crisis for many, Love of grandchildren and pleasure from spending time with them and they also have more time to spend with each other because children have grown up so the couple can focus on themselves and spend money on themselves to.
Cognitive: This is when the memory is still good but short term memory not so quick. They can still learn new things. Memory wouldn’t be quick as it used to be. E.g. wouldn’t remember a friend’s birthday.
Later Adulthood (65+ years)
Physical: This is when the loss of skin elasticity, Joints stiffen, Muscle wastage, Bones more brittle, and A regular exercise pattern and good diet can help people to improve their muscle tone, maintain joint flexibility and strength their bones etc.
Social: Trying of new activities and meeting new people as time is available also more time to socialize with friends.
Emotional: This is the stage where loss of partner because of death, emotionally attacked to family.
Cognitive: This stage declines in attention and most memory, which is part of information processing, and the increase in wisdom.
LO2: Understand theories of human growth and development.
2.1. Describe theories of human growth and development:
There are many different theories of human growth and development from different perspectives. It is exploring how individuals change as they grow from birth through child and adolescence into adulthood. Psychologists separate development into different specific areas of physical, cognitive and social or emotional development. Psychology also tries to explain every aspect of development for example, how children learn to respond to emotions, how they learn to make friends and most importantly how they learn to think.
The two theories I am going to talk about are: Piaget and Vygotsky
On the 9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980 Piaget’s theory was developed. Piaget’s theory suggests that “children pass through a number of different life stages and that they are fixed and named sensorimotor, preoperational thinking”, According to Piaget children go through different stages of development. Maria Ferreiro Peteiro (2017 p.30)
“Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory is the work of Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky” (1896-1934) this shows us that not many people knew about Vygotsky’s’ theory until it was published to the west. Vygotsky’s was largely unknown to the west until published in 1962. Vygotsky also developed a term called “Zone of Proximal Development” his thought of this was for children who can’t complete the tasks by themselves. Maria Ferreiro Peteiro (2017 P.30)

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