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INTRODUCTION
Fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts hydrogen and oxygen into electricity,
heat and water. It consists of anode, cathode and electrolyte. Anode oxidizes the fuel by
using the catalyst that produce proton and electrons. The protons flow from anode to
cathode through electrolyte. At the same time electrons are drawn from anode to
cathode through external circuit that produces direct current. At cathode another catalyst
causes hydrogen ions, electrons and oxygen to react and form water. There is near zero
emission or no emission of environmental polluting gases and absence of mobile parts.
But hydrogen is very expensive to produce, store and handle since it is not available
naturally.
Bioenergy is a renewable form of energy made available from materials derived from
biological resources which can be converted into biofuels as well as directly into
electricity (Minghua Zhou et al., 2012). These reduces the greenhouse gases emission
and also replace the conventional fossil fuels (Jassinnee Milano et al., 2016). One type
of fuel cell is Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) which involves in the usage of microbial
organisms for the production of electricity. In the anodic chamber the microorganisms
convert the organic matter into carbon di oxide, protons and electrons in anaerobic
condition and in the cathodic chamber the protons and electrons are combined with
oxygen to produce water. In aerobic condition it directly forms carbon di oxide and
water. The reduction of cost is done by the usage of algal biocathodes where the carbon
di oxide released from the anode chamber is utilized by the algae and in the presence of
light radiation it produces oxygen. Algae can also act as a biological electron acceptor
while simultaneously reducing carbon dioxide to biomass (Erin E. Powell et al., 2009).
The single chambered MFC consists of anode and air cathode without the usage of
membrane. The dual chamber consists of two chambers where anode and cathode are
placed in each chamber and separated by a membrane.
MFCs more sustainable when implemented in wastewater treatment: (1) The direct
conversion of substrate energy to electricity; (2) Less excess activated sludge compared
to the processes of Anaerobic Digester and Conventional Aerobic Activated Sludge; (3)
Insensitive to operation environment, even at low temperatures; (4) Without any gas

treatment; (5) Without any energy input for aeration; (6) A widespread application in
locations with insu?cient electrical infrastructures (Li He et al., 2017).
The substrate is the important for any microbial process since it acts as the nutrient
(carbon) and energy source (Deepak Pant et al., 2010). A variety of organic substrates
can be used for the production of electricity using anaerobic microorganisms. Some of
the substrates used for the electricity production are domestic waste water, swine waste
water, fruits and vegetable waste, oil waste, garden compost and dairy waste.
OBJECTIVES
The main objectives of this project is –
? To fabricate the Microbial Fuel Cell setup
? To determine the Influence of Substrate on Power Generation
PLAN OF WORK
? Selection of Material for fabrication of Fuel cell setup
? Selection of Micro Organisms
? Selection of Substrates
LITERATURE REVIEW
Author Name Title Year and
Publication
Observations
A.A. Ghoreyshi,
T.Jafary,
G.D. Najafpour,
F.Haghparast
Effect of Type
and
Concentration
of substrate on
power
generation in a
dual
chambered
microbial fuel
cell
2011
World
Renewable
Energy
Congress
? Substrates – Glucose and
date syrup (1-20 g/l)
? Species – Saccharomyces
cervisiae
? Mediators – Natural Red
and Ferricyanide
? Power and current density
increased at 1-5 g/l of
glucose and 1-3 g/l of date

after which the glucose
remained unconsumed
? Max Power – 50.41
mW/m2 for glucose and
53.7031 mW/m2 for date
Abhilasha Singh
Mathuriya,
J.V.Yakhmi
Microbial fuel
cells –
Applications
for generation
of electrical
power and
beyond
2014
Informa
Healthcare
? Electricity generation,
Waste water treatment and
recovery of pure
materials, Removal of
organic matters, Dye
decolourization,
Nitrification and
denitrification
Bharati S Meti,
Sailaja B
Treatment of
sugar process
waste water
and biogas
production
using algal
biomass
2014
International
Journal of
Engineering
Research and
Technology
? Chlorella species cultured
using Bolds Basal Media
at pH 6.8 and sterilized at
15lb pressure for 15
minutes in an autoclave
? Sugar have high COD and
BOD hence dilution is
required
? Cyanobacteria and
Chlorella were
anaerobically digested at
different organic loadings
? The BOD, COD, total
nitrogen and phosphorous
were reduced
Merina Paul Das Bioelectricity
production
2015 ? Mixed culture of algae
sample was used of which

using algae in
microbial fuel
cell
Der Pharma
Chemica
Chlorella and Spirulina
species showed maximum
growth.
? Each algae was used to
produce electricity in
single chambered MFC
for 10 days
? Chlorella produced 0.99 V
and Spirulina produced
0.96 V because Chlorella
is participating in
photosynthesis in higher
rate and thus fast growing
and converts maximum
amount of energy
Zheng Ge,
Liao Wu,
Fei Zhang,
Zhen He
Energy
Extraction
from a large
scale MFC
system treating
municipal
waste water
2015
Journal of
Power Sources
? 48 MFC’s used
? 12 hour HRT in MFC (6
hrs in each anode and
cathode) and again 6 hrs in
collection tank
? Energy is extracted from
MFC’s by Battery
Management Evaluation
Module
? Current of 75 – 93 mA
produced
Seyed Kamren,
Foad Marshi,
Hamid Reza
Kariminia
Performance of
a single
chambered
MFC at
2015
Journal of
Environmental
Health Science
? Membrane less single
chambered MFC
? Organic loading is
differed by dilution C1 –

different
organic loads
and pH values
using purified
terephthalic
acid waste
water
and
Engineering
10, C2 – 4, C3 – 2 and C4 –
raw waste water and
different pH – 5.5, 7 and
8.5
? Limiting factors are
oxidization rate of
substrate by bacteria and
rate of electron transfer to
electrode surface
? Power Density is 10.5,
43.3, 55.5, 65.6 mW/m2
for C1, C2, C3, C4
Ravinder
Kumar,
Lakhveer Singh,
A.W.Zularisam
Bioelectricity
generation and
treatment of
sugar mill
effluent using
microbial fuel
cell
2016
Journal of
Clean Energy
Technologies
? PEM membrane – Nafion
117 and anaerobic sludge
is used in anode and
KMnO4 as catholyte
? Batch operation for 15
days
? Electrode – Poly
acrylonitrile
? Maximum Power Density
– 140 mW/m2
Haixia Du,
Fusheng Li,
Kuthuang,
Wenhan Li,
Chunhua Feng
Potato waste
treatment by
microbial fuel
cell. Evaluation
based on
electricity
generation,
organic matter
2017
Environment
Protection
Engineering
? Potato was masticated and
its juice was extracted
? pH – 7.0 to 7.1
? Operation period 81 days
? Dual chambered microbial
fuel cell with anaerobic
consortia

removal and
microbial
structure
? Highest current density –
208 mA/m2
Beenish Saba,
Ann D. Christy,
Zhongtang Yu,
Anne C. Co
Sustainable
power
generation
from bacterio –
algal microbial
fuel cells
(MFCs) : An
overview
2017
Renewable and
Sustainable
Energy
Reviews
? Power generation, waste
water treatment, algal
biomass cultivation and
oxygen production
Tanisha
Manchanda,
Rashmi Tyagi,
Vijaya Kumar
Nalla, Suman
Chahar, Durlubh
Kumar Sharma
Power
generation by
algal microbial
fuel cell along
with
simultaneous
treatment of
sugar industry
wastewater
2018
Journal of Bio
processing &
Bio techniques
? Anolyte – Activated
Sludge, S. cerevisiae, S.
cerevisiae with methylene
blue
? Catholyte – Boryococcus
braunii
? Waste – Simulated waste
water and simulated soap
water

FUTURE WORK
? Optimizing various parameters and determine its effect on power generation
? Using different Substrate and determine its effect on power generation

REFERENCE
1. Abhilasha Singh Mathuriya and Yakhmi J.V. (2014), ‘Microbial Fuel Cells –
Applications of Electrical Power and Beyond’, Informa Healthcare, DOI:
10.3109/1040841X.2014.905513.
2. Beenish Saba, Ann D. Christy, Zhongtang Yu and Anne C. Co (2017), ‘Sustainable
Power Generation from Bacterio-algal Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs): An
Overview’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 73, pp.75-84.
3. Bharati S. Meti and Sailaja B. (2014), ‘Treatment of Sugar Process Waste Water
and Biogas Production using Algal Biomass’, International Journal of Engineering
Research and Technology, Vol. 3, Issue 9, pp.61-67.
4. Deepak Pant, Gilbert Van Bogaert, Ludo Diels and Karolien Vanbroekhoven
(2010), ‘A Review of the Substrates used in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) for
Sustainable Energy Production’, Bioresource Technology, Vol. 101, pp.1533-1543.
5. Erin E. Powell, Majak L. Mapiour, Richard W. Evitts, Gordon A. Hill (2009),
‘Growth Kinetics of Chlorella vulgaris and its use as a Cathodic Half Cell’,
Bioresource Technology, Vol. 100, pp.269-274.
6. Ghoreyshi A.A., Jafary. T, Najafpour G.D. and Haghparast F. (2011), ‘Effect of
Type and Concentration of Substrate on Power Generation in a Dual Chambered
Microbial Fuel Cell’, World Renewable Energy Congress, pp.1174-1181.
7. Haixia Du, Fusheng Li, Kui Huang, Wenhan Li and Chunhua Feng (2017), ‘Potato
Waste Treatment by Microbial Fuel Cell – Evaluation based on Electricity
Generation, Organic Matter Removal and Microbial Structure, DOI:
10.5277/epe170101
8. Jassinnee Milaho, Hwai Chyuan Ong, Masjuki H.H., Chong W.T., Man Kee Lam,
Ping Kwan Loh and Viknes Vellayan (2016), ‘Microalgae Biofuels as an alternative
to Fossil Fuel for Power Generation’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Vol. 58, pp.180-197.
9. Li He, Peng Du, Yizhong Chen, Hongwei Lu, Xi Cheng, Bei Chang and Zheng
Wang (2017), ‘Advances in Microbial Fuel Cells for Wastewater Treatment’,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 71, pp.388-403.

10. Merina Paul Das (2015), ‘Bioelectricity Production using Algae in Microbial Fuel
Cell’, Der Pharma Chemica, Vol. 7, Issue 11, pp.8-10.
11. Minghua Zhou, Hongyu Wang, Daniel J. Hassett and Tingyue Gu (2012), ‘Recent
Advances in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) and Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs)
for Wastewater Treatment, Bioenergy and Bioproducts’, DOI: 10.1002/jctb.4004.
12. Ravinder Kumar, Lakhveer Singh and Zularisam A.W. (2016), ‘Bioelectricity
Generation and Treatment of Sugar Mill Effluent Using a Microbial Fuel Cell’,
Journal of Clean Energy Technologies, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp.249-252.
13. Seyed Kamran Foad Marashi and Hamid Reza Kariminia (2015), ‘Performance of
a Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell at different Organic Loads and pH values
using Purified Terephthalic Acid Wastewater’, Journal of Environmental Health
Science and Engineering, DOI: 10.1186/s40201-015-0179-x.
14. Tanisha Manchanda, Rashmi Tyagi, Vijaya Kumar Nalla, Suman Chahar and
Durlubh Kumar Sharma (2018), ‘Power Generation by Algal Microbial Fuel Cell
Along with Simultaneous Treatment of Sugar Industry Wastewater’, Journal of Bio
processing ; Bio techniques, DOI: 10.4172/2155-9821.1000323.
15. Zheng Ge, Liao Wu, Fei Zhang and Zhen He (2015), ‘Energy Extraction from a
large-scale Microbial Fuel Cell System Treating Municipal Wastewater’, Journal of
Power Sources, Vol. 297, pp.260-264.

INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS SUBSTRATES IN ALGAL
ASSISTED MICROBIAL FUEL CELL
EV7311 PROJECT WORK PHASE I REPORT
FIRST REVIEW
Submitted by
R. JENANI
(Reg. No: 2017406009)
In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of
MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
ANNA UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI – 600 025
AUGUST 2018

Name of the Student : R. Jenani
Register Number : 2017406009
Degree and Branch : M.Tech Environmental Science ; Technology
Month ; Year of submission : August 2018
Title of the project : Influence of Various Substrates in Algal Assisted
Microbial Fuel Cells
Name ; Designation of : Dr. P. Gomathi priya
Supervisor : Associate Professor,
Department of Chemical Engineering,
A.C. Tech, Anna University,
Chennai-600025

DATE: 20-08-2018
PLACE: Chennai SIGNATURE OF THE SUPERVISOR

Post Author: admin