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It is important to note that every person possesses unique traits, in order to analyze the personality of the human being; Freud’s theory plays a vital role. Freud refers to unconsciousness as the mental processes of which human beings make themselves unacquainted. He has offered a hierarchical and vertical structure of individual’s consciousness. The sequence offered by Freud follows conscious mind, the preconscious, and the unconscious mind, each having a position underneath the other. He believed that the personality and the behavior of the individual are being derived from the steady and distinct interaction of contradictory psychological forces that functions at three distinct levels of alertness. “In Freud’s view, the personality is made up of three autonomous, yet interdependent, systems: the id, ego, and superego (pg-214-Nystul, 2016)”.

(pg-216-Nystul, 2016)

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As per his ideology each of the parts mentioned formerly plays a vital role in affecting the individual’s behavior. In order to assess the important insights of the theory, it is essential to initially understand what he believed each part of the personality did, how it functioned and how there three rudiments interact to the offer to the human experience. Freud’s theory focuses over reaching into the clients’ world and attempted to explore concealed content that could be interpreted to the client. One way to assess the how conscious and unconscious mind functions are to look at what are known recognized as slip of tongue. “Freud’s approach to counseling and psychotherapy is called psychoanalysis, emphasizing the analysis of the mind. It is a time-consuming approach that can typically involve four 1-hour sessions each week over a period of several years (Arlow, 2005), (pg-218-Nystul, 2016)”.
Most of us may have faced what is known as Freudian slip at a particular time in our lives. These misstatements are considered to disclose the fundamental, unconscious feelings or thoughts. Let’s take an example to further explore the Freud’s ideology; Jenny has just entered into a new relationship with a man he met at school. While communicating to him one afternoon, she unintentionally calls him by his ex-boyfriend’s name. If I were in this situation how would I explain this mistake? Most probably majority of people would hold responsible it as slip on distraction or explain it as a simple coincidence. Nevertheless, a Freudian analyst might explain you that this was not just a slip of tongue rather it goes beyond that. The psychoanalytic vision basis on the ideology that there are unconscious, internal forces outside of your consciousness that are managing your actions. For instance, a psychoanalyst probably says that Frank misspoke due to vague emotions for his ex or perhaps because of uncertainties about his newly connection. “Freud (1953) attested to the power of observation when he said, “He that has eyes to see and ears to hear may convince him that no mortal can keep a secret. If his lips are silent, he chatters with his fingertips; betrayal oozes out of him at every pore” (pp. 77–78). (pg-116-Nystul, 2016)”.
Although there are many Freud’s thoughts have fallen out of support in psychology, the significance of the unconscious has turn out to be possibly one of his most imperative and continuing offerings to psychology. Psychoanalytic therapy discovers the mechanics of how the unconscious mind impacts the behaviors and thoughts, has become a significant contrivance in the handling of mental ill health and psychological suffering. “Freudian psychoanalysis, for example, contends that transference is therapeutic in that it allows the client to work through unresolved emotional trauma (Freud, 1969),(pg-101-Nystul, 2016)”. He offered information on how actions manifest itself in terms of the ego, id and superego.
His one of the most important findings was associated with the defense mechanism. The role of defense mechanism is to shield us feeling upsetting emotions. They are always insensible and produce when the ego feels threatened. They are consumed to distort, falsify and deny the actuality so ego can cope. From counseling point of view it is pivotal to note that issues in the personality can arise if the child has a distressing experience. His focus to counseling & psychotherapy is known as Psychoanalysis. Despite of the benefits associated with his ideology, there are some deficiencies too, such as excessive focus of the role of sexuality in character growth and the time span concerned to arrive at accomplishment of counseling objectives.(The last paragraph does not answer the question.)

2. What did Adler mean when he proposed understanding behavior from a teleological perspective?
Adler’s theory of personality helps to understand important insights associated with the personality types in depth. He tries to explain that how individuals function in distinct situations and perceive information, where past experiences and family of origin plays a vital role in building up the basis of synthesis process referred to as the family constellation. If we go into depth of the concepts offered by Adler, factors such as sibling rivalry, birth order and social interest play a vital role in the development and effective functioning of the personality. “The creative self is the center or nucleus from which all life movement generates (Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1956) -(pg-225-Nystul, 2016)”.He also referred to the center of the individual as the imaginative self, focusing the inventive capacity to intermingle with the world in a manner that shows each individual’s distinctiveness.(This is informative but is not related to the question.)
He developed his own school of thought associated with the psychology called individual psychology. He has a unique view towards the individual nature where he believes human beings were primarily positive, with the abilities of autonomous thinking. “This concept was Adler’s “crowning achievement as a personality theorist”(Hall ; Lindzey, 1978, p. 165)” -(pg-225-Nystul, 2016)”.He has been able to view the human behavior in term of the movement as nothing was stationary. From here the concept further gets broadened into teleological in nature as it has the purpose and centered towards the objectives, therefore the term teleological movement is used in his understanding of the behavior. As we know life is extremely unpredictable, we don’t know even what’s going to happen in the next second and same is the case with our personal behaviors.
Further Adler explains that an individual can move beneficial side of life or non-beneficial side of life. Movement associated with the useful side is explained by the features of the mutual collaborative efforts, while movement on the useless side is egoistic in nature. He also has believed that the life movement was from sensed plus to sensed minus. He explained that people will react in a way that appears to enhance their position. The ideology can be helpful in assessing the inspiration behind the misconduct. As the text states; “Adler emphasized that behavior can best be understood from an interpersonal perspective (Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1956). This spirit was captured by the poet John Donne when he said, “No man is an island” (1624/1952) -(pg-225-Nystul, 2016)” . From the counseling point of view this theory can play a vital role in the effective personality development for example redirecting the child’s teleological movement to augment the child’s enthusiasm for change. Human behavior can be thought as like our text book, the more we get into it the more we know about its understanding, but yes it appears like there’s no ending page to this book. (You gave so much information, Dana, but you did not answer the question. -20 points).
3. Define what archetypes are which Jung devised.
Jung has analyzed archetypes as universal, archaic images and patterns that gets generated from the aggregate unconsciousness and are intuitive counterpart of character. They are built in potentials that are actualized when they get into consciousness as manifest in behavior on communication with the external world or images. Previous sentence was found in Wikipedia! This is called plagiarism. He believed that individual’s behavior was comprised of basically three distinct elements; the individual’s unconscious, the ego and the combined unconscious. “Jung discovered that several archetypes have evolved so completely that they can be considered separate systems within the personality (Hall & Lindzey, 1978). These are the persona, the anima and animus, the shadow, and the self -(pg-237-Nystul, 2016).”
The persona can be considered as public self an individual can projects as compared to the personal, private sight of oneself. Persona can be shown if different types such as family and marriage, work and social situations. As per Jung, consciousness of the persona has an indirect association of an individual’s personal character. As the text explains with an interesting example, the more aware one is of the persona, the less aware one will be of the eccentricity the personal, private self.(Previous sentence was found in a similar article in Google when I put it through a plagiarism checker!) An archetype is a specific personality, situation or an action that appears to show universal patterns of individual’s nature. An archetype, also recognized as “universal emblem,” may be a personality, a premise, a figure, or even scenery.
For example, when it comes to a character villain, it is a character whose primary objective is to go against the hero or whom the hero must obliterate in order to bring fairness. Villain can be Joker in the movie The Dark Night Rises. The utilization of the archetypical situations and characters provides a mythical work a widespread recognition, as readers recognize the situations and characters in their cultural and social background. “The self is the center of the personality, including the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind (Feist, 1985)- (pg-238-Nystul, 2016).” There can be two types of personality types introverted and extroverted. The most influencing attitude is believed to be conscious and the lesser attitude in the unconscious. Jung has be dubious regarding the use of techniques in the counseling process as he felt they could be unreasonably limiting.

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