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Jean: You are most welcome, and thank you for inviting me to sit down with you for an interview. I am always happy to discuss my theory with fellow nurses, and aid them in advancing their own personal theories.

Alana: First of all, I would just like to take a moment to say what an honor to be sitting with a nursing theorist who has an impeccable amount of awards and recognitions. To quickly recap your achievements, you are the recipient of 15 honorary doctorates, and 12 of those are international awards, you were awarded the Living Legend recognition from the American Academy of nursing in 2013, and you are also retired as a distinguished professor emerita and Dean Emerita at the university of Colorado and the College of Nursing at Anschutz Medical centre. You are also the current director and founder of your Watson Caring Institute. You have also done many speaking engagements over your time, numerous publications and you also have an extensive 72 page CV on your Caring Institute website.

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Jean: * laughs* OH yes it’s been a very busy few decades!

Alana: I can only imagine! Ok, let’s jump right in as I know you have another speaking engagement this afternoon. Can we start off by first asking you the question, of “What is caring science?”

Jean: Caring Science is that I view as the definition of a science encompassing a humanitarian, human science orientation to human caring processes, phenomena and experiences which also included arts and humanities. It is certainly not limited to nursing.

Alana: From my interpretation, your Caring Science theory possesses an ontological view of “being” within the universe. It also possesses a very holistic approach to nursing as a whole.

Jean: Of course. My theory is looking at caring as a science. It is a view of unity and everything being connected to one another. My Transpersonal Caring example acknowledges the unity of being and the individual person, others, the community, world and the universe as consistently moving in circles of Caring.

Alana: So this theory, which is considered a grand theory by nature, as it presents general concepts and can be utilized and applied to all areas and instances of nursing. Your theory consists of multiple frameworks and again utilizes the ontological perspective of nursing as well as a metaphysical approach.

Jean: Certainly. I wanted to create a theory that can be utilized throughout the nursing profession as a whole. Some of inspiration came from Florence Nightingales’ Environmental Theory and Notes on Nursing.

Alana: How did Florence provide inspiration to you?

Jean: Florence is often known as the mother of nursing. She treated patients during the Crimean War and went on to write Notes on Nursing. She is also the foundation of the nursing profession. The theory from Florence focused on the person’s environment as a form of comfort and how to improve. My theory encompasses that as well, as the sense of “caring”.

Alana: I’d like to ask you about your theory’s evolvement over the years and how it continues to be utilized to this date, in particular how the carative factors entered into your theory.

Jean: The word ‘carative’ in caring science is defined as love and charity and the motive for all caring. With her theory of caritative caring, she influenced my own work and development of carative factors (Panjikhar – disharmony).

Alana: Dr. Waston, in 1979 you first identified 10 carative factors as being the essential aspects of caring in nursing and the core of professional nursing. You have stated that nursing practice guided by the carative factors and grounded in a humanistic value system is the differentiation between professional nursing practice and nursing practice focused solely on the mechanics or tasks

Carative factors are the core of your theory:

* formation of a humanistic-altruistic systems of values,

* instillation of faith-hope,

* cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to others,

* development of a helping-trusting human caring relationship,

* promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feelings

* systematic use of a creative problem solving and caring process,

* promotion of transpersonal teaching-learning,

* provision for supportive, protective, and/or corrective mental, physical, societal and spiritual environment,

* assistance with gratification of human needs

* Allowance for existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces.

The ten primary carative factors have evolved into Caritas Processes from your 2010 publication into:

* Practicing loving-kindness and equanimity within context of caring consciousness.

* Being authentically present and enabling, and sustaining the deep belief system and subjective life world of self and one-being cared for.

* Cultivating one’s own spiritual practices and transpersonal self, going beyond ego self.

* Developing and sustaining a helping-trusting, authentic caring relationship.

* Being present to, and supportive of the expression of positive and negative feelings.

* Creatively using self and all ways of knowing as part of the caring process; engaging in artistry of caring-healing practices.

* Engaging in genuine teaching-learning experience that attends to wholeness and meaning, attempting to stay within other’s frame of reference.

* Creating healing environment at all levels, whereby wholeness, beauty, comfort, dignity, and peace are potentiated.

* Assisting with basic needs, with an intentional caring consciousness, administering ‘human care essentials,’ which potentiate alignment of mind-body-spirit, wholeness in all aspects of care.

* Opening and attending to mysterious dimensions

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