School of Architecture, Industrial Design, and Built Environment
Type the document title
AR 200 – Thesis Research Writing
IBAÑEZ. JAEYA P.
19 June 2018
As one of the main principles of Regenerative design, The research aims to answer the question, In order to avoid further depletion of natural water resources such as groundwater and surface water, how can we maximize the water usage in buildings to achieve a closed loop waste-to-resource system without minimizing the usage of the people and compromising their needs?
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Chapter 1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516697354 h 31.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516697355 h 31.1.1Background of the Study PAGEREF _Toc516697356 h 41.2Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc516697357 h 61.3Goal and Objectives PAGEREF _Toc516697358 h 71.4Significance of the Research PAGEREF _Toc516697359 h 71.5Scope and limitations PAGEREF _Toc516697360 h 81.6Conceptual framework PAGEREF _Toc516697361 h 8Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature PAGEREF _Toc516697362 h 102.1 Environmental problems in the Philippines PAGEREF _Toc516697363 h 112.2 Architecture’s attempt to provide a solution PAGEREF _Toc516697364 h 122.3 Regenerative Architecture – A different approach PAGEREF _Toc516697365 h 132.3.1 Integration of local energy production PAGEREF _Toc516697366 h 142.3.2 Integration of local resource/food production methods PAGEREF _Toc516697367 h 142.3.3 Closed-loop waste-to-resource system PAGEREF _Toc516697368 h 142.4 Alternative water resources PAGEREF _Toc516697369 h 152.4.1 Rainwater Harvesting PAGEREF _Toc516697370 h 152.4.2Reclaimed Water PAGEREF _Toc516697371 h 162.5 Current Application of Alternative water resources in the Philippines PAGEREF _Toc516697372 h 17Chapter 3 Research Methodology PAGEREF _Toc516697373 h 193.1 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc516697374 h 193.2 Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc516697375 h 203.2.1 Water Usage PAGEREF _Toc516697376 h 203.2.3Water Quality PAGEREF _Toc516697377 h 223.2.4 Water pollution and potential risks PAGEREF _Toc516697378 h 233.2.5Major problems concerning water use and scarcity PAGEREF _Toc516697379 h 243.2.6 Annual Rainfall in Urbanized Cities PAGEREF _Toc516697380 h 253.3 How water management systems work PAGEREF _Toc516697381 h 283.3.1 Rainwater Catchment systems PAGEREF _Toc516697382 h 283.3.2 Wastewater Treatment system PAGEREF _Toc516697383 h 293.4 Case Studies on Related Projects PAGEREF _Toc516697384 h 303.4.1 International: Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability PAGEREF _Toc516697385 h 30Chapter 4 PAGEREF _Toc516697386 h 33Findings and Design Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc516697387 h 334.1 Summary of Findings PAGEREF _Toc516697388 h 33References PAGEREF _Toc516697389 h 35
TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1.1 Research Topic Paradigm PAGEREF _Toc516697399 h 10Figure 3.1 Water Usage per Sector in the Philippines PAGEREF _Toc516697400 h 20Figure 3.2 Major Water Pollution Contributors in Metro Manila PAGEREF _Toc516697401 h 23Figure 3.3 2008-2012 Monthly Rainfall in Manila PAGEREF _Toc516697402 h 25Figure 3.4 2008-2012 Monthly Rainfall in Quezon City PAGEREF _Toc516697403 h 25Figure 3.5 2008-2012 Monthly Rainfall in Angeles City PAGEREF _Toc516697404 h 26Figure 3.6 2008-2012 Monthly Rainfall in Davao City PAGEREF _Toc516697405 h 26Figure 3.7 2008-2012 Monthly Rainfall in Cebu City PAGEREF _Toc516697406 h 27Figure 3.8 2008-2012 Monthly Rainfall in Baguio City PAGEREF _Toc516697407 h 27Figure 3.9 Sample Schematic Diagram of Rainwater Catchment System PAGEREF _Toc516697408 h 28Figure 3.10 Sample Schematic Design of Wastewater Treatment system set on a Residential Building PAGEREF _Toc516697409 h 29Figure 3.11 Rainwater System of CIRS PAGEREF _Toc516697410 h 32Figure 3.12 Reclaimed Water System of CIRS PAGEREF _Toc516697411 h 32
TOC h z c “Table” Table 3.1 Overview of Water Usage per Sector and Major Activities where Water is Frequently Used PAGEREF _Toc516697413 h 20Table 3.2 Projected Water Demand in Major Philippine Cities PAGEREF _Toc516697414 h 21Table 3.3 Projected Water Demand per Sector PAGEREF _Toc516697415 h 21Table 3.4 Water Resources Scorecard and Rating for Water Quality PAGEREF _Toc516697416 h 22Table 3.5 Potential Risks of Water Pollution PAGEREF _Toc516697417 h 23Table 3.6 Major Problems concerning water use and scarcity PAGEREF _Toc516697418 h 24Table 3.7 Rainwater System Goals and Targets of CIRS PAGEREF _Toc516697419 h 31Table 3.8 Reclaimed Water Treatment System Goals and Targets of CIRS PAGEREF _Toc516697420 h 31
Chapter 1IntroductionIntroduction”To have risked so much in our efforts to mold nature to our satisfaction and yet to have failed in achieving our goal would indeed by the final irony. Yet this, it seems, is our situation.”, an excerpt from CITATION Car62 l 13321 (Carson, 1962) ‘s phenomenal book, Silent Spring, that sparked the flame of the global movement to conserve the environment. The said book was named one of the most influential books in the scientific world and had raised many ecological arguments throughout the decades which helped in establishing the people’s right to a clean environment.
Climate change and Global warming are not new concepts presented to the public. As early as the late 1890s, scientists already predicted that a decline in the overall health of our planet will occur in the next century. Though they were not the first doing so, both CITATION Joh72 l 13321 (Sawyer, 1972) and CITATION Wal75 l 13321 (Broecker, 1975) predicted that a change of climate on a global scale will occur due to human activities. This concerned the public, causing global organizations to form agreements to take actions into preserving the environment. Numerous agreements were formed, but the most successful ones were the mitigation of ozone depletion or the Vienna Convention of 1985 and the regulation of acid rain on a national and regional level or the Montreal Protocol of 1987
In the present day, the Earth’s condition is far from healthy or even recovering. Carbon emission has increased reaching 404 parts-per-million, 6% jump from the past decade which was 382 PPM, meaning more heat is trapped in the earth’s atmosphere. The surface temperatures global are increasing at an alarming rate and will continue to do so in the upcoming years according to CITATION NAS16 l 13321 (NASA/GISS, 2016). Though knowledge on environmental problems have expanded and new technologies are being developed to mitigate global challenges, the fate of the planet Earth is still at large due to its inhabitants dragging the planet way past its quota. But like CITATION Car62 l 13321 (Carson, 1962) said in Silent Spring, “The choice after all, is ours to make.”
Background of the StudyTo simply put it, global warming is a rapid rise of surface temperature globally. The fastest rate of its instantaneous upsurge was recorded to have occurred over the last decade and scientist predicted that the global temperature over the next few decades is going nowhere but up. What causes this phenomenon is the greenhouse gas effect, which is when air pollutants like carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases all clump up in the Earth’s troposphere. These gases are responsible for heating the Earth through absorption of solar light. Usually, after disseminating heat, the radiation produced would eventually leave the atmosphere, but since they’re abundant now, they tend to build up and trap the heat, making the Earth hotter than necessary. CITATION Ama16 l 13321 (MacMillan, 2016)Who are the culprits of climate change? It is in no doubt that human activities are the main source of the increase of GHG in the atmosphere over the past century. A huge chunk of it is from transportation, energy usage, and the industry, while partially, though equally damaging, are agriculture and buildings CITATION Uni16 l 13321 (USEPA, 2016). Over the past century, several sectors of the planet has suffered the consequences of this phenomenon and humans have relentlessly tried to reverse its effects. Global warming has greatly impacted not only the environment through melting ice caps, extreme natural calamities and disruption of biological systems, but the social systems as well, affects human greatly. Human health, Food production, and Water supply all have been compromised and are considered to be vulnerable. The unpredicted and extreme weather that the environment is experiencing have damaged the health of the ecosystem needed for food production and water supply. CITATION Ros07 l 13321 (Rosenzweig ; Casassa, 2007)Buildings being one of the major contributors in climate change must cope with these changes happening in our planet. Architects being the ones responsible for creating a built environment should not only design buildings fit for the needs of humans, should also consider the demands of the environment. Aside from lessening the environmental impacts of buildings by using mitigating measures and such, built environment also has the capacity to address social issues, like aiding food production and securing water supply. With this potential, built environment has the power to not only save the environment but may revive it as well.
As of today, buildings are well on their way of using vertical and rooftop gardens to promote local food production in urban areas, through this, buildings are securing food supply and lessening their impacts in the urban heat island effect. As for water supply, Rainwater harvesting is now a system being used to acquire more clean water aside from the conventional groundwater and in some areas, recycling treated wastewater for other uses is being practiced. In the Philippines where multiple regions lack in clean water supply, but is a place that is prone to typhoons and heavy rainfalls CITATION Sop13 l 13321 (Brown, 2013), a study based on the maximization of water usage will be fitting for their situation.
Statement of the Problem
On a par with the Vitruvian triad, Strength, Function, and Beauty, a new criterion for a building should be added. Regenerative – in which the building adapts to the environment and enhances it ecologically throughout its entire lifespan CITATION VAM06 l 13321 (Metallinou, 2006). Built environment, like natural environment, should evolve overtime. Buildings are created to meet the needs of people but soon, if the environmental issues that the planet faces are not addressed, there would be no place and no natural resources left for future generations to use and develop . If possible, built environment should compensate for the damages that human activities have caused, create better living conditions, and be self-sustaining to avoid further depletion of natural resources. Though not all ecological issues will be tackled in this paper, the research will focus mainly on water management, recycling, supplying, and distribution.
Which leads to the main question of this thesis, How can we maximize the water usage in buildings to achieve a closed loop waste-to-resource system?
Other questions that the paper aims to answer by the end of the study are as follows:
How can it be possible to minimize water supply enough to fit the needs of the people and without compromising their lifestyle?
How can it be possible for mitigating measures like rainwater harvesting systems to be aesthetically pleasing?
What architectural style is best suited for buildings with mitigation measures?
What are the innovations and trends that may be incorporated in the design to preserve the environment while still serving the needs of the people?
Goal and ObjectivesThe main goal of this paper is to present an approach that can be used to minimize the ecological damages caused by buildings, specifically on water resources. Not only would the approach lessen the large amount of water being wasted by buildings CITATION CBE12 l 13321 (CBECS, 2012), but it would also lessen the extraction of water from natural resources, thus saving it from potential drought and contamination.
The following statements are the objectives to be achieved at the end of research conduction:
To critically assess existing water supply and management problems in the Philippines in order to identify what approaches will be the most effective and efficient.
To provide an architectural design or approach to aid buildings in recycling water and maximizing its potential without minimizing the usage of the people and compromising their needs.
To identify how to incorporate such mitigating measures without undermining the aesthetic of a building.Significance of the ResearchThe findings to be gathered in this paper will be used to have a better understanding of the relationship between people, architecture, and the environment. Scarcity of water and the depletion of natural water resources in the Philippines are occurring faster than predicted. The total amount of clean and/or recyclable water that are wasted on and by buildings daily are enough to provide for people who lacks access from fresh water, but unfortunately due to absence of better and effective systems, this leaves those who are less fortunate with little and usually unfiltered water supply. This affects both the society and the environment, and architecture having an impact on both, could aid in preventing this ever-expanding problem. Further collected data and solutions to be made would be for advancement of the quality of buildings in the Philippines.
This research may be helpful for future researchers, students, and architects who are willing to learn more about and continue further studies on regenerative design, application of closed-loop waste to resource systems in structures, and architectural mitigating measures to minimize the ecological damages caused by buildings. More importantly, this research aims to be a stepping stone for other researchers in developing better living conditions for Filipinos who lack access of clean water.
Scope and limitations
This study would be a search for solutions that architecture can bring to provide the needs of the people and preserve our dying planet, specifically on the scarcity of water and the rising demand of it in the Philippines. Furthermore, this paper will discuss on how can we maximize the water usage in buildings to avoid wastage of a scarce commodity without completely compromising the lifestyle of people.
Though the research might dabble on structural design, plumbing, and even method of constructions for any baselines and backup data, it will exclude any study on mechanical, cost estimates, and such. The study will be limited to proposing an approach or a design to aid buildings in catering the water demand of people while limiting its harm on the environment.
Different variables due to human activities are currently responsible for global warming, which results to multiple problems to the environment. As an outcome, the overall condition of the environment fluctuates, and this affects human beings. To compensate, different inventions and innovations are made and multiple researches are being conducted to stop the complications created by man, reverse the impacts, and try to restore the planet back to its normal condition. Several sectors are affected by these problems such as food production, human health, human settlements, and most importantly, water supply. As surface temperature rises, the natural state of rainfall, river flow, and water evaporation changes. This leads to warmer water temperature which changes the water quality, rising of sea level reduces groundwater and turns freshwater into saltwater consequently reducing water supply, augmented evaporation decreases the efficiency of dams, and on top of all that, the increase in population means higher human demands making the existing water systems inadequate to supply the future needs CITATION ZWK07 l 13321 (Kundzewicz, 2007).
Therefore, creating an approach to that maximizes the water usage in a building could minimize the wastage of a finite resource, enhance the condition of current groundwater resources in the Philippines and, in the long run, save our natural resources.
3171576426314300849796427904400133356045835Figure 1.1 Research Topic ParadigmFigure 1.1 Research Topic Paradigmright24765Chapter 2Review of Related LiteratureAs buildings continue to rapidly dominate nature, soon the environment will not be able to sustain the needs of the growing population, leaving nothing for the generations to come. As far as architecture goes, sustainability is the automatic remedy, but as new problems arise, a different approach is needed to address this ever-growing issue. This is Regenerative architecture/design comes in. It is a concept loosely based on sustainability, but unlike the former concept, from the word regenerative itself, meaning to bring something back to life, not only could a regenerative building be able to withstand its surroundings but it could also complement and recondition its environment rather than depleting it.
2.1 Environmental problems in the PhilippinesAside from the Philippines being a frequent target of natural disaster such as typhoons and earthquakes, it faces multiple environmental problems such as pollution, depletion of natural resources, coastal and soil erosion, extinction of wildlife, as well as global warming. One of the biggest challenges in the country right now is scarcity of clean water resources in multiple regions, including Metro Manila, Southern Tagalog, Central Luzon and Central Visayas. About 70% or 160 billion cm3 of all potable water in the country is being wasted CITATION Rho12 l 13321 (Villanueva, 2012). This is because only about 10% of water is actually treated and used while the remaining is usually lost or unused due to poor management and lack of efficient systems and about 60% of water resources are highly polluted. The condition of the Philippines’ ecosystem is drastically changing, leaving both the environment and its inhabitants’ health at risk. A problem that concerns not only those who are directly involved, but the public as well.
2.2 Architecture’s attempt to provide a solution CITATION USG16 l 13321 (US Green Buildings Council, 2016) stated that buildings are proven to be large contributors to the decline of the Earth’s condition either in short span or long term. Some of the damages they cause are wastage of energy and raw materials, emission of carbon, and an estimated 7 million gallons of water dedicated for buildings that is being wasted due to mismanagement.
As a solution to all the troubles that buildings cause, the concept of sustainability surfaced in the practice of architecture. Sustainable, as per definition of CITATION Bru83 l 13321 (Brundtland Commission, 1983), is meeting the present needs of society without compromising the needs of future generation. These days, the words “energy-efficient”, “eco-friendly”, “green building”, and “ecological design” are almost inevitable in the discussion of building design and although it has numerous terms, collectively, their main idea is to make a building sustainable. The application of these concepts makes a building more environmentally sensitive, emitting less impact, and creating better surroundings for people.
Though sustainability continues to advocate an effective growth for our society, environment, and economy, CITATION Hes15 l 13321 (Hes ; du Plessis, 2015) consider this as a flawed model for development. The Utopian idea of changing the world from its unsustainable state to a sustainable condition is unattainable at the moment due to inconsistency in the definition and vision of sustainability, and the failure of sustainability to adapt to our diverse and ever-changing environment. It seems like sustainable architecture doesn’t aim farther than making buildings less environmentally damaging. Though sustainability was a big step in solving the problem, the bar of expectation for sustainable buildings to save the environment is set at a low point, that if a building is designed with acknowledgement the environment, it is already deemed as a success. It’s time to step up and take further actions.
2.3 Regenerative Architecture – A different approach
CITATION Bil11 l 13321 (Reed, From Sustainability through Regeneration: Whole and Living System Design, 2011), a prominent architect and a former co-chair of the LEED Technical committee, discussed in one of his presentation that sustainability is no longer the solution to the environmental challenges that we are facing. He suggested that while sustainability was a great stepping ground for solving the problem, it is not the actual solution, for the world is a complex and diverse system and by simply applying sustainable design is oversimplifying and dumbing the whole world down. The environment does not need our protection but rather it needs our alliance in order to grow and develop. In lieu of his beliefs, Reed co-founded a development group called Regenesis. The group’s main advocate is to start a new and better wave than sustainability in architecture called Regenerative architecture.
Regenerative means to create again or to bring something back to life. As CITATION Ree07 l 13321 (Reed, Shifting from ‘sustainability’ to regeneration, 2007) stated, Regenerative architecture is a new concept that goes beyond sustainability with the sole purpose of making both the environmental and societal conditions better, and not just minimizing the negative impacts. The three main goals of a successful regenerative design are the following; (1) The integration of local energy production, (2) The integration of local resource/food production methods, and (3) has a “closed-loop” waste-to-resource system, usually by means of recycling and reusing resource up to its optimal usage to maximize its potential. Buildings that are regenerative should not only the building be self-sustaining, but if possible, it should sustain its surroundings as well.
2.3.1 Integration of local energy productionUsing fossil fuel as a source of energy has been frowned upon by environmentalists given that it is a finite resource, and plays a big role in the emission of greenhouse gases. By no means is using alternative sources of energy a new concept. The most common renewable energy sources are solar, wind, geothermal, hydropower, and biomass. Renewable energy resources have been popular over the last decade and has been one of the go-to innovations that architects use in buildings to make it somehow sustainable.
2.3.2 Integration of local resource/food production methods CITATION Hol78 l 13321 (Holgrem & Mollison, 1978) coined the term permaculture, a portmanteau of permanent and agriculture. Permaculture concentrates on the care for the planet, care for its inhabitants, and setting restrictions in number of people and their consumption. Not only does this secure the food safety and supply of the area but it also lessens the pollution, wastes, and costs compared to standard farming. Some of the common innovations applied in architecture today that exercises the concept of permaculture is rainwater harvesting, vertical gardens, and rooftop gardens.
2.3.3 Closed-loop waste-to-resource systemAs defined by ecologists, a closed-loop system is basically a cycle that does not exchange matter outside its system. Although the Earth itself is the only thing that can be on a closed-loop system, numerous industrial subsystems aspire to be as close-looped as possible. A closed-loop system may be possible through reusing, recycling, and recovery of resources. For example, on a par with the first principle of regenerative design, the wastes from the energy produced locally by the structure can be recovered and reused. Another is maximizing the use of water in a building, wherein rainwater and wastewater can be harvested, filtered, and refined to provide, if not drinkable, at least, potable water.
This aspect of regenerative design is highly applicable for the water issues here in the Philippines. Considering that roughly half of the water resources in the country is being depleted, introducing alternative water resources can help provide better living conditions for people and a better situation for the environment.
2.4 Alternative water resourcesConventional water resources such as ground water and surface water are depleting. Either they are polluted, drying up, or just not sufficient to provide water supply for the people. Alternatively, methods like Rainwater harvesting and Water reclamation are used in lieu of sustainable water management. This way, conventional water resources can replenish and reduce the shortage of supply. CITATION And16 l 13321 (Andersson, et al., 2016)2.4.1 Rainwater HarvestingRainwater Harvesting is the process of collecting rainwater from rooftops or open spaces then keeping it for later use. The water collected can be used for agricultural needs such as irrigation and land management. It can also be used domestically, for household chores such as washing, flushing, laundry, and if properly sanitized, filtered, and treated, for drinking.
In a tropical country like Philippines, typhoons and storms are prevalent. However, in areas like Metro Manila, despite getting a fair share of rainfall, water shortage is still experienced. This is where rainwater harvesting comes in, since collecting rainwater and keeping it for later use will secure the water supply during summer, instead of letting perfectly usable water go down the drain and flood the streets during rainy seasons.
This system can be applied in almost any sectors that largely utilizes water, such as residential buildings, school grounds, factories, public buildings, and even farmlands. Currently in the Philippines, DPWH, as of 2016, is installing 187 rainwater collectors in public schools, and public markets where water is limited, in order to satisfy the increasing water supply demand and mitigate the frequent flooding in Western Visayas CITATION PIA16 l 13321 (PIA, 2016). On the other hand, cities like Quezon, Davao, Cebu, Mandaluyong, and Iloilo have implemented environmental programs and have adapted this system to preserve their current water resources CITATION DOS16 l 13321 (DOST, 2016).
2.4.2Reclaimed WaterReclaimed water is the method of recycling and reusing wastewater for other purposes. Like rainwater, It can be used domestically, agriculturally, and recharge conventional water resources. Reusing water instead of groundwater for daily supply not only reduces water scarcity but eventually once the reclaimed water is discharged back into freshwater, it can no longer be a nuisance and pollute the water. Instead, it will be able to improve the ecosystem and replenish aquifers. CITATION Bis13 l 13321 (Bischel, et al., 2013)Reclaimed water is capable of fulfilling almost all of human water needs, as long as it is sufficiently treated to guarantee water quality suitable for utilization. Most commonly, recycled water are not used for drinking since health problems could be threatened in any case that the wastewater is contaminated or is not thoroughly treated for human consumption. Nonetheless, it is used in many different ways CITATION EPA l 13321 (EPA, n.d.). Architecturally, it could be used to make concrete, flush toilets, irrigate gardens and for fire protection, and aesthetic or recreational impoundments.
Philippines struggle with wastewater management. But in 1995, a reform was made and regulatory frameworks were developed to lessen wastewater discharge and increase its reuse. The government and private agencies joined forces in order to accelerate the development with the goal that by 2028, the whole Metro Manila will have an efficient wastewater management system and reuse it safely. Through this, agencies and citizens involved are able to reduce water pollution and regenerated resources of food and water supply. CITATION Int18 l 13321 (International Water Association, 2018)2.5 Current Application of Alternative water resources in the PhilippinesMuntinlupa is one of the cities in the country that has dealt with water related problems due to the scarcity of clean water and lack of proper water management system. Public markets in Muntinlupa city has been disposing its untreated wastewater to nearby streams which then directs into the Laguna de Bay which is one of the main clean water sources of NCR. Due to the Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004, the city is obliged to act upon the issue and improve their services to the communities and environment.
The local government of the city searched for a low-cost system that would allow them to build their wastewater treatment facility near the public market in order to conform with the guidelines of the Clean Water Act and furthermore, to avoid the closure of the marketplace and loss of source of income for the city.
The city decided to utilize a hybrid sanitation technology as well as cocopeat, an ecofriendly and 100% organic material from coconut husks, as an alternative filter to strain treated water. After a year of completion, the new wastewater treatment facility of the city was able to decrease the water pollution level from 600 mg/liter to less than 30 mg/liter, comply to the Clean Water act of 2004, insure the source of income of vendors, recycle water from wastewater into reusable potable water, and save the public market an approximate of PHP 100,000 of operational costs.
The budgetary aspect for the project was considered as well as the financial standing of its potential users, something that some practitioners of green architecture often forgets due to the cost of sustainable design. Another innovation that served this project well was the use of local materials, the cocopeat as a water filter. Not only did this decision minimize the project cost, but also provided employment and generated income to the local coconut industry.
Chapter 3Research Methodology3.1 Research Design
The collection of data for the research proposal will be divided into two parts, wherein one phase would need to be done before proceeding to the next one. This will make the data collection efficient and effective. This way, more time will be allotted to the analyzation of data, thus coming up with better findings and better recommendations by the end of the data gathering process.
The first phase would basically be analytical reading. Further studies will be extracted from sources such as books, articles, journal reports, statistical data found in different research facilities, as well as online resources. This would keep the findings up-to-date and supported with back up data.
Afterwards, the research will pursue on taking case and field studies in order to identify existing conditions of water management in building on a local and/or international setting. This will also aid in determining the current architectural problems in existing projects. The data gathered will help in the development and design phase thus, addressing the said problems correctly in the future proposed project.
In any case that the data gathered from analytical reading and case studies are insufficient, an interview with public officials or a survey for people that are concerned primarily to the research topic will be performed. Information will be acquired from people who knows the situation well or experience the problem first hand. This way, the findings from potential users’ opinions and thoughts would be taken into account in designing.
3.2 Data CollectionThe following data presented are either analyzed and translated into visual data or were taken directly from its source and cited. Nonetheless, all data gathered were taken for the development of this research paper.
3.2.1 Water Usage
Figure 3.1 Water Usage per Sector in the PhilippinesSector Major activities
Domestic House-hold purposes
Management of Land
Industry Use of water as an ingredient
Utilization of water in industrial plants
Other Hydroelectric Power
Table 3.1 Overview of Water Usage per Sector and Major Activities where Water is Frequently UsedSource: CITATION Gre07 l 13321 (GreenPeace, 2007), The state of water resources in the Philippines3.2.2 Water Demand
Table 3.2 Projected Water Demand in Major Philippine Cities
Table 3.3 Projected Water Demand per SectorSource: CITATION WOR03 l 13321 (WORLD BANK GROUP, 2003) JICA Master Plan on Water Resources Management in the Philippines
The data shown above were projected in 2003, but as of latest, by 2025, Highly urbanized and developed cities like Metro Manila, Angeles, Davao, Baguio, and Cebu are most likely to face severe water scarcity according to the ECCP vice president. CITATION Hen16 l 13321 (Schumacher, 2016)
33158271659019413781659012001525400U – Unsatisfactory M – Marginal S – Satisfactory
Table 3.4 Water Resources Scorecard and Rating for Water QualitySource: CITATION WOR03 l 13321 (WORLD BANK GROUP, 2003) NWRB – NWIN Project and compiled data from various Feasibility Studies of Water Districts-LWUA
3.2.4 Water pollution and potential risks
Figure 3.2 Major Water Pollution Contributors in Metro Manila
Source: CITATION DEN13 l 13321 (DENR-EMB, 2013), National Water Quality Status Report
Table 3.5 Potential Risks of Water PollutionSource: CITATION WOR03 l 13321 (WORLD BANK GROUP, 2003), Philippine Environmental Monitor 2003
3.2.5Major problems concerning water use and scarcity
Major problems concerning water use and scarcity
Disparities between water supply and demandWater resources are unevenly distributed throughout the country, often resulting in water shortages in highly populated areas, especially during the dry season
Lack of water allocationWith the increase of population coupled with worsening pollution of water, lack of infrastructure and facilities result in allocation issues and conflicting rights over limited water supply.
Corporations also directly compete with the people for the control and use of available freshwater resources In San Pablo City, Laguna, farmers and residents complain of declining water availability and blame the operation of a mineral water plant by Nestle Philippines, Inc.
Weak water use regulation and enforcement The investigation and processing of water permit applications constitute the type functions for which NWRB is not properly equipped in terms of either manpower or resources
Inefficient water use Apart from increasing industrial and domestic demand, another contributing factor to the water shortage in Metro Manila is the high level of water loss due to leaking pipes and illegal connections.
Depletion of groundwater resourcesThe indiscriminate use of groundwater wells for residential and industrial areas due to the failure of major utility providers to service these areas is the major cause for the depletion of the groundwater resources in the country.
Fragmented management One of the most critical issues confronting the Philippine water sector is the lack of an appropriate institutional framework to address issues of development and management of water and related resources.
Availability of water resources The expected climate changes that could affect rainfall distribution will ultimately affect runoff to rivers and lakes. On the other hand, decrease in runoff because of frequent drought episodes, would mean more serious problems in water availability.
Table 3.6 Major Problems concerning water use and scarcitySource: CITATION DEN13 l 13321 (DENR-EMB, 2013), National Water Quality Status Report
3.2.6 Annual Rainfall in Urbanized Cities
Figure 3.3 2008-2012 Monthly Rainfall in Manila
Figure 3.4 2008-2012 Monthly Rainfall in Quezon CitySource: CITATION PAG12 l 13321 (PAGASA, 2008-2012)
Figure 3.5 2008-2012 Monthly Rainfall in Angeles City
Figure 3.6 2008-2012 Monthly Rainfall in Davao CitySource: CITATION PAG12 l 13321 (PAGASA, 2008-2012)
Figure 3.7 2008-2012 Monthly Rainfall in Cebu City
Figure 3.8 2008-2012 Monthly Rainfall in Baguio CitySource: CITATION PAG12 l 13321 (PAGASA, 2008-2012)3.3 How water management systems workThis part of the methodology aims to explain how water management systems work, and what steps or methods are done throughout the systems.
3.3.1 Rainwater Catchment systems24236013162300-952522923500
Figure 3.9 Sample Schematic Diagram of Rainwater Catchment SystemRainwater Catchment is done by harvesting the water that falls on the roof of a buildings and then stored up to 18 months for later consumption. For every 1 inch of rainfall on a 2 ft2 of the roof can be transformed into about 1.25 gallons of usable water. The first few drops of rainwater is run to clean the debris off of the roof. The collection systems on the roof channels the water into the storage cistern through the gutter and pipes. The gutters are designed to be angled in order to avoid stagnant water. After running through pipes, the water is transferred to a the storage cistern, which is designed to prevent breeding of mosquitoes, contamination, growth of algae, and loss of evaporation. Once the water needs to be distributed, it will be channeled through a series of filters and ultraviolet lights for it to meet the potable water standards. After this, the water is ready for any domestic use, such as flushing, doing the laundry, bathing and showering. Rainwater is often naturally clean and is not in need of any water softening materials. However, like any other building utilities, it needs regular cleaning and maintenance in order to keep things sanitary and highly functional. CITATION Bui13 l 13321 (BuiltSmart Resources, 2013)3.3.2 Wastewater Treatment system
Figure 3.10 Sample Schematic Design of Wastewater Treatment system set on a Residential BuildingOpposed to rainwater, reclaimed water has higher level of pathogens and sediments and usually needs water softening agents, hence it requires more steps and receives more treatments; but nonetheless, it is reusable. The wastewater treatment system often uses the simplest methods to get rid of any contaminants. The primary treatment it receives removes about half of the contaminants, through simple physical and mechanical processes like through bar screens and grit chambers. The secondary treatment is the removing of the remaining organic contaminants through biological processes such as aeration basins and final clarifiers. Lastly before it is reused, it will be filtered, disinfected, and dechlorinated to ensure the removal of any pathogens. CITATION San l 13321 (San Antonio Water System, n.d.)3.4 Case Studies on Related ProjectsTo get a gist of what the current situation is on the usage of alternative water resources in relation to architecture and built environment, case studies on related projects, local and/or international, are included.
3.4.1 International: Centre for Interactive Research on SustainabilityOn a global scale, one of the existing projects in the world that is considered to be Regenerative is the proclaimed “North America’s Greenest Building”. It is located at the campus of University of British Columbia, the Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability. The building is designed to be completely self- sustaining and regenerative, but more importantly, it is water self-sufficient. With two different water system to attain this goal, namely the Rainwater system and the Reclaimed water system.
Rain that falls on the 1000 m2 roof collection area on the building harvests about 1,226,000 liters per year to support the average demand for clean water of 2000 liters/day which includes domestic use, commercial use, cleaning services, and building maintenance. The remaining 57,000 liters is dedicated for the fire suppression system.
The reclaimed water they utilize for the water closets, irrigation of greenhouses, landscapes, and vertical gardens is either from the building itself or from the wastewater treated on-site by utilizing a solar aquatics bio-filtration system. Per day, they acquire about 10,000 treated wastewater and uses only about 7000 liters of it per day by the building functions and the 4635502250440Table 3.7 Rainwater System Goals and Targets of CIRSTable 3.7 Rainwater System Goals and Targets of CIRScenter905731excess is fed back to the sewer line.
4635504452620Table 3. SEQ Table * ARABIC s 1 8 Reclaimed Water Treatment System Goals and Targets of CIRSTable 3. SEQ Table * ARABIC s 1 8 Reclaimed Water Treatment System Goals and Targets of CIRScenter2588895
Source: CITATION Uni11 l 13321 (University of British Columbia, 2011)
4635503307715Figure 3.9 Rainwater System of CIRS
Figure 3.9 Rainwater System of CIRS
4635503307715Figure 3.11 Rainwater System of CIRSFigure 3.11 Rainwater System of CIRScenter1129700
center163195Figure 3. 12 Reclaimed Water System of CIRSFigure 3. 12 Reclaimed Water System of CIRS
Source: CITATION Uni11 l 13321 (University of British Columbia, 2011)Chapter 4Findings and Design Recommendations
4.1 Summary of FindingsThe sectors that largely uses and pollutes water the most are Domestic and Agriculture, dominating more than half of the overall users and top polluters of water. These sectors are to be considered in choosing the future development.
The cities that demand water the most are Metro Manila, Angeles, Davao, Baguio, and Cebu since by 2025, they are predicted to experience a major water scarcity. Consequently, the urbanized cities that experiences large rainfall annually are Manila, Quezon City, Angeles City, and Baguio City. The areas with unsatisfactory water resources are those that are getting their water supplies from river basins in Pasig-Laguna, Cebu Island, Pampanga, Agno, and Cagayan. These cities would be considered in choosing the site for the project proposal.
Though water faces many problems, the major ones that can be considered architecturally are inefficient water use, availability of water resources, lack of water allocation, depletion of groundwater resources, and the disparities between water supply and demand. These problem will not be solved instantaneously through architecture, but designing a structure with rainwater catchment and wastewater collection and treatment systems would aid in solving these problems in the long run.
4.2 Design Recommendations
Creating a whole new built environment that collaborates not only with people but as well as with nature is the core ideology of regenerative design. Designing a structure with an approach to partake in restoring the environment by treating water as a scarce resource and prolonging the use of water is how architecture will response to the Earth’s prevalent problem.
Architectural principles such as, proper site selection, building orientation, usage of proper materials, integration of modern technology, and the application of utilitarian thinking, that all elements must have an important role in the overall performance of the building, would be used in designing of the future proposed development.
Application of rainwater catchment systems, and wastewater treatment systems would be integrated to the design tastefully. This must be done without compromising the aesthetics of the building to imply that mitigating measures can be both beneficial and aesthetically pleasing. Aside from water management systems, other mitigating measures namely, green roofs and solar panels would be added as well to optimize the future development’s regenerative potential.
The architectural style to be used, on a par with the mitigating measure to be applied, would be partially based on the site to be chosen. Though the choices would be between a modern take on vernacular architecture to promote and celebrate Filipino architecture in the present day or Prairie School/Organic Architecture for the future development to seemingly be part of and blend in with its environment.
The site to be chosen shall be from those areas that have prevalent rainfalls during rainy seasons and experience water supply shortage during summers. This way both alternative source of water will be utilized in the future proposed development.
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