NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF COMPUTER AND EMERGING SCIENCES LAHORE
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
SUBMITTED TO: Asif.H.Qureshi
SUBMITTED BY: Hamza Naeem (16L-6324)
Muhammad Zeeshan (16L-5509)
DATE: 15th October’2018
Women confronted numerous issues and boundaries to transform the general public. In past, women were thought to have no rights, she was dismissed and treated seriously by men. At the point when Feminism wave rose, status of lady changed totally and ended up vital to society and got rights. This paper looks at the desires, dreams and the capacity of lady to change her situation in the general public not similarly just like a girl, spouse or a mother but instead as ordinary native with customary rights and obligations. This examination creates various key discoveries: late research and insights that affirm a huge advancement of lady investment in various fields, for example, monetary development, social changes notwithstanding the political and social structures. The principle end drawn from this exploration is that the Feminist endeavors were proficient from multiple points of view in which they acquired a tremendous change the position and the job of lady. They could expel the larger part if not all the cliché pictures and to give her more significance in the general public by giving her the political, social and prudent rights.
After a long excursion of improving the world by making new principles, creating new things and changing antiquated thoughts and contemplations. Women were all the while battling each minute and they were all the while searching for their rights. Woman’s rights have created an on-going discussion in everywhere throughout the world and it came to take care of women’ issues and to put a conclusion to the treachery treatment for them. It was the voice of women in times they were not ready to talk or to express their emotions and wishes. This part manages the general meaning of Feminism notwithstanding some essential ideas identified with it like composes, distinctive waves and how does this thought develop through time. It gives additionally a diagram of Muslim and Black Feminism.
Definition of Feminism:
Many researchers and scholars used the term “Feminism” and they tried to define and explain it differently. Some of them use it to refer to some historical political movements in USA and Europe.
Zara Huda Faris said:
“Women need feminism because there are women who suffer injustice.”
The term „Feminism? has a long history; it speaks to women’ issues and enduring notwithstanding their fantasies in equivalent open doors in social orders controlled by man i.e. his capacity, principles, wishes and requests. Lara Huda Faris said:
“Women have traditionally been dehumanized by a male dominated society, which they call patriarchy; and that has been always better to be a man.”
The term women’s liberation has a history in English connected with women’ activism from the late nineteenth century to the present, it is valuable to recognize women’s activist thoughts or convictions from women’s activist political developments, for even in periods where there has been no critical political activism around women’ subordination, people have been worried about and conjectured about equity for women. Regardless of the difficult isolation and the hard imbalance, women could stand up each time and they could talk and express their issues, sentiments and wishes. Moreover, women could spread it in everywhere throughout the world, make it an image of balance, and make all individuals trust that people merit balance in all chances, medications regard and social rights.
History of Feminism:
Feminism started in France in the late of 1880s by Hunburtine Auclert in her Journal “La Citoyene as La Feminite” in which she criticized male domination and to claimed women’s rights. By the main decade of the twentieth century, the term showed up in English first in Britain and afterward in 1910s in America and by 1920s in the Arab World as Niswia. Women’s liberation starts from the Latin word femina that depicts women’ issues. Woman’s rights is worried about females not similarly as an organic classification, but rather the female sex as a social class, and in this way women’s activists shared the view that women’ persecution attached to their sexuality. This was so on the grounds that women and men’s natural contrasts reflected in the association of society, and dependent on these distinctions, women have regarded as mediocre compared to men. Regardless of whether as a hypothesis, a social development or a political development, woman’s rights particularly centers around women’ encounters and features different types of mistreatment that the female sex has subjected in the general public.
Regardless of whether Feminism is considered as a social development or a political development, it particularly and predominantly centers around women’ encounters in her everyday life, which she subjected to in the general public. Since Feminists can feel and experience the torment and enduring of women they are completely persuaded of being a “lady” in Patriarchal social orders. Women’s activists, hence try to expel every one of the hindrances to square with social, political and financial open doors for women and question the thought that a women’ worth is resolved essentially by her sexual orientation and that women are naturally mediocre, subservient or less canny than men.
1.4 Types of feminism:
Following are the types of feminism in literature:
1.4.1 Liberal feminism:
Liberal woman’s rights are a specific way to deal with accomplishing equity among people. It accentuates on the intensity of a distinctive Person to change oppressive practices against women. It is considered as the most imperative sorts of woman’s rights, which works inside the structure of society to coordinate women into it. Its foundations extend back to the social contract hypothesis of government established by the American Revolution.
Liberal women’s liberation goes for people to utilize their own capacities and the majority rule procedure to encourage women and men to end up equivalent according to the law and in the public arena. By arranging women into bigger gatherings that can talk at a more elevated amount, push for enactment, and bring issues to light of issues, those adopting a liberal women’s activist strategy will utilize the assets and devices accessible in our general public to advocate for change3.
Liberal woman’s rights seen a few floods of changes that contributed in its advancement and its capacity since the commencement. By the start of the 1960s, a specific resurgence in vitality pursued the social equality development in the United State, which leaded to The Famous March on Washington. This walk could move the thoughts and guideline of liberal women’s activists to another level. The soul and the significance of their thoughts could move to other social equality developments who embraced it as a type of acknowledgment and familiarity with the significance of talking and communicating their issues and thoughts. Raising awareness included guaranteeing that individual encounters and data go from individual to individual about the issues of the day that influenced the gathering. This helped individuals in the development to remain aware of the requirement for their individual commitment to the development to enhance conditions. The primary purpose of liberal women’s liberation is that an individual lady ought to have the capacity to decide her social job with as incredible opportunity as completes a man. Women’s liberation along these lines has required expelling the memorable structure of male centric law that denied women’ social liberties. The real accentuation is that correspondence of women under the steady gaze of the law, in instructive and proficient chances, change in marriage laws, property rights, biased separation, break even with pay for equivalent work, insurance from assault, spouse battering in the home and freedom from all dehumanizing powers. So, it goes for getting equity among women and men the structure of the current social frameworks don’t scrutinize the hidden premise of women’ subordination.
Radical women’s liberation is a development that trusts sexism is so profoundly established in the public eye that the main fix is to dispense with the idea of sexual orientation. It began to rise in the late 1960s by the celebrated pioneers T. Effortlessness Atkinson and Shulamith Firestone. It denies the liberal case that the absence of political or social liberties causes women’ persecution.
It is a point of view inside women’s liberation that spotlights on the theory of male centric society as an arrangement of intensity that sorts out society into a complex of connections dependent on the affirmation that male amazingness abuses women. Radical women’s liberation intends to test and topple man-controlled society by restricting standard sexual orientation jobs and mistreatment of women and requires an extreme reordering of society. The reason this gathering gets the extreme mark is that they see the abuse of women as the most central type of man’s control, one that cuts crosswise over limits of race, culture, and monetary class. Truth be told, this is a development goal on social change, change of rather progressive extents. This gathering of women’s activists guarantees that the foundation of women’ mistreatment is natural. They trust that the physical subordination of women by men is the essential type of persecution and others are optional. Accordingly, radical women’s liberation trusts that lady’s freedom requires an organic insurgency. They raise the interest for the demolition of male-controlled society. There is a move in accentuation from battle for job and lawful changes to the decimation of man centric society. The main organization of man-controlled society is the family and the family advance male controlled society in the general public. Besides, they trust that the entire framework must be abrogated even, its natural perspectives.
Radical women’s liberation standards contain many fascinating cases, for example, pregnancy and labor in which they consider them as the most difficult and upsetting encounters that would person be able to go through. They trust that the innovation ought to be utilized to wipe out a wide range of agony especially from the major imbalance of the bearing and ascending of the youngsters. This must be the essential accomplishment since they trust that the core of women’ mistreatment is their childbearing and childrearing roles4. Radical women’s activists trust that the male brain research or science is the wellspring of women’ abuse and torment. This is the reason they call for rebellion and the autonomy from men. By representing a comprehensive sisterhood as the answer for male centric society, radical women’s activists neglect the class contrasts that keep women all in all from having similar interests. They regularly limit the significance of solidarity among women and men of shading in the battle against prejudice. They tend to disregard issues that don’t relate straightforwardly to a barely characterized female experience. Radical woman’s rights addresses why women must embrace certain jobs dependent on their science, similarly as it doubts why men receive certain different jobs dependent on sexual orientation. They endeavor to draw lines between organically decided conduct and socially decided conduct with the end goal to free the two people however much as could reasonably be expected from their past tight sexual orientation jobs.
1.4.3 Socialist feminism:
Communist woman’s rights otherwise called Marxist women’s liberation or Materialist woman’s rights is an essential development of woman’s rights. It requires a conclusion to private enterprise through a communist transformation of economy. Communist women’s activists see sexual orientation disparities as characteristic for the entrepreneur framework, which makes immense benefits off women’ unpaid work in the home and came up short on work in the workforce. Communist woman’s rights contends that free enterprise fortifies and underpins the chauvinist status since men are the ones who as of now have influence and cash. Those men are all the readier to impart their influence and cash to other man, which implies that women have less chances and assets. In this manner, they attempted to dispose of the industrialist framework and supplant it with communism, which all things considered offers the riches made by human work and has no monetary stake in looking after misuse. Sexism benefits the private enterprise, by giving a supply of shoddy work for industry. Women are in low paid, low status or even no paid work. It implies that, Socialist women’s activists dismiss the possibility that freedom for women requires the abrogation of labor. They look to dissect the subordination of women as connected with different types of abuse, and endeavor to join the battles for communism with that for women’ freedom. Under the communist conditions, Marxist women’s liberation trusts that the reclamation of women to independence is conceivable. Modem industrialization was, in actuality starting this freedom of women by compelling regular workers women into wage work. Having approach compensation for both man and lady was in the highest point of Socialist feminists? points and requests.
Examples of feminism
1.6.1 Black feminism:
When talking about women’ rights, balance and enduring we can naturally allude our clarification to Black Women Segregation. Despite the fact that women’s liberation guaranteed in its images and objectives to the uniformity of all women from each ethnic and social having a place, it didn’t offer significance to the issues of Black females. By and by, woman’s rights focused on the requirements of working-class white women in Britain and America while acting like the development for the liberation of women all inclusive. Patricia Collins as one of the Famous dark Feminists considered that woman’s rights did not convey any rights to the dark lady whatsoever. Besides, the Black lady was isolated from taking an interest in any social, temperate or political exercises done by women’s activist Organizations, which were controlled around then with white lady.
In a route or in another, women in any every place endured, executed and assaulted yet nobody endured in a fierce and agonizing way like dark lady. Both man and white women ordered Black women as the lower class of women. These is why many 23 Black women started to revolt against this unfair classification and make them create another variant of feminism called “Womanism”, a term by Alice Walker in one of her essays. It was called “In Search of Our Mothers? Gardens: Womanist Prose” in 1983. In this way, Womanism built up another space for the Black female scholarly experience to express their desires and dreams. She thought about womenism as the main truth in the life of any dark lady; and the most vital thing in this thought is that lives isn’t simply requesting equivalent rights with man however searching for equivalent rights with white lady This belief system „womenism? concentrated on the one of a kind affair, battles and needs of Black women yet it was not ready to oppose despite man requests and control and even with White Feminism out of line exercises. Womenism was not ready to give its natural products in commonsense way and dark women were not ready to make this speculation turned into a hypothesis.
1.4.2 Muslim feminism:
Muslims trust that equity and balance are inborn qualities and cardinal standards in Islam. People are equivalent whether they are dark or white, man or women. This thought of correspondence between genders rose in Muslim social orders by the happening to Islam hundreds of years prior, yet a Muslim radical were continually attempting to expel the correct given by God to women and makes her a hireling or less. Before the finish of the nineteenth century and the start of twentieth century individuals began to think diversely by framing new belief systems, association and branches of women, more often than not called “Islamic woman’s rights” or “Middle Easterner Feminism”. Researchers and specialists were continually considering and examining issues and accounts of women in the Quran, which contains standards of sexual orientation correspondence and more extensive issues of social equity, consequently laying reason for testing male centric customs done by those analysts.
Each piece of life presented starting at now in the Quran while some political standards in the Arabic-Islamic countries were a portion of the time with women and diverse events against her. Immediately in the twentieth century, women’ activists from different parts of the world endeavored tries to hold submits overall social affairs and gatherings to fortify the activity of women at home and abroad. Islamic women’ activists were joining into those social occasions to exhibit the bona fide picture of Muslim women as a mother, companion, teacher, authority and parliament part. After the nearness of Feminism in western countries like USA and some European countries, it started to move to the Arab and Muslim countries as another idea. A couple of individuals were enthusiastic about it since they assume that God offered rights to woman and make her obligation, fulfillment and life in the hands of man as a father, life partner and kin to anchor and reinforce her. Regardless, others totally expel it since they have confidence in a male driven radical way and they declined to recognize her as a suitable fundamental individual in the overall population.
As indicated by Friedirich Ebbert Stiftung in the documentation FES gathering 2008:
“There are countless men who barely welcome the liberation endeavors of women and who watch them with doubt… Such connecting systems would enable them to propel all the more viably with joined quality, in order to pick up acknowledgment and thankfulness with their “women’ influence” in broad daylight life.”
The Islamic Feminism is a standout amongst the most intense developments of woman’s rights on the planet; they have around similar objectives of the western nations yet at the same time with contrasts. The pioneers of this action are generally a tip top taught, developed gathering of women from various nations of the Arab and Muslim world. Among them, Amina Wadud. Her examination spend significant time in enlightened sexual orientation and Quranic thinks about which talks about Muslim lady Rights as a spouse, mother; sister; researcher and women’s activist. She accentuated on the significance of training of Muslim lady for herself and society. Wadud stated, “This must incorporate new thoughts regarding equity and about the qualities, about the important jobs played by women as people, as individuals from family and as local officials in Muslim common social orders and worldwide subjects today”.
Notwithstanding Wadud there is Dr Hasna Husin who functions as developer executive for UNICEF and Dr. Malika Benradi who works for the UNESCO. She composed articles about existence states of women and kids in Muslim social orders. Dr. Lale Akgün is likewise one of the popular lady’s rights pioneers in the Muslim people group. She underlined on the significance of social relations; Family life, exchange, reformatory law and obviously sex fairness are secured by that. By the assistance of other Muslim Feminists like Prof. Irshad Manji, Dr. Alia Hogben and Zainab Al-Suwaij they could move the Muslim Woman picture to another level by erasing her negati Women in modern time
Women comprise somewhat the greater part of the total populace. Their job in the social, political and monetary improvement of social orders is additionally the greater part when contrasted with that of men by righteousness of their double jobs in the beneficial and regenerative circles. They are a critical part in a critical position of intensity in the social orders in everywhere throughout the world. These days, every one of the choices made on the planet (prudent, social, political, instructive and aesthetic) are made by both man and lady in an equivalent way however this was not the truth years prior. Lady through this time endeavored to search for her rights by every one of the methods and because of the possibility of Feminism that helped her to be an accomplice in every one of the areas of society. The social and the political rights for lady were dependably in the highest point of Feminism requests. Lady demonstrates that her productivity in the general public is equivalent to man all through her job in all fields and in addition at home. This section manages the most critical political, social and efficient interests of women in her general public, contemplating the most widely recognized obstructions and boundaries that remain in her streets notwithstanding speaking to catalogs of celebrated lady pioneers.
2.2 Women and Society:
The job of Women is critical in our general public in which man is as yet commanding and assuming the most vital jobs. Over the most recent couple of years, Women position in the public arena has been extraordinarily directed in contrast with their profile before; when they were seen similarly as housewives and their solitary job is dealing with youngsters and obeying man orders. Additionally, they were not permitted to do any sorts of employments out their homes like casting a ballot, contemplating or composing.
A Century prior to, women began to consider the significance of their jobs in the public arena. In everywhere throughout the world and by every one of the methods, women needed to change their circumstance or conventional place in the general public this prompt arrangement of strikes walks that planned to demonstrate their balance to men. Amid the first and second world war, lady investment in the general public rose since she supplanted man who went to the war inside and outside the house. Also, she worked twofold move to gain more cash for helping her family.
2.3 Women and Education:
Women were avoided learning and instruction since information would make them question the mandatory intensity of the traditions and convictions, which held them in their place; and it, would demonstrate to them proper methodologies to accomplish their opportunity, and may even urge them to accept administration. In this way, Feminist specialists and scholars accentuate on the significance of training in lady’s life like Marry Wollstonecraft who prepared to different Feminists to search for equivalent open doors for the two young women and young men in learning. Teaching people is a key to monetary and social development and economical improvement in all nations. Raising the training levels and education rates of women is a standout amongst the best speculations for expanding female efficiency and also improving the prosperity of families and kids. In a few regions where women are ending up more instructed than men, the test is improving utilization of women’ capabilities. In creating nations, decreasing sexual orientation disparity in proficiency and in essential and optional training is basic to lessening neediness and quickening financial improvement. In everywhere throughout the world governments began to understand the significance and the need of teaching females for her advantages as well as for the advancement of society in every one of the spaces. They began to urge guardians to let their youngsters particularly young women to concentrate to diminish the level of education. As of late, the African nations began to assist youngsters with interring the school particularly kids from the country zones. In sub-Saharan Africa in 2005, the World Bank found that 83.6 young women for each 100 young men were enlisted in grade schools. Elementary school enlistment figures don’t recount the entire story in light of the fact that the sexual orientation hole in more elevated amounts is more sensational where there is more young men than young women, which results the absence of initiative limits.
Catherine Beecher was among the well known women’s activists who were requesting the training of lady. She added to her work in schools a general promulgation for lady’s instruction, and she formulated expansive plans for its advancement. In 1852, she composed the American Woman’s Educational Association to assist American women with having instruction, good position, and profitable work. She could influence the sentiments American young women and bringing their mindfulness up in the significance of education14. At long last, Education ought to be considered as vital as casting a ballot and working and ought to be in the need of the considerable number of governments since showing fits them to be great moms and accommodating subjects. By enhancing the instructive limits of women, they would have the capacity to frame the characters of young women and young men; and by building their identities, they are fabricating better social orders.
2.4 Women and Health:
The bases of any fruitful nation are the accessibility of all types of agreeable life like instruction, work and wellbeing. The significance of wellbeing can be in the main range. Women’s liberation from the earliest starting point was requiring the significance of dealing with lady not simply by giving her occupations or letting her vote yet in addition by giving her wellbeing a need since she has the most touchy and delicate body structure likewise the pregnancy and other mother exercises.
With the end goal to give financially savvy and top notch human services, governments need to embrace a sexual orientation perspective dependent on the physical contrasts of people yet additionally other social and social components. The expenses of forestalling and treating infection and sick wellbeing in people contrast over their lifetimes. Sexual orientation particular infections and proliferation needs ought to be in the highest point of human services approach in everywhere throughout the world15.
In the United States, the Office of Women’s Health advances wellbeing equity for women through sexual orientation particular methodologies, including teaching wellbeing experts on sex suggestions for avoidance and treatment and spurring conduct change through more extensive spread of sex based wellbeing data. A few nations have particular focuses dedicated to women’ social insurance, for example, the National Centers of concentrated on Medicine for the Elderly and Women’s Health in Norway. Sweden’s new general wellbeing strategy requires a sexual orientation point of view to bring issues to light, for instance, the effect of work economic situations on women’ wellbeing and in addition the outcomes of their capacity impediment and male savagery against women16.
As indicated by the World Health Organization Health (WHO) the natural, social and ecological variables associate and influence the strength of women and men. There is deficient learning of the commonness and rate of physical and mental hazard factors identified with women’ work designs in consolidating two employments and being by and large come up short on. Notwithstanding particular work issues, the wellbeing results of separation and viciousness against women require extraordinary consideration. In this unique situation, National Health, Education and Criminal Justice Sectors ought to consider medical problems a need in their approach formulation17.
Women are more intrigued by wellbeing more than men are. Generally we find that women’s activists are continually requiring the significance of making now and supportive strategies for wellbeing for lady or youngsters as well as for all individuals from society. Susan Dusel stated: “When the human services framework is curtailed women get hit with a triple whammy. In the first place, women have a tendency to be the human services specialists who are losing their employments or are being kept running off their feet on account of understaffing. Second, women and their kids have a tendency to be the heaviest clients of the human services framework. At last, women need to get a move on when the express never again reserves social insurance administrations.”
2.5 Women and Economics:
Women are participating in many fields, including economics in which the female employment rate rising to 20.5% in 2000. By the beginning of the 1890s woman started to participate in political debate and economic challenges. Swelling numbers of women entered the work force in seeking for new equal opportunities and forming a new image and profile of them. Nowadays nearly, 25% of woman is participating in workforces in comparison to 2000 in which, there was only 20.5%.
In her book “Women and Economics”, Charlotte Perkins Gilman mentioned that humans are the only species in which the female has to depend on the male for survival this why she was asking women change their cultural identities and to be independent. In addition, women who sacrifice to be nurturers and educators will produce better children. Gilman believes that others can assist with these tasks or even do them more effectively. She was one of the first to propose the professionalization of housework, encouraging women to hire housekeepers and cooks to release them from housework. This would allow women to participate in the workforce and lead a more worldly life. Gilman believed that women could desire home and family life, but should not have to retain complete responsibility of these areas and she stated that these changes would eventually result in better motherhood and fatherhood, better babyhood and childhood, better food, better homes, better society.
Woman participation in the workforce was uncompleted since she was under unfair rules in which there was always priority for man. During the 19th century, women used to work 12hours a day with a very low salary whereas men worked only 6 hours. As a result, feminists refused this segregation and started to ask for more equality in working conditions by forming organizations and Institutions for woman workers.
By the end the19th century, legislations started to lower the barriers facing women in the participating in workplace by giving better work conditions with less time and better salary. In Europe for example, Governments gave women more space in which they required a minimum representation of 40%. The first one who adopted this policy was Norway with 25% in 2004 to 36% in 2006 and 42% in 200920. In 2007, Spanish government wanted to reach a minimum quota of 40% by forcing Companies to use more employees and encourage equal opportunities for both gender. In 2000, Denmark required states companies to have balance participation of men and women and to have at least 35% of women members. However, only 18% of women were employed. Despite all the laws used by the different governments to bring change in the representation of woman in the work force but not all the countries rise the quotas genders.
2.6 Woman and Politics:
One of the most fundamental aspects of civil society is the assurance of personal safety and fair treatment under the law for all citizens. However, the act of assuring those rights for all members of society regardless their economical, social, racial and religious belongings became a hard thing to do for both developing and developed countries. In the same context, it is difficult in many societies to make women become the same as man in the duties and rights because people still believe in the old stereotypes about women. When speaking about woman representation in the political fields one can say that it improving in comparison with the last years. Woman now is occupying all the domains and all the positions especially in politics. She is now a president, minister, diplomatic and parliament member. Although 40 to 50% of party members are women, they hold only about 10% of the leadership positions within those parties. Ensuring women’s equal participation in the decision-making structures of parties is essential for promoting gender equality within them. This why nowadays many international organizations like Woman Rights Organization, United Nations Development Programmers (UNDP) and the National Democratic Institute (NDI) in additions to many national and local institutions in all the world are trying to give woman opportunities to show her abilities to effect and change the political fields. When speaking about woman’s role and position in any country we will find that woman is always in the second position after man. Decades before, woman was not allowed to participate in any social, political and religious ceremonies in her society and she was under the total control of man (as father, husband and brother). In all the means, woman was just a servant in the house; her only job was only to clean, cook and arise children.
Sapiro confirm this idea in one of his books, that: “There is already a body of academic work which suggests that women politicians across the world are stereotypically seen as mothers, housewives or sex objects and that none of these roles is viewed as compatible with political leadership” 21 Today, she is an important member in her society not just as a wife or mother but also as a leader, minister and as a president.
2.6.1 Status of Woman in Politics:
The modern global conversation around women’s rights and political participation has been taking place for almost 40 years. Recently many countries started to adopt new working programs in which they included both man and woman workers. In that period, people started to think differently and they begin to delete all forms of discrimination against woman. According to Maurice Duverger:
“The equality of men and women in the matter of political rights is established by a large number of constitutions, codes and laws. Few indeed are the modem countries that have not proclaimed it…Many nations, which have adopted the system of representative government at a later juncture, and whose customs and traditions maintain women in a secondary and subordinate position”22 Those new activities and programs of woman participation in the political field allowed her to play variety of roles: as voter, political party member, candidate and office holder…; more importantly, woman nowadays is more involved in politics in comparison with her involvement years before.
Equality between women and men in politics in many countries in the world has grown substantially in the past fifty years. More women were elected in national parliaments than ever before and a record number of women hold executive positions within their nations? government23.
However, there is still a huge gender gap in political representation in many countries and woman is still struggling to find a place in her country especially in politics. Some researchers argue that women engage, overall, less than men in politics and political activity, others argue that woman effectiveness in politics is noticeable and can be classified among the first ranges of political leaders in any country in the world. In any institution in the world nowadays, we find that women have the right to join a political party and seek elected office in their own right. Where data are collected, the number of women candidates for national office seems to be increasing. In USA for example, there is a noticeable number of women who ran for Congress in 2012. The same thing happened in the United Kingdom and some European countries in which the number of women seeking for democratic position is increasing in comparison with years before. At the end of 2012, the global average of women in parliament stood at 20.3 % in comparison with 19.5 % in 2011. Woman participation average in the political field is increasing and many countries and governments are encouraging woman to be a part of the political activities like voting for example.
2.6.2 Public Opinion about Women in Politics:
People’s opinion towards women’s leadership in politics differs from region to region and from one person to another. Moreover, the connection between the opinions about women participation in the political leadership positions and the degree to which women serve in noticeable leadership roles can be judge differently. According to some researches, some countries in Western Europe, North America and Latin America generally consider both man and woman as equally good political leaders and the effectiveness of their activities came from the collaboration between them. In the same context, those researchers argued that majorities in Mali (65%), the Palestinian territories (64%), Kuwait (62%), Pakistan (54%), Bangladesh (52%) and Ethiopia (51%) saying men make better political leaders than women, as do nearly half of Jordanians (49%) and Nigerians (48 %)
Russians are a divided: 44 % say men and women make equally good leaders while 40 % say men are better. Only in Brazil do more people say women make better political leaders than say men do: 15% of Brazilians say women make better political leaders and 10 % say men are better leaders24. Recently researchers showed that people believe that men and women should think in the importance of the involvement of women in politics but in a limited way. She is allowed to do that in condition to not conflict with cultural gender norms. In other words, they started to accept woman in political jobs but she should be under the supervision and the control of man. Study research made mainly in some Arabic countries in 2013 showed there are some differences in the acceptances of woman to participate in some political roles. In Libya for example, statistics shows that both men and women support women voting, lower numbers supported women as political party members, as ministers or as members of parliament. In 2011, other statistics made in Iraqi showed that although there was a general agreement for the right of women to vote, there was less support for women to play a more active role in the public sector, either as members of parliament or government ministers. Similarly, in 2013 researches made in Afghanistan showed that while a majority of the male respondents stated that they supported women, there was more support for women in “social” rather than “political” positions. In the same context, some organization that specialized in the effectiveness of women in the political fields showed that women are better managers and more ready than men to deal with many important policy issues. Feminists and woman rights leaders were always looking for the equality between man and woman in all the fields, in addition, all the groups and the waves of feminism agreed in the importance of the participation of woman in mainly in the political fields. Her right to become a citizen is not only by making her marry and have children but also by giving her the right to vote first and to become a parliament member or minister or even president.
Decades before, woman was not considered as human being, she was under the total control of man as a father or husband. By all the means, she was preventing from doing any social, political or economical activity. Today, she is the most effective member in society either as a simple citizen mother, wife, and teacher or as political member.
2.6.3 The Need for Women in Politics:
Among the strongest and the most common questions are why do we need woman in politics? Moreover, what she can add to the political development of any nation? All those questions were discussed and studied by many political and social researches in which they tried to show the importance of giving woman her right to vote or to be a political responsible.
In a way or in another, woman was under pressure to show her ability to be a good leader or a good political participant. Between 2006 and 2008, the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) gathered views of parliament members from 110 countries about women’s most effective activities. They found that woman is more active in women’s issues, gender equality, social and community matters and family-related matters25. Women lawmakers, therefore, have often been perceived as more sensitive to community concerns and more responsive to constituency needs. According to the same study done by IPU, female parliamentarians gave priority to issues like childcare, equal payment and mother issues in addition to topics like violence, poverty and raping. In places such as Rwanda and South Africa, an increase in the number of female lawmakers led to legislation related to land inheritance and reproductive rights. In France and some European countries, women are more involved in topics like human rights and more importantly in women’s social, political and economical rights.
A study from Stockholm University showed an increase in the budget for education expenditures as the number of women in the Swedish Parliament increased. As more women reach leadership positions within their political parties, these parties tend to prioritize issues that influence health, education and other quality of life issues26. It is not surprising when women are empowered as political leaders; countries often experience higher standards of living with positive developments in education, transportation and health. In relation to that and according to a research made by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 19-member countries they found that there is an increase in the number of women legislators results in an increase in total educational spending. In addition to that, this study showed that many countries like India, South Africa and other European countries who gave woman more political positions noticed a huge development in education, health and transport. The study showed also that by the presence of a woman in the Governmental positions the gender gap in school and working opportunities reduced in a very noticeable way. Women in many countries in the world were able to become an important member and leader. They brought to their societies many achievements like: more health care for women, children and old people, more work opportunities for both man and woman, social and political rights for woman the same as man. More importantly, those woman leaders were able to change the stereotypical profile of woman.
According to President of Chile Michelle Bachelet: “When one woman is a leader, it changes her. When more women are Leaders, it changes politics and policies.” Many Feminists, researchers and Human rights leaders already presented what the president of Chile has said. All of them agreed by giving woman the floor to vote, work and to become a leader this would affect the society positively. Woman Leaders usually work for the benefit of the society rather than working for their own benefit. They also think for all members of society without taking the matters of race, gender or age into consideration. Finally, research and studied made in many countries in the world shows that women tend to be deeply committed to peace-building and post-conflict reconstruction and have a unique and powerful perspective to bring to the negotiating table. In addition, women often believe in giving second chances to people and they are more involved in social problems (family, woman and child care) more than any other thing. At the same time, researches proved that, even if woman are not interested in politics in a strong way but if they work in this fields they would be more effective than man.
2.6.4 Women and formal political representation:
Feminist and researchers of democracy are always looking for equality between man and woman in all the fields especially politics. They believe in the importance of giving woman her right to vote, to be parliament member or even becoming a minister or president. They also emphasize on the importance of political representation of woman in all the positions and legislative bodies inside and outside any country. Having women representatives in political and other decision-making institutions that work on behalf of all citizens has been a topic of interest and policy at the European level for the past several decades. In that situation, Feminist theorists in all over the world have used a sharply feminist-critical lens to explore the reality of the gender political representation. They call for the election of more woman as politicians. They want to show that woman and man should have the same opportunities in the political representation.
Moreover, researchers of the political fields want to make all members of society participate in the different elections of any county, so they found that the best way to show the effectiveness and the credibility of any election is by including woman as an important member in it either as voters or as candidate.
2.6.5 Interest in politics:
In order to make more women engaged in politics, political scholars and feminists tried to show the benefits of making women a part of any political activity. They want also to prove to all women that by interring the political fields they would be able to speak and show their problems and interests easily. Recent research in the UK shows that levels of interest in politics are at their lowest for several years and that the gap between men and women’s interest in politics continues. For example, in 2012 only 37% of women said they were interested in politics in comparison to 49% of men the same study found that knowledge of politics is also in decline. A number of factors affect political interest and involvement in similar ways for males and females. The engagement of any member of society in any field primarily came from his familial and societal environment. Since woman was forbidden from working in politics for a long time, this surely affects her interests and views about politics in general.
Many studied made to know how we could change woman’s negative attitudes towards politics27. In the majority of those researches, scholars found that woman were put in a very harsh and unfair gender gap where they were isolated from any kind of political participations. This isolation from politic activities make them far away from it and most of the time we found that women are not aware of many things in relation to politics. Beyond this truth, we find that woman was forced to be like that not by her will.
In her study of young women’s interest in mainstream politics, Briggs (2008)28 identifies that socially disadvantaged young women are alienated from most political debate. In her qualitative research, she found that young women usually feel that they are far away from any related topic to politics. In this study, Briggs found that even if most of young women are far away from politics but this does not mean that they do not have personal political beliefs.
2.6.6 Woman in Political Assemblies, Government and the Civil Service
The number of women who are members in the political and administrative assemblies (parliament, local assemblies, and municipal councils) of the government and of the higher civil service was extremely small mainly centuries before. This phenomenon noticed in the majority of world countries with no exception. In a research made in 1950s in Paris University, America in which all the world call it the nations of democracy was years before among the nations that had the lowest percentage of woman members of parliament. In this concern, political scholars found that since there are a few number of woman candidates so automatically we have few numbers of women members in all the political institutions. The highest figures at that time were for Norway, where 16 % of the candidates for the 1949 parliamentary elections were women. France follows, with 9 %for the 1951 elections. Germany is close behind with 8.5 %for the 1953 elections and 8.9 % for those of 194929. In that study, researchers found that the woman representation in any political activity was extremely absent and this absence of female existence is due to man radical rules that prevent her for many years to be a part in her society.
Years and after the long journey of woman in looking for her social, economical and political rights, we can say that she is now a human being with equal opportunities and conditions of living. This can be noticed from the recent statistics do in many countries of the world, for example in 200830 women took 20.6% of seats up for renewal in 66 chambers in 54 countries, the highest renewal on record. The organization of IPU31 reports in 2008: “Women’s access is affected by different factors, including attitudes about the role of women in society, lack of support of political parties and bias among the electorate. But electorate arrangements and political will are amongst the most important factors ….” In the same year, researchers found that those countries that used special measures elected 24% women to parliament on average, as opposed to 18 % for countries that did not use such measures. In the same topic, we find some differences in statistics in relation to other countries like African regions in which woman’s image and profile is still kept in away or in another as it was years before. In addition, the political representation of woman in political position is very little in Ghana for example only 20 women Members of parliament, for Tanzania, there is a noticeable increase in which they have 21.36 % of woman representation in the parliament. In Argentina and in 1995 women occupied 21.8% of parliamentary seats; in 2005, the figure rose to 33.7%. Costa Rica is in the top of the southern American countries by 38.6 % of woman representation in the parliament.
Concerning the Arabic countries, one may say that recently the Arab woman start to draw a new position in the political activities i.e. The situation of woman in the Arab world was all most the same as woman in the whole world. She was kept at home to take care of children and she was eliminated from any political or social activity whereas nowadays she an important citizen and activist mainly in politics. In most of Arabic countries, there is at least 23%32 of woman in the parliament and this noticeable number in comparison with the past.
2.6.7 Barriers and Obstacles in the political Representation of woman:
Woman of today is not the same as she was years before. In many countries of the world woman in a way or in another get her rights in politics, society and religion but even though she is still in need for more equality not only in the political or economical domains but also in her rights to be a human being. Woman still face the barriers that remains from a combination of stereotypical attitudes and perceptions, which continue to compartmentalize and classify people and leadership qualities by gender, and the existing of inequality itself, which is among the first reasons behind the restriction of female role.
In 2002, a study by Catalyst33 and The Conference Board Europe interviewed 500 senior women from corporations and professional firms across Europe. In this event, researchers asked about barriers to the advancement of women, two thirds highlighted stereotypes and preconceptions of women’s roles and abilities as the most important obstacle they faced, in the second range, there is a lack of suitable female role models, a lack of relevant management experience, family commitments, and a lack of mentoring opportunities. This study showed that the main important idea behind the lack of woman representation in most of the fields is the ancient idea of woman’s role. I.e.in all the societies and even in the very developed nations; man, still believes that the best place for woman is her house with her children and her personal dreams, achievements and career are not important and can be removed and replaced easily.
Another study done by Euro-Chambers34 reports that 90% of the women interviewed agreed that men are in a better position to progress in their career because women is under pressure and family constraints, 80% saw motherhood as an obstacle to their career. The same study shows that nearly two thirds of the women interviewed had heard women being described as less believable and convincing in business than men, the remaining few women heard that women had difficulties with decision-making. Woman in any place of the world was and still under unfair rules that she was obliged to follow and obey. Feminism organization and Woman rights movements started in the whole world and years before; first to give woman her rights and second to remove any stereotypical bad image of woman. All the movements and activities that the world have noticed through history from Marry Wollstonecraft’s work “A vindication of the rights of woman” to Black American Feminists to Woman and Child Organization recently were and still raising the same principles and dreams which are the total equality and freedom for all woman in any place of the World. When looking at woman’s success and achievements nowadays one can say that all those women who were killed, raped and died for this dream deserve respect and appreciation for all what they have done.
2.7 Famous Woman Leaders:
Feminism as a dream or as an activity came to stop the pain and suffering of woman in the entire world. In all the means and by a general agreement, it succeeded to change woman from a slave or even an animal to a human being with rights and chances in living their lives in the way they want it. This success can be observed when looking at the domains where woman exists and with different positions and professions.
2.7.1 In Politics
126.96.36.199 Margaret Hilda Thatcher
Thatcher was born in 13 October 1925 in Grantham, Lincolnshire and dead in 8 April 2013. She was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and the Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British Prime Minister of the 20th century and is the only woman to have held the office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her the “Iron Lady”, a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism. In 1959, she was elected as Conservative MP35 for Finchley. In February 1975, she won leadership challenge against Edward Heath and became the head of the British Conservative Party. In 4th of May 1979, Thatcher was elected Britain’s first female prime minister. She retains the position for 11 and half year, making her the longest serving prime minister of the 20th century. She dead in 2013 at the age of 87 and left behind her a history full of achievements, problems and success She was insisting on the importance of the political, social and economical education for all citizens especially woman.
Michelle Bachelet is the current Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of UN Women and was the former President of Chile, the first woman to hold the presidency. A moderate Socialist, her presidential campaign was based on a platform of continuing Chile’s free market policies, while increasing social benefits to help reduce the country’s gap between rich and poor, one of the largest in the world. In 2007, Forbes magazine ranked her as 27th in the list of the 100 Most Powerful Women in the World. Prior to becoming President, Bachelet served as Minister of Health and Minister of Defense (the first Latin American woman to hold the post) under President Ricardo Largos. Bachelet has also worked for the Pan-American Health Organization, the World Health Organization, and Chile’s National AIDS Commission. Bachelet is a surgeon, pediatrician, and epidemiologist, and has a Master’s degree in Military Science. Bachelet has three children and speaks Spanish, English, French, German, and Portuguese
188.8.131.52 Laura Chinchilla Miranda:
Laura Chinchilla Miranda was elected Costa Rica?s first female President in May of 2010. Before she became a politician, she was consultant in Latin America and Africa, focusing on judicial reform and public security issues. Due to her expertise, she went on to serve in the José Maria Figueres Olsen administration as vice-minister for public security (1994–1996) and minister of public security (1996–1998). From 2002 to 2006, she served in the National Assembly as a deputy for the province of San José. Prior to serving as President, she was a Vice-President for the Oscar Arias Sanchez administration and was his administration’s Minister of Justice. Chinchilla graduated from the University of Costa Rica and received her Master in Public Policy degree from Georgetown University. She said one time in an interview that becoming a president was her dream from her childhood not because she wants to lead the country but she wants to bring happiness and prosperity and wealth to her nation.
184.108.40.206 Tansu Ciller :Tansu Ciller is an economist and politician who served as Turkish Prime Minister from 1993-1996. She entered politics in November 1990, joining the True Path Party, and was elected to Parliament in 1991 as deputy of her hometown of Istanbul, where she served as Minister of State for Economics. In 1993, she became the leader of the True Path Party and the Prime Minister of the coalition government. When she was the Prime Minister, her major achievement was the transformation of the Turkish Army into a modern fighting force. The coalition government collapsed in 1996, but Ciller remained involved in politics, serving as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1996-1997. Ciller retired from political life in 2002. Before her, she entered politics, Ciller served as an economics professor at several universities and as President of the Istanbul Bank. She is married with two children.
220.127.116.11 Luísa Dias Diogo:
Luisa Dias Diogo became the first woman Prime Minister of Mozambique in 2004, representing the country’s FRELIMO party, which has ruled the country since the nation’s independence in 1975. During her time in power, she was especially focused on gender equality and women’s empowerment. Prime Minister Diogo has urged African health ministers to offer reproductive and sexual health services free of charge throughout the continent. She recently launched the MUNIPA network, which brings together women ministers and parliamentarians to strengthen advocacy and lobbying activities in favor of gender equality legislation. Prior to becoming Prime Minister, Dias was Minister of Planning and Finance, a post that she held until 2005. Before that, she served as head of Mozambique’s Finance Industry and Director of the National Budget, a World Bank program officer, and Deputy Finance Minister.
18.104.22.168 Julia Gillard :Julia Gillard became the 27th Prime Minister of Australia in June of 2010. Prior to serving as Prime Minister, she worked in various political roles. After graduating from college, she worked as a solicitor in Melbourne with the law firm Slater and Gordon and became a partner in 1990, focusing on employment law. From 1996 to 1998, she served as Chief-of-Staff to the then Opposition Leader of the State of Victoria, John Brumby. She was elected to the Federal seat in Australian Labor Party in 1998. From 1998 to 2001, she served on the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Employment, Education and Workplace Relations. In 2001, she was appointed Shadow Minister for Population and Immigration and subsequently took on responsibilities for Reconciliation and Indigenous Affairs in 2003. From 2003 to 2006, she was Shadow Minister for Health. On December 4, 2006, she became Deputy Leader of the Australian Labor Party and served as Shadow Minister for Employment and Industrial Relations and Social Inclusion. Following the victory of the Labor Party in the 2007 elections, she was sworn in as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Education; Employment and Workplace Relations and Social Inclusion before becoming Prime Minister. She received an arts and law degree from the University of Adelaide and became involved in a campaign against education funding cuts. In 1983, she moved to Melbourne to complete her degree at Melbourne University.
22.214.171.124 Sheikh Hasina:
Prime Minister Hasina was born on 28th of Sept 1947, in the village of Tungipara. She was the daughter of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman who led Bangladesh to independence from Pakistan in 1971. While at the University of Dhaka in the late 1960s, she became active in politics and served as her father’s political liaison while Pakistani rulers imprisoned him. Prime Minister Hasina and other members of her family were also forced into captivity briefly in 1971 after they participated in an uprising during the liberation war. On Aug. 15, 1975, Bangladeshi military officers assassinated Hasina’s father, mother, and three brothers in their home. Prime Minister Hasina spent six years in exile. During this time, she was elected to a leadership position in the Awami League, the largest political organization in Bangladesh. On her return home in 1981, Prime Minister Hasina immersed herself in the fight for democracy which resulted in numerous house arrests. The Awami League led by Sheikh Hasina reclaimed power at the next election in 1996 but lost to the Bangladesh Nationalist Party again in 2001. Undaunted, Sheikh Hasina led her party in the 2008 general elections during which she vowed to build a “Digital Bangladesh” by 2021. The Awami league won the elections on December 29, 2008 with an overwhelming majority and Sheikh Hasina was named Prime Minister of Bangladesh. She continues to serve in that capacity today. According to her, the journey that she experienced with the death of her family and the exile did not prevent her or make her stop looking and speaking about the rights of Freedom and equality
2.7.2 Science and Society
126.96.36.199 Dr. Lale Akgün:
Lale Akgün, born in 1953 in Istanbul, moved to Germany, Cologne, in 1962 and has been living here since. In the wake of acquiring a degree in restorative sciences, ethnology and brain research in 1981, she got her doctorate at the workforce of regular investigation of the Albertus Magnus University in Cologne in 1987. She at that point turned into an associate teacher at that college. Amid that time, a significant number of the distributions she composed included subjects, for example, movement and its mental and social results. Somewhere in the range of 1997 and 2002, she led the Federal Center for Immigration North Rhine-Westphalia in Solingen. She was an individual from the Social Democratic Party since 1982. In 2001, she turned into an individual from the official advisory group of the gathering’s civil district of Cologne. She is among the well-known Muslim Feminists and she was continually calling for uniformity among man and lady in every one of the fields.
188.8.131.52 Prof. Irshad Manji:
Irshad Manji was born in 1962 in Uganda. She moved with her family to Canada, where youthful Irshad went to government funded schools and additionally an Islamic school. She was removed from the school at the age 14 for making an excessive number of inquiries, however kept her confidence. Today, Irshad Manji is senior individual with the Brussels-based European Foundation for Democracy and executive of the Moral Courage Project at New York University. In the two limits, she is driving a worldwide crusade to accommodate Islam with human rights. Teacher Manji is the globally smash hit creator of The Trouble with Islam Today: A Muslim’s Call for Reform in Her Faith. Her book has been distributed in 30 nations, including Pakistan, India, Lebanon and Indonesia. Irshad Manji is likewise maker of the acclaimed Documentary Faith without Fear, it was propelled at the current year’s Muslim Film Festival composed by the American Islamic Congress. Prof. Manji graduated in scholarly history from the University of British Columbia, winning the Governor General’s award for best scholastic accomplishment in humanities. She went ahead to a honor winning vocation out in the open intrigue news coverage, turning into an individual at Yale University and essayist in-living arrangement at the University of Toronto, where she composed The Trouble with Islam Today. Her own confidence and accept was continually guiding her works and exercises. She is among the renowned Feminists who put stock in the significance of enhancing lady’s training and culture.