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Piezoelectricity is the electrical energy that is produced when mechanical stress is applied to an object ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>More</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>79</RecNum><DisplayText>1</DisplayText><record><rec-number>79</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”es92ftxezw0f2oe5s9g5ztabt9sddxevd9tx” timestamp=”1536940398″>79</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>More, Namdev</author><author>Kapusetti, Govinda</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Piezoelectric material – A promising approach for bone and cartilage regeneration</title><secondary-title>Medical Hypotheses</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Medical Hypotheses</full-title></periodical><pages>10-16</pages><volume>108</volume><keywords><keyword>Piezoelectricity</keyword><keyword>Bone regeneration</keyword><keyword>Cartilage regeneration</keyword><keyword>Tissue engineering</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2017</year><pub-dates><date>2017/10/01/</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>0306-9877</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306987717305923</url><url>https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0306987717305923/1-s2.0-S0306987717305923-main.pdf?_tid=7f0900c8-fdbf-4c12-ac31-0e10c52082fe&amp;acdnat=1536940604_53ebaa1f596134ceb75e4e9958d8c840</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2017.07.021</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>1. It was first observed in quartz, Rochelle salt, cane sugar, topaz, and many other materials by the Curie brothers in the late 1800s ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Mason</Author><Year>1981</Year><RecNum>353</RecNum><DisplayText>2</DisplayText><record><rec-number>353</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”es92ftxezw0f2oe5s9g5ztabt9sddxevd9tx” timestamp=”1536941620″>353</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mason, W. P.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Columbia Univ,New York,Ny 10027</auth-address><titles><title>Piezoelectricity, Its History and Applications</title><secondary-title>Journal of the Acoustical Society of America</secondary-title><alt-title>J Acoust Soc Am</alt-title></titles><alt-periodical><full-title>J Acoust Soc Am</full-title></alt-periodical><pages>1561-1566</pages><volume>70</volume><number>6</number><dates><year>1981</year></dates><isbn>0001-4966</isbn><accession-num>WOS:A1981MU15700001</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>&lt;Go to ISI&gt;://WOS:A1981MU15700001</url><url>https://asa.scitation.org/doi/pdf/10.1121/1.387221</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>Doi 10.1121/1.387221</electronic-resource-num><language>English</language></record></Cite></EndNote>2. Their discovery led to applying piezoelectricity to tools and items for industrial and consumer use ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ma</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>78</RecNum><DisplayText>3</DisplayText><record><rec-number>78</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”es92ftxezw0f2oe5s9g5ztabt9sddxevd9tx” timestamp=”1536940098″>78</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ma, Jan</author><author>Li, Tao</author><author>Chen, Yan Hong</author><author>Lim, T. Han</author><author>Boey, F. Y. C.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Piezoelectric Materials for Biomedical Applications</title><secondary-title>Key Engineering Materials</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Key Engineering Materials</full-title></periodical><pages>1117-1120</pages><volume>334-335</volume><keywords><keyword>Actuator</keyword><keyword>Cataract</keyword><keyword>Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD)</keyword><keyword>Piezoelectric Material</keyword><keyword>Tube</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2007</year></dates><publisher>Trans Tech Publications</publisher><isbn>1662-9795</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>https://www.scientific.net/KEM.334-335.1117</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.334-335.1117</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>3. A common use of piezoelectricity is for ultrasounds ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Szabo</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>56</RecNum><DisplayText>4</DisplayText><record><rec-number>56</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”es92ftxezw0f2oe5s9g5ztabt9sddxevd9tx” timestamp=”1536938234″>56</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Szabo, T. L.</author><author>Lewin, P. A.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 44 Cummington St, Boston, MA 02215, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Piezoelectric materials for imaging</title><secondary-title>J Ultrasound Med</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>J Ultrasound Med</full-title></periodical><pages>283-8</pages><volume>26</volume><number>3</number><edition>2007/02/28</edition><keywords><keyword>*Electrochemistry</keyword><keyword>Lead</keyword><keyword>Niobium</keyword><keyword>Oxides</keyword><keyword>Quartz</keyword><keyword>Titanium</keyword><keyword>*Transducers</keyword><keyword>Ultrasonography/*instrumentation</keyword><keyword>Zirconium</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2007</year><pub-dates><date>Mar</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>0278-4297 (Print) 0278-4297 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>17324977</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17324977</url><url>https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.7863/jum.2007.26.3.283</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>4. There are devices that have been constructed to improve medical procedures that are minimally invasive ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ma</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>78</RecNum><DisplayText>3</DisplayText><record><rec-number>78</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”es92ftxezw0f2oe5s9g5ztabt9sddxevd9tx” timestamp=”1536940098″>78</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ma, Jan</author><author>Li, Tao</author><author>Chen, Yan Hong</author><author>Lim, T. Han</author><author>Boey, F. Y. C.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Piezoelectric Materials for Biomedical Applications</title><secondary-title>Key Engineering Materials</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Key Engineering Materials</full-title></periodical><pages>1117-1120</pages><volume>334-335</volume><keywords><keyword>Actuator</keyword><keyword>Cataract</keyword><keyword>Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD)</keyword><keyword>Piezoelectric Material</keyword><keyword>Tube</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2007</year></dates><publisher>Trans Tech Publications</publisher><isbn>1662-9795</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>https://www.scientific.net/KEM.334-335.1117</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.334-335.1117</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>3 and the use of these piezoelectric materials has increased in biomedical applications over the last decade ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Jacob</Author><Year>2018</Year><RecNum>357</RecNum><DisplayText>5</DisplayText><record><rec-number>357</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”es92ftxezw0f2oe5s9g5ztabt9sddxevd9tx” timestamp=”1536958059″>357</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Jacob, J.</author><author>More, N.</author><author>Kalia, K.</author><author>Kapusetti, G.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Medical Devices, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabad, 380054 India.</auth-address><titles><title>Piezoelectric smart biomaterials for bone and cartilage tissue engineering</title><secondary-title>Inflamm Regen</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Inflamm Regen</full-title></periodical><pages>2</pages><volume>38</volume><edition>2018/03/03</edition><keywords><keyword>Bone</keyword><keyword>Cartilage</keyword><keyword>Electroactive scaffolds</keyword><keyword>Mechanical stimulation</keyword><keyword>Piezoelectric materials</keyword><keyword>Piezoelectricity</keyword><keyword>Tissue regeneration</keyword><keyword>consent for the publication.The authors declare that they have no competing</keyword><keyword>interests.Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in</keyword><keyword>published maps and institutional affiliations.</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2018</year></dates><isbn>1880-9693 (Print) 1880-8190 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>29497465</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29497465</url><url>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5828134/pdf/41232_2018_Article_59.pdf</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC5828134</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.1186/s41232-018-0059-8</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>5.

The characteristics of piezoelectric materials are surface character, ferroelectricity, magnitude of voltage, mechanical and physical characteristics. The surface character of a piezoelectric material is defined by its height, slope, and curvature (1). Ferroelectricity is the ability of an object to display spontaneous polarization that can be shifted by an electric field PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5MZW56PC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxNzwvWWVhcj48UmVj
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Piezoelectric materials are classified as piezoelectric polymers and piezoelectric ceramics, with many sub sections of these two general terms ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Jacob;/Author;;Year;2018;/Year;;RecNum;357;/RecNum;;DisplayText;5;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;357;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”es92ftxezw0f2oe5s9g5ztabt9sddxevd9tx” timestamp=”1536958059″;357;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Jacob, J.;/author;;author;More, N.;/author;;author;Kalia, K.;/author;;author;Kapusetti, G.;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;auth-address;Department of Medical Devices, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabad, 380054 India.;/auth-address;;titles;;title;Piezoelectric smart biomaterials for bone and cartilage tissue engineering;/title;;secondary-title;Inflamm Regen;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Inflamm Regen;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;2;/pages;;volume;38;/volume;;edition;2018/03/03;/edition;;keywords;;keyword;Bone;/keyword;;keyword;Cartilage;/keyword;;keyword;Electroactive scaffolds;/keyword;;keyword;Mechanical stimulation;/keyword;;keyword;Piezoelectric materials;/keyword;;keyword;Piezoelectricity;/keyword;;keyword;Tissue regeneration;/keyword;;keyword;consent for the publication.The authors declare that they have no competing;/keyword;;keyword;interests.Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in;/keyword;;keyword;published maps and institutional affiliations.;/keyword;;/keywords;;dates;;year;2018;/year;;/dates;;isbn;1880-9693 (Print) 1880-8190 (Linking);/isbn;;accession-num;29497465;/accession-num;;urls;;related-urls;;url;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29497465;/url;;url;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5828134/pdf/41232_2018_Article_59.pdf;/url;;/related-urls;;/urls;;custom2;PMC5828134;/custom2;;electronic-resource-num;10.1186/s41232-018-0059-8;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;5. Polymers are flexible and can resist high impacts, while also being applied in various areas of the body ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Jacob;/Author;;Year;2018;/Year;;RecNum;357;/RecNum;;DisplayText;5;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;357;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”es92ftxezw0f2oe5s9g5ztabt9sddxevd9tx” timestamp=”1536958059″;357;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Jacob, J.;/author;;author;More, N.;/author;;author;Kalia, K.;/author;;author;Kapusetti, G.;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;auth-address;Department of Medical Devices, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabad, 380054 India.;/auth-address;;titles;;title;Piezoelectric smart biomaterials for bone and cartilage tissue engineering;/title;;secondary-title;Inflamm Regen;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Inflamm Regen;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;2;/pages;;volume;38;/volume;;edition;2018/03/03;/edition;;keywords;;keyword;Bone;/keyword;;keyword;Cartilage;/keyword;;keyword;Electroactive scaffolds;/keyword;;keyword;Mechanical stimulation;/keyword;;keyword;Piezoelectric materials;/keyword;;keyword;Piezoelectricity;/keyword;;keyword;Tissue regeneration;/keyword;;keyword;consent for the publication.The authors declare that they have no competing;/keyword;;keyword;interests.Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in;/keyword;;keyword;published maps and institutional affiliations.;/keyword;;/keywords;;dates;;year;2018;/year;;/dates;;isbn;1880-9693 (Print) 1880-8190 (Linking);/isbn;;accession-num;29497465;/accession-num;;urls;;related-urls;;url;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29497465;/url;;url;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5828134/pdf/41232_2018_Article_59.pdf;/url;;/related-urls;;/urls;;custom2;PMC5828134;/custom2;;electronic-resource-num;10.1186/s41232-018-0059-8;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;5. Piezoelectric ceramics are used less because of their “toxic nature” ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Jacob;/Author;;Year;2018;/Year;;RecNum;357;/RecNum;;DisplayText;5;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;357;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”es92ftxezw0f2oe5s9g5ztabt9sddxevd9tx” timestamp=”1536958059″;357;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Jacob, J.;/author;;author;More, N.;/author;;author;Kalia, K.;/author;;author;Kapusetti, G.;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;auth-address;Department of Medical Devices, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabad, 380054 India.;/auth-address;;titles;;title;Piezoelectric smart biomaterials for bone and cartilage tissue engineering;/title;;secondary-title;Inflamm Regen;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Inflamm Regen;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;2;/pages;;volume;38;/volume;;edition;2018/03/03;/edition;;keywords;;keyword;Bone;/keyword;;keyword;Cartilage;/keyword;;keyword;Electroactive scaffolds;/keyword;;keyword;Mechanical stimulation;/keyword;;keyword;Piezoelectric materials;/keyword;;keyword;Piezoelectricity;/keyword;;keyword;Tissue regeneration;/keyword;;keyword;consent for the publication.The authors declare that they have no competing;/keyword;;keyword;interests.Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in;/keyword;;keyword;published maps and institutional affiliations.;/keyword;;/keywords;;dates;;year;2018;/year;;/dates;;isbn;1880-9693 (Print) 1880-8190 (Linking);/isbn;;accession-num;29497465;/accession-num;;urls;;related-urls;;url;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29497465;/url;;url;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5828134/pdf/41232_2018_Article_59.pdf;/url;;/related-urls;;/urls;;custom2;PMC5828134;/custom2;;electronic-resource-num;10.1186/s41232-018-0059-8;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;5. These materials can be used in tissue engineering scaffolding, but it is highly important for them to be biocompatible ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Rajabi;/Author;;Year;2015;/Year;;RecNum;13;/RecNum;;DisplayText;8;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;13;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”es92ftxezw0f2oe5s9g5ztabt9sddxevd9tx” timestamp=”1536938226″;13;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Rajabi, A. H.;/author;;author;Jaffe, M.;/author;;author;Arinzeh, T. L.;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;auth-address;Department of Biomedical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102-1982, USA. Department of Biomedical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102-1982, USA. Electronic address: [email protected];/auth-address;;titles;;title;Piezoelectric materials for tissue regeneration: A review;/title;;secondary-title;Acta Biomater;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Acta Biomater;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;12-23;/pages;;volume;24;/volume;;edition;2015/07/15;/edition;;keywords;;keyword;Animals;/keyword;;keyword;*Bone Regeneration;/keyword;;keyword;*Electric Stimulation Therapy/instrumentation/methods;/keyword;;keyword;*Electrodes, Implanted;/keyword;;keyword;Humans;/keyword;;keyword;*Regenerative Medicine/instrumentation/methods;/keyword;;keyword;Electrical stimulation;/keyword;;keyword;Piezoelectric;/keyword;;keyword;Scaffolds;/keyword;;keyword;Tissue engineering;/keyword;;keyword;Tissue regeneration;/keyword;;/keywords;;dates;;year;2015;/year;;pub-dates;;date;Sep;/date;;/pub-dates;;/dates;;isbn;1878-7568 (Electronic) 1742-7061 (Linking);/isbn;;accession-num;26162587;/accession-num;;urls;;related-urls;;url;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26162587;/url;;url;https://ac.els-cdn.com/S1742706115300167/1-s2.0-S1742706115300167-main.pdf?_tid=a123f5a3-53f1-4092-b40a-9b56bd453e6f;amp;acdnat=1536938972_1fecb246fa380d6110a4611eda067e18;/url;;/related-urls;;/urls;;electronic-resource-num;10.1016/j.actbio.2015.07.010;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;8.

Piezoelectric materials are smart materials because they can detect the pressure on them (mechanical pressure) and convert it to electrical signals, while also converting electrical signals back to mechanical signals ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Jacob;/Author;;Year;2018;/Year;;RecNum;357;/RecNum;;DisplayText;5;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;357;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”es92ftxezw0f2oe5s9g5ztabt9sddxevd9tx” timestamp=”1536958059″;357;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Jacob, J.;/author;;author;More, N.;/author;;author;Kalia, K.;/author;;author;Kapusetti, G.;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;auth-address;Department of Medical Devices, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabad, 380054 India.;/auth-address;;titles;;title;Piezoelectric smart biomaterials for bone and cartilage tissue engineering;/title;;secondary-title;Inflamm Regen;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Inflamm Regen;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;2;/pages;;volume;38;/volume;;edition;2018/03/03;/edition;;keywords;;keyword;Bone;/keyword;;keyword;Cartilage;/keyword;;keyword;Electroactive scaffolds;/keyword;;keyword;Mechanical stimulation;/keyword;;keyword;Piezoelectric materials;/keyword;;keyword;Piezoelectricity;/keyword;;keyword;Tissue regeneration;/keyword;;keyword;consent for the publication.The authors declare that they have no competing;/keyword;;keyword;interests.Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in;/keyword;;keyword;published maps and institutional affiliations.;/keyword;;/keywords;;dates;;year;2018;/year;;/dates;;isbn;1880-9693 (Print) 1880-8190 (Linking);/isbn;;accession-num;29497465;/accession-num;;urls;;related-urls;;url;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29497465;/url;;url;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5828134/pdf/41232_2018_Article_59.pdf;/url;;/related-urls;;/urls;;custom2;PMC5828134;/custom2;;electronic-resource-num;10.1186/s41232-018-0059-8;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;5. The former is called the direct piezoelectric effect, and the latter is the converse piezoelectric effect ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Jacob;/Author;;Year;2018;/Year;;RecNum;357;/RecNum;;DisplayText;5;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;357;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”es92ftxezw0f2oe5s9g5ztabt9sddxevd9tx” timestamp=”1536958059″;357;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Jacob, J.;/author;;author;More, N.;/author;;author;Kalia, K.;/author;;author;Kapusetti, G.;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;auth-address;Department of Medical Devices, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabad, 380054 India.;/auth-address;;titles;;title;Piezoelectric smart biomaterials for bone and cartilage tissue engineering;/title;;secondary-title;Inflamm Regen;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Inflamm Regen;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;2;/pages;;volume;38;/volume;;edition;2018/03/03;/edition;;keywords;;keyword;Bone;/keyword;;keyword;Cartilage;/keyword;;keyword;Electroactive scaffolds;/keyword;;keyword;Mechanical stimulation;/keyword;;keyword;Piezoelectric materials;/keyword;;keyword;Piezoelectricity;/keyword;;keyword;Tissue regeneration;/keyword;;keyword;consent for the publication.The authors declare that they have no competing;/keyword;;keyword;interests.Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in;/keyword;;keyword;published maps and institutional affiliations.;/keyword;;/keywords;;dates;;year;2018;/year;;/dates;;isbn;1880-9693 (Print) 1880-8190 (Linking);/isbn;;accession-num;29497465;/accession-num;;urls;;related-urls;;url;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29497465;/url;;url;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5828134/pdf/41232_2018_Article_59.pdf;/url;;/related-urls;;/urls;;custom2;PMC5828134;/custom2;;electronic-resource-num;10.1186/s41232-018-0059-8;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;5. The piezoelectric materials can be used for bone and cartilage tissue engineering ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Jacob;/Author;;Year;2018;/Year;;RecNum;357;/RecNum;;DisplayText;5;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;357;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”es92ftxezw0f2oe5s9g5ztabt9sddxevd9tx” timestamp=”1536958059″;357;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Jacob, J.;/author;;author;More, N.;/author;;author;Kalia, K.;/author;;author;Kapusetti, G.;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;auth-address;Department of Medical Devices, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabad, 380054 India.;/auth-address;;titles;;title;Piezoelectric smart biomaterials for bone and cartilage tissue engineering;/title;;secondary-title;Inflamm Regen;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Inflamm Regen;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;2;/pages;;volume;38;/volume;;edition;2018/03/03;/edition;;keywords;;keyword;Bone;/keyword;;keyword;Cartilage;/keyword;;keyword;Electroactive scaffolds;/keyword;;keyword;Mechanical stimulation;/keyword;;keyword;Piezoelectric materials;/keyword;;keyword;Piezoelectricity;/keyword;;keyword;Tissue regeneration;/keyword;;keyword;consent for the publication.The authors declare that they have no competing;/keyword;;keyword;interests.Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in;/keyword;;keyword;published maps and institutional affiliations.;/keyword;;/keywords;;dates;;year;2018;/year;;/dates;;isbn;1880-9693 (Print) 1880-8190 (Linking);/isbn;;accession-num;29497465;/accession-num;;urls;;related-urls;;url;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29497465;/url;;url;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5828134/pdf/41232_2018_Article_59.pdf;/url;;/related-urls;;/urls;;custom2;PMC5828134;/custom2;;electronic-resource-num;10.1186/s41232-018-0059-8;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;5, considering that some tissues have piezoelectricity and bones are composed of collagen fibers, which are piezoelectric in nature ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;More;/Author;;Year;2017;/Year;;RecNum;79;/RecNum;;DisplayText;1;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;79;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”es92ftxezw0f2oe5s9g5ztabt9sddxevd9tx” timestamp=”1536940398″;79;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;More, Namdev;/author;;author;Kapusetti, Govinda;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Piezoelectric material – A promising approach for bone and cartilage regeneration;/title;;secondary-title;Medical Hypotheses;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Medical Hypotheses;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;10-16;/pages;;volume;108;/volume;;keywords;;keyword;Piezoelectricity;/keyword;;keyword;Bone regeneration;/keyword;;keyword;Cartilage regeneration;/keyword;;keyword;Tissue engineering;/keyword;;/keywords;;dates;;year;2017;/year;;pub-dates;;date;2017/10/01/;/date;;/pub-dates;;/dates;;isbn;0306-9877;/isbn;;urls;;related-urls;;url;http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306987717305923;/url;;url;https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0306987717305923/1-s2.0-S0306987717305923-main.pdf?_tid=7f0900c8-fdbf-4c12-ac31-0e10c52082fe;amp;acdnat=1536940604_53ebaa1f596134ceb75e4e9958d8c840;/url;;/related-urls;;/urls;;electronic-resource-num;https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2017.07.021;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;1. The piezoelectric material produce “electrical stimulation to cells to promote tissue formation ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Rajabi</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>13</RecNum><DisplayText>8</DisplayText><record><rec-number>13</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”es92ftxezw0f2oe5s9g5ztabt9sddxevd9tx” timestamp=”1536938226″>13</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Rajabi, A. H.</author><author>Jaffe, M.</author><author>Arinzeh, T. L.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biomedical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102-1982, USA. Department of Biomedical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102-1982, USA. Electronic address: [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Piezoelectric materials for tissue regeneration: A review</title><secondary-title>Acta Biomater</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Acta Biomater</full-title></periodical><pages>12-23</pages><volume>24</volume><edition>2015/07/15</edition><keywords><keyword>Animals</keyword><keyword>*Bone Regeneration</keyword><keyword>*Electric Stimulation Therapy/instrumentation/methods</keyword><keyword>*Electrodes, Implanted</keyword><keyword>Humans</keyword><keyword>*Regenerative Medicine/instrumentation/methods</keyword><keyword>Electrical stimulation</keyword><keyword>Piezoelectric</keyword><keyword>Scaffolds</keyword><keyword>Tissue engineering</keyword><keyword>Tissue regeneration</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2015</year><pub-dates><date>Sep</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1878-7568 (Electronic) 1742-7061 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>26162587</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26162587</url><url>https://ac.els-cdn.com/S1742706115300167/1-s2.0-S1742706115300167-main.pdf?_tid=a123f5a3-53f1-4092-b40a-9b56bd453e6f&amp;acdnat=1536938972_1fecb246fa380d6110a4611eda067e18</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.actbio.2015.07.010</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>8. This allows for piezoelectric scaffolds to be engineered for the purpose of repairing and regenerating tissue ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Jacob</Author><Year>2018</Year><RecNum>357</RecNum><DisplayText>5</DisplayText><record><rec-number>357</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”es92ftxezw0f2oe5s9g5ztabt9sddxevd9tx” timestamp=”1536958059″>357</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Jacob, J.</author><author>More, N.</author><author>Kalia, K.</author><author>Kapusetti, G.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Medical Devices, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabad, 380054 India.</auth-address><titles><title>Piezoelectric smart biomaterials for bone and cartilage tissue engineering</title><secondary-title>Inflamm Regen</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Inflamm Regen</full-title></periodical><pages>2</pages><volume>38</volume><edition>2018/03/03</edition><keywords><keyword>Bone</keyword><keyword>Cartilage</keyword><keyword>Electroactive scaffolds</keyword><keyword>Mechanical stimulation</keyword><keyword>Piezoelectric materials</keyword><keyword>Piezoelectricity</keyword><keyword>Tissue regeneration</keyword><keyword>consent for the publication.The authors declare that they have no competing</keyword><keyword>interests.Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in</keyword><keyword>published maps and institutional affiliations.</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2018</year></dates><isbn>1880-9693 (Print) 1880-8190 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>29497465</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29497465</url><url>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5828134/pdf/41232_2018_Article_59.pdf</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC5828134</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.1186/s41232-018-0059-8</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>5. Bone regeneration can be stimulated by piezoelectric material attached to an implant ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Vouilloz</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>393</RecNum><DisplayText>9</DisplayText><record><rec-number>393</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”es92ftxezw0f2oe5s9g5ztabt9sddxevd9tx” timestamp=”1536961845″>393</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Vouilloz, F. J.</author><author>Castro, M. S.</author><author>Vargas, G. E.</author><author>Gorustovich, A.</author><author>Fanovich, M. A.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Reactivity of BaTiO3-Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 phases in composite materials for biomedical applications</title><secondary-title>Ceramics International</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Ceramics International</full-title><abbr-1>Ceram Int</abbr-1></periodical><pages>4212-4221</pages><volume>43</volume><number>5</number><keywords><keyword>Barium titanate</keyword><keyword>Hydroxyapatite</keyword><keyword>Biomedical composite</keyword><keyword>Solid state reaction</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2017</year><pub-dates><date>2017/04/01/</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>0272-8842</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272884216323033</url><url>https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0272884216323033/1-s2.0-S0272884216323033-main.pdf?_tid=762d93ac-30ac-46cb-96cd-e199c81a950c&amp;acdnat=1536962039_c579240fe22861695357b71a0e562751</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2016.12.053</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>9. 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 7.
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