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PROJECT REPORT ROLE OF MENTAL HEALTH AND SELF ESTEEM AMONGST ADOLESCENTS FROM SRINAGAR SUBMITTED BY Saima parvaiz CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY This is certified that the proposed Research work of the Synopsis of Ph. D thesis has not been done earlier by anybody in any University. (Research Scholar) (Supervisor) Name Saima Parvaiz Name Dr. Ravinder Kumar Subject M.phil in psychology Date 30 05 – 2018 DECLARATION I Saima Parvaiz aged 26 , S/O, D/O, W/O, H/O Parvaiz ah wani certify that the particulars given above are true to the best of my knowledge and belief. I will abide by the rules and regulations of the M.phil I also undertake that my Employer does not have any objection to my guiding M.phil Scholars. I also certify that I am guiding number of M.phil . Scholars as per UGC Norms. Place Srinagar Signature Date 30 05 – 2018 Name saima parvaiz Mob. / Ph. 9796303297 E-mail [email protected] Address zaldagar srinagar .. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I feel indebted to my guide Dr. Ravinder kumar for the completion of the dissertation entitled ROLE OF MENTAL HEALTH AND SELF ESTEEM AMONGST ADOLESCENTS FROM SRINAGAR The present work could be completed only because of the able guidance and affectionate attitude of my guide Dr. Ravinder kumar I am thankful to all respondents and all those who assisted me by supplying the requisite information towards the completion of the questionnaire there by enable me to collect the relevant data. Name Saima parvaiz Enrolment NumberMUR1600374 CHAPTER NO.TITLESPAGE NO.IINTRODUCTION2-34IIREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE35-50IIIRESEARCH METHODOLOGY51-61IVDATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS62-69VCONCLUSIONS SUGGESTIONS70-75BIBLIOGRAPHY76-86APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRES87-94 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION The term adolescence is a social construct, like other developmental phases in human growth and development, but unlike others, it breeds a lot of ambiguity. However, some experts view the term as a construct applied by adult members of the society to describe the person who is in the transition to acquire biological features peculiar to the adu1t population group. The term is derived from the Latin word meaning to grow up or to grow into maturity. Adolescence begins with the onset of physiologically normal puberty, and ends when an adult identity and behaviour are accepted. This period of development corresponds roughly to the period between the ages of 10 and 19 years, which is consistent with the World Health Organizations definition of adolescence. Those responsible for providing healthcare to adolescents must a11ow sufficient flexibility in this age span to encompass special situations such as the emancipated minor or the young person with a chronic condition leading to delayed development or prolonged dependency. According to Stanley Hall (1904) adolescence is a marvelous new birth, for the higher and more completely hwnan traits are now born. Adolescence is a period of marked change in the persons cognitive, physical, psychological, and social development and in the individuals relations with the people and institutions of the social world. In essence, the meaning of adolescence and the ages at which it begins and ends, differ from culture to culture. Papalia (1993) defined adolescence as one yet in the nest and vainly attempting to fly while its wings have only pin feathers. Selman (1980) and Buhrmester and Furman (1987) stated that adolescence introduces a period of transition in family and social role expectations coupled with increase in the range and intimacy of social relationships. Patil (2003) reported that adolescence is accompanied by some stress, related to school, family and peers, and this stress can at times be difficult to control. In some situations, the term is used interchangeably with youth even though they are significantly different. Adolescence like youth is a unique period of joy, vigour, opportunities as well as challenges as the individual begins to appreciate more vividly phenomena in his or her environment in a more personal manner (Ikorok, 2004). Adolescence is a period of change more rapid than at any other time in human development other than infancy. For the adolescent, this period is a dramatic challenge, one requiring adjustment to changes in the self, in the family, and in the peer group and also in the institutions. At the stage of adolescence many biological, social and psychological changes occur. In physical changes there is growth in height and weight, anatomical development, growth of arms and legs, their hands, feet and nose seem to play an important part in adolescent development. The marked physical and emotional growths of adolescents result in strains that frequently precipitate. Stress and anxiety as reflected in physiological, psychological and social behavior. The period of adolescence is most closely associated with the teenage years, although its physical, psychological and cultural expressions can begin earlier and end later. For example, although puberty has been historically associated with the onset of adolescent development, it now typically begins prior to the teenage years and there have been a normative shift of it occurring in preadolescence, particularly in females. Physical growth, as distinct from puberty (particularly in males), and cognitive development generally seen in adolescence, can also extend into the early twenties. Thus chronological age provides only a rough marker of adolescence, and scholars have found it difficult to agree upon a precise definition of adolescence. The social scientist looks at the adolescent as going through a period of ambiguous role expectations. The young person often cannot decide whether a situation calls for acting as a child or as an adult. The purely sociological approach does not complete the portrayed of the adolescent experiences. It illuminates only social aspect. The psychological aspect deals with the crisis of identity. Eriksons concept identity crisis deals with the relationship between what a person appears to be in the eyes of others and what he/she feels it. Crisis does not a break down or catastrophe but rather a crucial period what development must move one way or another and around the young person must be established. Adolescence also brings some emotional changes in the individuals. These changes are often accompanied by emotional tensions. The adolescence is exposed to new social situations, patterns of behavior and societal expectations, which brings a sense of lack of confidence. It increases the incidence of depression. They show the tendency of impulsive urge to take immediate actions, which often leads to risk taking behavior. Their body image can bring a sense of fun, pride, shyness or unhappiness, changes in habitual pattern of behavior, attitude and personality. There are marked changes in social interest. They use new set of values in selection of friends and social grouping. Along with these changes adolescence also brings in negative syndrome like self centered, showing off, emotional immaturity, stubbornness, irritability, unsatisfactory relationship with the family members and others and conflict with family and others. The period shows rapid shift between self confidence, self esteem and well being. Role of our education should be catering to the need of changing society. As a result of knowledge exposition our societal norms, cultural Practices, traditions, customs, beliefs, way of life and even our thinking strategies are also influenced. Hence it is the pre requisite of our mobilized society is to have modified educational objectives. All the level of our educational practices should be designed for fullest development of an individual. Educations facilitate an individual for all round development of inner potentiality, which should be life centered and practically applicable in their life situations. Education should help an individual to inculcate, various values including individual, societal, national and international values. It also helps an individual make aware of global challenges and develops an ability to meet such challenges. Our educational practices should facilitate for balanced development of cognitive, affective and psychomotor development of an individual. However education for mental health is not gaining much importance in our school education. Good mental health helps an individual to develop balanced personality. It is a status of an individual which helps psychological well-being of a person in the society. BACK GROUND CONCEPT OF ADOLESCENT Adolescents form a major portion of countries population and development of the country depends upon healthy youth. Adolescence is critical growth spurt in ones life. This is an age when adolescence is critical growth spurt in ones life. This is an age when adolescents are unaware and very men to know about their sexuality. Consequently get involved in different sexual activates. They may face many problems related to sexual issues and rights as they lack knowledge about physical, psychological changes accompanying their growth and development. The adolescents rising interest and curiosity about sex is a motivation factor to acquire information about it. Confronting face to face with the urge to explore sexuality are the present social norms and taboos. This leads to many misconceptions and mal-information resulting in adolescence boys and girls trying to experiment sex and especially girls become more vulnerable to teenage pregnancy or have to bear the brunt of sexually transmitted disease. This is because they hesitate and lack communication with their parents, teachers or elders to have open frank discussions regarding sexual issues. In Indian families parents are not open with their youngsters to talk about sexual issues and rights, which ultimately affect the curiosity, knowledge as well as perception regarding these issues. Health needs of adolescents have neither been researched nor addressed adequately particularly their sexual issues are often misunderstood unrecognized or underestimated. The adolescents are not even aware of their right to information. Limited research shows that adolescents are indulging in premarital sex more frequently at an early age, the incidence of teenage pregnancy is rising and most of them face the risk of induced abortion under unsafe conditions and will be victims of sexually transmitted infections including HIV. Adolescents do no have proper fora where they can discuss their problems without hesitation out-of school adolescents especially those migrating in search of daily wages are particularly vulnerable to HIVAIDS infection due to lack of knowledge literacy rate in females is lower than males. In addition girls are more prone to gender discrimination early marriages early pregnancy and its complications To avoid high risk of sexual behavior among adolescent girls and provide them awareness and better opportunities to satisfy their queries this study has been planned to understand the existing knowledge and perception related to sexual issues and rights and to see the impact of intervention programme in enhancing their knowledge and perception. Indian context both adolescent girls and boys have very different experiences during growing years including adolescence, the cultural differences are vast with regard to their conduct and are based on traditional adult roles stereotypes. Growing as a female in India carries with it the connotation of inferior status, and lesser privileges-as compared to a male child. It cuts across all social classes of the society and through entire lifespan. For a girl, the onset of puberty implies more restrictions on her movement, fewer interactions with boys and men, and more active participation in household chores. Boys begin to exercise greater freedom to move about, expected to seek educational and vocational pursuits as a priority and to take adult roles. Besides age old gender distinctions, there are many variations in the current images of adolescents in India. The variations arise from factors such as urban, rural and tribal residence, ethnicity and socio economic levels of the family. Lifestyle of urban adolescents from upper socio economic status (SES) is quite different from that of middleclass and lower- class adolescents. Former have access to private, good quality education and are influenced by western ways of life style through travel and exposure their preferences for music, clothes and interaction with opposite sex are very close to the western counter parts. On the surface there does not appear to be any gender discrimination in the families of these adolescents but covertly they do exist. Pursuing educational endeavours is encouraged both in upper and middle urban class. Urban Adolescents from lower class have to struggle for survival and grow in impoverished, disadvantaged environment making them vulnerable to several risks. Malnutrition, risk of poor health, becoming victims of antisocial activities, brewing and sale of illicit liquor, sex exploitation, prostitution and drug peddling were reported threats for adolescents from slums in a multi indicator survey. The picture of rural adolescents is different the disparity between boys and girls is even greater among them. Less emphasis on formal education makes boys and girls participate in adult activities at home and outside at an early age. The boys are expected to join men in work to earn their living, may it be on a farm or a factory or a traditional craft at home. The routine of a pre-adolescent adolescent rural girl is demanding-cleaning the house, cooking, washing, fetching water, bathing younger siblings. Rural girls rarely pursue education beyond primary school level. Early marriage as a trend is common even now, both for boys and girls in rural India. The traditionalism and familialism are evident in various facets of family life, both in rural and urban settings. Parental involvement and control is high. Emotional interdependence among family members, respect for elders and family solidarity are characteristics of an Indian family. It has implications for social responsibilities of caring for old parents, protecting sisters and providing support to other dependents as a traditional duty, valued within the culture, and these values are emulated by growing male adolescents. Adolescent girls are groomed to become good wives daughter in-laws and mothers having sacrifice, tolerance and dependences as an integral part of their disposition. There is also a general acceptance of double standards for males and females in matters related to premarital sex and selection of marriage partners, with considerably more freedom for males. MEANING AND DEFINITIONS OF ADOLESCENCE The term adolescence derived from the Latin word adolesco, meaning to grow or to grow to maturity1 term adolescence has a broader meaning it includes mental, emotional and social maturity. To build a better future for all, we must ensure that energy a girl has, not only the right but also the means to get an education and realize her dreams.The term adolescence meaning to emerge or achieve identity is a relatively new concept, especially in development of thinking the origin of the term is derived from the Latin word adolescere meaning to grow to maturity indicate the defining features of adolescence. Adolescents aged between 10-19 years account for more than one fifth of the worlds population. In India, this age group forms 21.4 percent of the total population (National Youth policy 2003). The world health organization (WHO) defines adolescence as. Progression from appearance of secondary sex characteristics (puberty) to sexual and reproductive maturity. Development of adult mental process and adult identity Transition from total socio-economic dependence to relative independence. This definition reflects the dilemmas of the adolescents who are on the threshold of adulthood coming to grip with their sexuality and responsibility with little or no support form the outside world. Adolescence has been identified as a distinct period in human development marked by biological changes beginning at the onset of puberty. With the arrival of puberty, hormonal changes particularly, the production of male and female hormones lead to an increase in sex drive. The first development task relating to sex, adolescence must master over forming new and more mature relationship with members of opposite sex. This is far from easy for both boys and girls, after they years during late childhood when members of the two sexes had their own gangs and interest, and during puberty when both boys and girls develop attitudes of resentment against members of opposite sex. Now that they are sexually mature, both boys and girls begin to have new attitudes and development towards members of the opposite sex as well as also in activity in which they are involved. This new interest which begins to develop when sexual maturation is complete is romantic in nature and is accompanied by strong desire to win the approval of members of the opposite sex. Although theories attempting to explain this phase of life differ in some respect, there is consensus amongst psychologists that this transition from childhood to adulthood is a turbulent time period that affects children both psychologically and physically. Physiological changes during adolescence include growth spurts enlargement of genitals maturation of primary sex organs, development of acne, growth of facial and public hair and production of estrogen in girls and testosterone in boys. Girls also experience menarche the first menstrual period and develop breast, while boys develop muscles, begin to produce sperm and the experience nocturnal emission. These changes can be overwhelming and confusing for adolescents and a lack of information and understanding about the body and how to take care of it may lead to poor health practices. These physical changes signal a range of psychological changes, which manifest themselves thought adolescence varying significantly from person to person. Psychological changes generally include questioning of identity and achievement of an appropriate sex role, movement towards personal independence and social changes in which, the most important factor is peer group relations. Mainly adolescents begin to develop sexual feelings and are conscious about the appearance. Some may feel physical discomfort and awkwardness. Which can result in poor image and lower self. Esteem. They are also particularly vulnerable to peer pressure and many lack the assertiveness and refusal skills to combat it which can result in sexual experimentation and use or abuse of drugs and alcohol. Unsafe sexual practices can lead to teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortion HIV/AIDS and other STDs. Further, based on their status of mind set Three main stages of adolescence can be discerned. Early adolescence (9-13years) characterized by a spurt of growth and the development of secondary sex characteristics. Mid adolescence (14-15 Years) this stage is distinguished by the development of a separate identity from parents, of new relationship with peer groups and the opposite sex and age of experimentation.Late adolescence (16-19) at this stage adolescents have fully developed physical characteristics (similar to adults) and have formed a distinct identity well formed opinions and ideas (NCERT, 1999). Adolescence is a growth process. The ages from 10-19 are rich in life transitions. How young people very in experience greatly depending on their circumstances. At age 10 the expectation in most societies is that children live at home go to school, have not yet gone through puberty are unmarried and have never worked. By their 20th birthday many adolescents have left school and get married, are sexually active and entered in the labour force. The association of adolescence with sexuality is another factor which increases resistance to the concept, particularly in regard to female adolescence. The largest generation of adolescents in history 1.2 billon is preparing to enter adulthood in a rapidly changing world. Their educational and health status, their readiness to take on adult roles and responsibilities and the support they receive from their families, communities and governments will determine their own future and the future of their countries. Nearly half of all population are under the age of 25 the largest youth generation in history. The state of world population report (2003) examines the challenges and risks faced by this generation that has impact directly on their physical emotional and mental well being today millions of adolescents and young people are facing problems regarding sexual issues with the prospects of early marriage and child bearing incomplete education, and the threat of HIV/AIDS. The report stressed that increasing the knowledge, opportunities, choices and participation of young people will enable them to lead healthy and productive lives so that they can contribute fully to their communities and to a more stable and prosperous world. Todays adolescents and young people have diverse experience with the different political, economic, social and cultural realities they face in their families and communities. Yet there is a common thread running through their communities. Yet there is a common threat running through their lives and that is the hope for a better future. This hope is bolstered by the millennium development goals agreed by world leaders in 2000 to reduce extreme poverty, hunger, the spread of HIV/AIDS, maternal and child mortality and ensure universal primary education to improve sustainable development by 2015. In every region, there is a need for positive dialogue and greater understanding among parents, families, communities and governments about the complex and sensitive situations faced by adolescents and young people. The report examine such factors as changing family structures and living conditions, rapidly changing norms and social behaviors, the growth of orphans and street children, the impact of urbanization and migration, armed conflict, the lack of education and employment, and the continuing toll of gender discrimination and violence. Just as youth need guidance, young women and men need supportive relationship and institutions that respond to their hopes and concerns. By taking concerted and comprehensive action to address the challenges faced by adolescents and young people. Government can meet their commitments and international development goals, and give greater hope to the worlds largest youth generation. While there is little comparative research differences within and between societies are more pronounced with regard to adolescents, and generalizations may be less useful than recognize a prolonged transition to adulthood in other worlds adolescence seem to extend from late childhood into the 20s. Moreover, we know far less in a systematic way about adolescents than about other age groups. Policy makers communities and families need to plan policies, programs and guidance to raise awareness among the largest number of the young people regarding the resources they need to contribute to their societies. In the life cycle of a homosapien organism, adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood. It is characterized by rapid physical, biological and hormonal changes resulting in to psychosocial, behavioural and sexual maturation between the age of 10-19 years in an individual. Adolescence is often described as a phase of life that begins in biology and ends in society. It means that physical and biological changes are universal and take place due to maturation but the psychosocial and behavioural manifestations are determined by the meaning given to these changes within a cultural system. The experience of adolescents during teen years would vary considerably according to the cultural and social values of the network of social identities they grow in. It is pertinent at this juncture to raise the question. Has the period of adolescence been recognized universally having the same meaning In reality, there are markedly different notions of adolescence in different parts of the world. These stand apart from western account of what does or should happen during this transitional period between childhood and adulthood. The evidence in literature from cross-cultural studies both supports and challenges the hypothesis that adolescence is a difficult period in development. There are cultures where adult status is granted to both boys and girls through initiation rites at puberty, amounting to an abrupt transition from childhood to adolescence and adulthood. But it clearly confers the adult identity on the individual. However, it may be an extended period of transition in other cultures. Socialization process, it is acknowledged plays an important role in how inevitable biological changes are dealt with. There is little reliable date on the relative influence on their lives of peers, family and community. But it is essential that resources are provided to growing youngster through propolicies, programme and counseling and guidance. Documented work related to experience of young people, across the globe, indicates that the forms adolescence takes within culture, let alone across cultures, are diverse and distinctive. Still, one can certainly identify common features related to biological, cognitive and psychological imperatives of human development. Further, with the world becoming a global village through increased communication has led to the emergence of world youth community, resulting in to commonalities in interest of adolescents across cultures such as style of dressing up, eating habits, music preferences and sexual explorations. However, these commonalities get coloured, adapted and transformed to give different meaning within a cultural system. There is therefore, a cautionary note for all those who work with adolescents and youth may it be researchers, practitioners, employers, policy makers and parents not to have a universalistic notion about adolescence. Adolescence needs are to be understood in historical and cultural context and its variegated and tentative nature be acknowledged and appreciated. It is particularly significant when policies are formulated and interventions are planned for adolescents to ensure their well being with reference to a particular culture of country. MENTAL HEALTH OF ADOLESCENCE Adolescence is a distinct developmental period characterized by significant changes in hormones, brain and physical development, emotions, cognition, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. It has been defined as beginning with the onset of sexual maturation (puberty) and ending with the achievement of adult roles and responsibilities (Dahl, 2004). Mentally healthy children and adolescents enjoy a positive quality of life function well at home, in school, and in their communities and are free of disabling symptoms of psychopathology (Hoagwood., 1996). Adolescents account for about 1/5th of Indias population. In recent times, newspapers reported many cases of suicides and attempts which mainly circumvented school life. This is particularly true of the class X and intermediate or pre university (PUC) students, who get frustrated because of the pressure imposed by the teachers and parents and factors like competition, high ambitions. These are more prone to vulnerability which may leads to ill health, negative feeling or suicides. Adolescents in disadvantaged communities are at elevated risk for exposure to multiple stressors, indicating high rates of crime and victimization, family poverty, family conflict, increased prevalence of deviant peers and school with inadequate resources (Gonzales., 2001). Certain developmental tasks to be achieved during adolescence are Achieving more mature relations with age mates, Learning to perform a masculine or feminine social role, accepting ones physique and using the body effectively, achieving emotional independence of parents and other adults, preparing for economic independence, preparing for marriage and family life, achieving socially responsible behaviour and acquiring a set of values as a guide to behaviour, attainment of these developmental tasks helps adolescents to lay foundation for a successful adjustment in adulthood. Better mental health outcomes in adolescents are characterized by greater adaptation in family, school, and social environment, improved quality of life, and reduced symptoms of psychological disorders (Hoagwood , 1996). Positive mental health is also link to better physical health, increased pro-social behaviors, and participation inl ess adverse behaviors in adolescence (Resnick, 2000). Poor mental health and well-being (i.e. depression, low self-esteem) during the adolescent years can lead to adolescent health risk behaviors, school failure, physical ill-health, suicide, involvement in juvenile and criminal justice systems, negative life choices, and mental disorders in adulthood (Lewinsohn., 1993 Canals, 2002 Trzesniewski, 2006 Hjemdal ,2007). SELF ESTEEM Self esteem is a concept used to describe a personality variable that captures the way a person generally feels about herself, or the way a person may evaluate her abilities and attributes. The term self esteem is used to describe a persons overall sense of self-worth or personal value. Self esteem is often seen as a personality trait, which means that it tends to be stable and enduring. Self esteem can involve a variety of beliefs about the self, such as the appraisal of ones own appearance, beliefs, emotions and behaviors. Self esteem is the concept that one have of ones worth and it is based on ones thoughts, feelings, sensations and experiences that one has been collecting throughout live one believes that one is clever or silly, people like him/her or not. The thousands of impressions, evaluations and experiences are all reunited into a positive feeling towards ourselves or on the contrary, in an uncomfortable feeling of not being what we expected to be. Self esteem is generally considered a personality trait that reflects a persons overall sense of value and self-worth. Self esteem involves how one generally feel about oneself, ones abilities, appearance, emotions, attributes and behaviors. Some people have very high self-esteem while others may have very low self-esteem. It is a very important aspect of our personality. It helps us to achieve our identity and to adapt to society. In other words, the degree in which individuals have positive or negative feelings about themselves and the degree in which individuals value themselves. The original normal definition presents self esteem as a ratio found by dividing ones successes in areas of life of importance to a given individual by the failures in them or ones success I pretensions. Problems with this approach comer from making self esteem contingent upon success this implies inherent instability because failure can occur at any moment. In the mid 1960s, Morris Rosenberg and social-learning theorists defined self esteem in terms of a stable sense of personal worth or worthiness. Nathaniel Branden in 1969 defined self-esteem as the experience of being competent to cope with the basic challenges of life and being worthy of happiness. According to Branden, self esteem is the sum of self-confidence (a feeling of personal capacity) and self-respect (a feeling of personal worth). It exists as a consequence of the implicit judgment that every person does about, on one side, his/her ability to face lifes challenges, that is, to understand and solve problems, and, on the other side, his right to achieve happiness, or, in other words, to respect and defend his own interests and needs. This two-factor approach, as some have also called it, provides a balanced definition that seems to be capable of dealing with limits of defining self-esteem primarily in terms of competence or worth alone. Components of Self Esteem According to Braden (1969) there are three key components of self-esteem 1. Self-esteem is an essential human need that is vital for survival and normal, healthy development. 2. Self-esteem arises automatically from within based upon a persons beliefs and consciousness. 3. Self-esteem occurs in conjunction with a persons thoughts, behaviors, feelings and actions. Self esteem can be broadly defined as the overall evaluation of oneself in either a positive or negative way. It indicates the extent to which an individual believes himself or herself to be competent and worthy of living. Simply put, self esteem is essentially ones felling of self competence and self-worth (Malhi and Resoner, 2000). According to Tesser (2000) self esteem is a global evaluation reflecting our view of our accomplishments and capabilities, our values. our bodies, other respond to us and events or occasionsand our possessions. Self esteem as defined by Aronson, Wilson and Akert (2005) is the extent to which people view themselves as good. competent and decent. It is a complex concept that has multiple variables, each of which can serve to enhance or hinder an individuals concept of him/her self. Characteristics of self esteem People who struggle with their self esteem are often advised to seek out people who are successful, confident and have high self esteem. Of course its not as simple to just watch someone who is outwardly comfortable and hope that will rub off and improve your own self esteem. However, it is useful to spend some time with people you know with high self-esteem and observe some of the specific characteristic that are common with people who are confident and comfortable in their own skin. The major characteristics of self esteem as follows. Belief in themselves People who have high self esteem have confidence in their own abilities. This isnt a case of false self confidence. They recognize what theyre good at, are confident that they are able to improve where necessary and unlike people with low self esteem, believe that they deserve to do better. The effect of this is that they are often ambitious in their chosen field and do well in their careers as they consistently strive for improvement and personal success. Know what they want or need People with high self-esteem generally have clear ideas about what they want or need and are able to communicate these needs and wants to others. Effective communication skills It is common for people with high self esteem to be good communicators. This includes having good listening skills which leave them open to taking advice, being open to change and new ideas. Drive to succeed Not surprisingly people with high self-esteem have the drive to succeed. Some people with low self esteem have similar drive, but the difference is that people with high self-esteem are generally more flexible and find it easier to overcome challenges and disappointments along the way. They dont worry about failure and even when they do fail, they have the inner resources to learn from the failure and then move on. Comfortable with change Because people with high self-esteem are comfortable with change, they enthusiastically seek out new opportunities and are open to embracing new ideas. They are also happy to learn new skills to support them with any new challenges. Enjoy healthy relationships With their good communication skills and their enthusiasm to succeed, people with high self esteem generally enjoy good healthy relationships and are able to accept constructive criticism, without letting it dent their confidence. Because of their confidence they are rarely competitive with others because they are comfortable with their own abilities Goal-orientated The almost inbred confidence that someone with high self esteem has, means that they are very focused on self-improvement and success and are often good at planning and setting goals in a methodical way, as well as achieving them. Researchers have shown that the high self esteem is largely associated with good mental health, social skills and high achievement. Some positive outcomes of high self esteem may include healthy social relationships, positive perceptions by peers, academic achievement and persistence and improved coping skills. On the contrary, low self esteem has been associated with depression, antisocial behavior, drug and alcohol use and criminal behavior (Bae and Brekke, 2003). Types of Self Esteem Explicit self esteem- Often defined as conscious feelings of self liking, self worth and acceptance (Kemis, 2003). It may be a product of the cognitive system, which is based to some extent on logical analyses of self relevant feedback and information. Implicit self esteem- Typically believed to consist of non conscious, automatic and over learned self evaluations. It may have its origins in the experiential system and be derived primarily from the automatic and holistic processing of affective experiences (Bosson, Brown, Zeigler-Hill and Swann, 2003). Several factors such as heredity, physical characteristics, early training and experience, family group, peers, personal, cultural and socio-economic factors, current physical and mental conditions and life situations may affect the physical and emotional development of a person. These may affect ones self esteem. Factors Affecting Self Esteem Self esteem is an important factor in an adolescent in their social life and mental growing time. In their adolescent period, they grow the base of self esteem for life. We may be known that there are many factors that affect adolescent self esteem. Children begin to develop self esteem while very young. Parents, friends, teachers and the television contribute a lot, without knowing, in their mental development. The important factors affecting the self esteem are given below. Physical Image factor One of the major factors that affect the childhood and adolescents self esteem is the concept of beauty. Children from very childhood and onwards may feel the preferences of some people in dealing with better looking children. It is true for the kids themselves, kids at the same age prefer to associate with better looking kids rather than those with deformities or physical problems. Teasing and bullying can be huge harmful for adolescent self esteem. Family Support Family support and encouragement can actively shape adolescent self esteem. It may looks like adolescents are embarrassed by displays of affection from their family and relatives but these displays actually play a vital role in keeping them well grounded and confident in themselves. A great deal of open communication from parents and some members of the family can help provide a sounding board for rants and expressions of emotional feelings like grief, sorrow and anger. Giving children the necessary love and caring that they need and seek will prevent them from looking for this somewhere else. Include oneself in activities that are good at or like to do Taking part or having an active role outside of lessons is good for building adolescent self esteem. This encourages them to interact and mingle with other adolescents. This also gives kids a chance to stand out in something, which can be very good for adolescent self esteem. Find something that interests you and try it out to see if you can excel in it and we should remember not to be easily discouraged by initial failures. Get an Idea of Who You Are It may be hard job for adolescents as they are just figuring how to deal with adolescence but you can get an idea of your goal in life and start from there. In adolescent time, you may have definite likes and dislikes as well as some clear idea of what you want to be or which field interests you. Having a clear goal in life is great benefit for adolescent self esteem. Social Experiences A teenagers home and school life will both affect his/her self-esteem. If ones raised in a loving and nurturing home and has a close-knit group of supportive friends at school, his/her self-esteem may be higher than that of a teen that is being raised by critical parents and has few friends. Being teased or shunned by classmates or criticized by teachers can also damage an adolescents self-esteem. Performance Beyond school performance, the activities an adolescent participates in will also affect his self-image, sometimes for better and sometimes for worse. Not being chosen for a team can make a teen feel shame, while being chosen and becoming part of a team can make him feel important and valued. Finding a hobby that he enjoys and is good at can have a powerful effect on a teens self-image. Peers Since every teen is changing, many times the most self-conscious teens of all pick on their friends and classmates to feel better about them. If an adolescent constantly finds oneself put down by his friends it can be very easy for him to become self-conscious and even depressed. Comparison to Siblings If an adolescent constantly feels that she is being compared to an older brother or sister, it can put a huge dent in her self-esteem. Even if no one in the family is intentionally trying to hurt the adolescent. Media Movies and programmes of silver screen can play a big role in how an adolescent thinks that he/ she should look like the celebrities. When all above these feelings are being put in ones life it will surely helps him/her to self esteemed person. The level of self esteem also influences the well being of individuals as self esteemed person becomes independent, self sufficient and accept responsibilities. All of these serve as the psychological indicators of well being. Self esteem can lead to better health and social behaviour and the poor self esteem is associated with a broad range of mental and social problems. Self esteem is not only seen as a basic feature of mental but also as a protective factor that contributes to better health and positive well being. SIGNIFICANCE AND NEED OF THE STUDY In the present Indian education academic achievement seems to be the focuses. This is the main factor that decides the future of the student. In view of its great importance, a large number of studies were conducted on the factors which are influence the academic achievement of the students. These factors can broadly be categorized into two groups Cognitive factors and Psycho social factors. Intelligence, Creativity, Memory, etc., come under cognitive factors while Motivation, Adjustment, Attitude Socio economic status etc are Psycho Social factors. Lot of studies has been conducted on cognitive factors and their influence on academic achievement. Relativity less number of studies were conducted on psychosocial factors and their influence on academic achievement. Though both the factors influence the academic achievement. Psycho-social factors can be controlled varied easily when compared to cognitive factors. As such, a study about the influence of psycho-social factors on academic achievement is highly essential and appropriate. There are a good number of psycho-social factors like, Adjustment, Attitude, Interests, introvert, extravert, Motivation, school climate, socio economic status, religiosity, values, inter-personal relations, stress, etc., which influence the academic achievement. Of these factors, the investigator had considered, Academic Motivation, Student Adjustment, Student Attitude and socio-economic status as vital factors that are influencing the academic achievement. Rao (1979) conducted a study on mental problems of children in the age range of 13-16 years of old boys and girls sample selected for this study was 428 students. Out of them he found that 18.80 boy and 22.80 girls sufferings mental health problems. Invention is the sign of growth. All inventions in science and technology resulted in innumerable gadgets. These have great influence on all aspects of our daily life. Our life has become highly comfortable we can easily access all necessities at our door steps. On the other hand life in this world has also become so miserable. An individual has to face innumerable challenges related to their social, cultural, economic, professional, emotional ethical and personal life. Man has become restless, and face stressful conditions in daily work, more problem situational workload, tensions, conflicts, worries etc., as it leads to various psychological problems like inadequate mental health, emotional imbalance, neurotic behavior, behavioral disorders etc. It also leads to various social problems in the society such as cultural diffusion, value erosion, blind imitation of western culture, and lack of mutual understanding between the people, involvement of immoral and unlawful activities like steeling, telling, corruption, forgery, bribe, disputes, smuggling etc., ultimately people in the society lost their mental peace, harmony happiness and co-existence. As a result an individual has lost good mental health which is the basic requisite in everybodys life which our earlier generations enjoyed. The major factors of emotional intelligence and mental health should be part and parcel of our educational practices, which is lacking in our schools and colleges. The education institutions of present day have become business organizations which transfer information from the books to the students brain which may not be very helpful in the real life situations. Modern schools and colleges are making big propaganda about all-round development of the student, but in reality it is not being practiced. Instead they merely give certificates to their candidates. There is an article in an article in the Hindustan Times dated on 21/07/ 2006 page No. 1 under the Title Go out and play for good health. All he curriculum practices and methods of teaching are mainly designed for cognitive development of the student only. The present curriculum practices are unable to cater to some interest and needs of the students. Students are overburdened with classroom curriculum transactions. Therefore, the students are unable to assimilate even a few ideas or concepts. In addition to regular classes they are busy with homework, tutorial classes or home tuitions. Students are less encouraged to play and participate in social and group activities so, there will not be opportunities for the students to relax. So, they become restless. This leads to their mental ill health. There are different types of schools existing in our society which have differences in their ideologies, vision and mission. There are differences in the performance level of the students belonging to government and private schools. There is an article appeared in The Asian Age dated on 15-03-2006 page No.25 under the title Exam stress caused tension headaches and about our board examinations. Article appeared in The Times of India dated 11.03 .2006 pages.1 under the title Boards A master of life and death Students who come out of this kind of institutions will be facing number of emotional disturbance and lack of balanced mental health. There is an unhealthy competition amongst private institutions in order to get more admission, result, name and fame. Every parent as well as institutions is in the society having higher aspirations and expectations from the children. Over expectations, unhealthy competitions and fear about examinations leads to stressful situations. Fear of failure reduces confidence in turn, it creates tension, headache and fever sometimes it results in suicide. There are number of teacher education institutions which are coming up like mushrooms all over the country. These institutions are unevenly distributed and there is a competition among the teacher training institutions in order to attract students. Quality of input (students) is also not up to the level of expectation of the society. There is a dearth of quality of teacher educations. Further it depends on the quality of teacher education institutions and efficiency of teacher educators. Teacher training institutions should be well equipped with qualified efficient teacher educators and good infrastructure provided by the government as well as private managements. Unfortunately most of the teacher education institutions are becoming economic enterprises and having strong holding by political authority. These teacher training institutions in turn would have an effect on the development of professional competencies of teaching aptitude and this attitude towards teaching as a consequence of this, the teachers coming out of these institutions may not be able to teach effectively. This would result in poor learning of the students and they may not being controlled by teacher. The overall effect of all these would be that the students would lose their freedom and mental health. All activities conducted by the schools and government policies and programmes directly or indirectly decide colleges. While introducing any new innovations in educational system accept once and approval by educational experts is must. Unfortunately nothing is practiced in reality. Frequent changes and unpsychological policies and programmes influence mental health of the teachers finally it will result in the academic achievement. Emotionally intelligent individual leads a happy and peaceful life. He/she is at ease with himself/herself, surrounding and other fellow being. We can label him/her as a mentally healthy person. They express the characteristics like adoptable and resilient mind, cheerful and optimistic outlook, well regulated instincts and habits, insight into ones own conduct, good tempered, socially adoptable and having a definite philosophy of life, realistic imagination etc. Therefore the development of emotions is extremely important for a harmonious development of the personality. According to the study conducted by Anand S.P.(1989) the sound mental health was positively related to academic achievement. The degree of mental health was also related to the type of school, being the highest in convenient schools, followed by sainik, DAV and DM schools respectively. Number of studies revealed that, it is pre requisite of our present schools to have educational practices to train the emotional intelligence and mental health which is basis for academic performance. Bhugendranath Panda (1989) conducted a study on mental health and personal adjustment of secondary schools students, boys and girls. He found that, Oriya groups possess better social adjustment than other groups and there does in to any difference between all other group combinations in their mental health. Albert and Howard (1977) examined child rearing practices, socio economic antecedents on the group embedded figure test performance in the age range of 14-15 years old high schools children of racially mixed and Negro populations. It was found that difference between ethnic group and child rearing practices and SES factors determined. Joshi A.N. (1984) conducted study on Factors influencing English language abilities and found that, the boy girl students were found to be higher in such language errors as failure to identify the relationship of adverb with verb, succeeding verb, whereas the girls of 8 grade were found to be higher in failure to use a word in relation to the pronoun and failure to use neither. The growth of English language ability was found to be influenced to such factors as intelligence, socio economic status, locality and personality factors. In this rapid changing society, due to technology and scientific advancement it is very difficult to remain mentally healthy. Therefore it has become challenge for the education system to maintain mental health of students. In this study the different aspects of school i.e. classroom, institution, individual attention, disciplines, teacher and examination and its adverse effect on mental health have been discussed. Concrete suggestions have been provided for schools to adopt, so that students can be free from all types of maladjustments. In this context there is a dire needing investigate in relationship between mental health and self esteem of adolescents. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ROLE OF MENTAL HEALTH AND SELF ESTEEM AMONGST ADOLESCENTS FROM SRINAGAR OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF THE KEY TERMS Mental Health Mental health is a term which is defined as state of an individual with emotional stability, overall adjustment to the surrounding, appropriate perception of oneself, harmonious functioning of personality, perception of reality and environmental competencies in their life. In the present study mental health is indicated by the total score obtained by the students on the mental health scale developed by Jagdish and Srivastava (1995). Self-esteem Self-esteem is not identical to self-concept through the two are often confused. The self-concept is a set of ideas about oneself that is descriptive rather than judgmental. Self-esteem refers to ones evaluation of ones own qualities. In the present study Self-esteem is indicated by the total score obtained by the students on the Self-esteem scale developed by Morris Rosenberg (1965). RATIONALE OF THE STUDY An overview of the survey of Literature reveals that so for no serious effort has been undertaken to study on relationship between mental health and self esteem among adolescents of Srinagar. Therefore, the investigator feels it important to conduct a research on relationship between mental health and self esteem among adolescents of Srinagar. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY To study the role of mental health and self esteem of adolescents. To study the relationship between mental health and self esteem amongst adolescents. HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY H01 There is a significant relationship between mental health and self esteem among adolescents. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE INTRODUCTION An essential aspect of a research project is review of related literature – J. Mouly (1979) PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW 1. The review of related literature enables the researcher to define the limits of his field. It helps the researcher to delimit and define his problem. The knowledge of related literature, brings the researcher up-to-date on the work which others have done and thus to state the objectives clearly and concisely. 2. By reviewing the related literature the researcher can avoid unfruitful and useless problem areas. He can select those areas in which positive findings are very, likely to result and his endeavors would be likely to add to the knowledge in a meaningful way. 3. Through the review of related literature, the researcher can avoid unintentional duplication of well established findings. It is no use to replicate a study when the stability and validity of its results have been clearly established. 4. The final and important specific reason for reviewing the related literature is to know about the recommendations of previous researchers listed in their studies for further research. MENTAL HEALTH Anand S.P. (1989) conducted a study on mental health of high school students. The main objective of the study was to find out the mentally health and unhealthy students and to find out the relation between parental educational and occupational status. It was found that mental health of children was dependent upon education and occupational status of parents. Sound mental health was positively related to academic achievement and both of them were positively related to parental status. The degree of mental health was also related to the type of school, being the highest in convenient schools, followed by Sainik DAV and DM schools, respectively. Bhugendranath Panda (1989) conducted a study on mental health personal adjustment and Saora Acculturation (A cross-cultural study) in secondary school students, boys and girls. The samples selected for the study were 290 students. The main objective of the study was to study the independent and interactive effects of acclimation and sex on mental health score of Oriya children. He found that, Oriya groups possess better social adjustment than other groups and there does not any difference between all other group combinations in their mental health. Rao (1979) conducted a study on mental problems of children in the age range of 13-16 years of old boys and girls sample selected for this study was 428. He found that 18.80 boy and 22.80 girls sufferings mental health problems. Hema Varma (1997) conducted a study on parents personality their child rearing attitudes and theyre off springs personality. The purpose of the study was to inter correlate the parents personality and child rearing attitudes and their childrens personality to meet this purpose two samples were selected 100 parents and 100 students (50 boys and 50 girls) Parents (100 mothers and 100 fathers of the same family). To determine parents personality aggression, authoritarianism, Anxiety extroversion and neuroticism dimensions were selected. To determine the child rearing attitudes restrictive permissive, loving rejecting protecting neglecting attitude dimension were included. It was assumed that parents child rearing attitudes will be significantly related to their off springs, personality and to their own personality and parents personality will be significantly related to boys and girls personality. It was found that parents personality is very strongly associated with the childrens personality. There was significant relation between parents child rearing and childrens personality. Prasanna K.C.B (1989) conducted a study on certain mental health variables associated with high and low achieving adolescents. 1) It studied that all the mental health variables studied discriminated between high and low achieves in most of the groups studies. 2) High achievers had higher mean scores than low achievers for all the 16 mental health variables studied. The findings of the study indicate the need A) avoid threats which caused disequilibrium in children. B) To provide for guidance oriented teaching. C) To organize extension lectures for parents and community D) To form parent teacher association and to encourage pupils to participate in extracurricular activities and institutional guidance. Vashishta.K.C. (1982), conducted a study on personality differences among family reared and institution reared boys and girls as indicated by Rorschach ink blots. 1) He found that family reared boys and girls were superior on the trait of emotional construction. 2) Family reared boys and girls possessed abundance of creative impulses. 3) Institution reared boys and girls possessed marked inhibition of sexuality. 4) Family reared boys and girls were more dependent. 5) Family reared boys and girls exhibited traits regarding relish for sexual experience. 6) Institution reared boys felt difficulty in establishing close personal relationship. 7) Family-reared boys and girls were more interested in practical concern than in theorizing. 8) Family reared boys and institution reared girls had a high level of general anxiety. 9) Institution reared girls had high anxiety concerning bodily function. 10) Institution reared boys and girls were highly introspective. 11) Family reared boys and girls had high inhibition of aggression. 12) Family reared boys and institution reared girls were superior in emotional construction. 13) Family reared boys and institution reared girls had abundance of creative impulses. 14) Family reared girls and institution reared boys possessed marked inhibition of sexuality. 15) Family reared boys had a high degree of empathy. Researches conducted in the domain of Emotional Intelligence clearly indicate that this aspect of personality plays a vital role in the manifestation of human behavior by which one attempts to deal with different emotive situations and meet his needs including the efforts to maintain harmonious relationship with the environment. Aggrawal, (1992) noted that emotional intelligence and competence are affected by the levels of frustration. Regression and frustration denotes emotional competence in people of high-social economic-status. Schutte,N et al(1998) found out that scores of emotional intelligence were significantly higher for females than males, consistent with prior finding in studies of emotional skills (a) were not related to cognitive ability (b) were associated with the openers to experience trait of the big five personality dimensions. Bharadwaj (1993) suggested that in comparison to cerebral palsied children the blind ones have greater adequate expression and control of emotions. In comparison to normal children, the blind ones have greater adequate depth of feeling, adequate expression and central of emotions, ability to function with emotions and ability to cope with problem emotions. Ritu (1993) concluded that the level of competence and its competencies differ significantly among both the handicapped and non-handicapped children. Jain (1993) pointed out that in comparison to take adolescents having moderate anxiety, the late adolescents having high anxiety, have greater ability to cope with problem emotions, ability to function with emotions, encouragements of positive emotions and emotional competence in general. Religious affiliation also affects it. In comparisons to Muslims, Hindus, Christians have better ability to cope with problem emotions and yet a more effective emotional competence in general. In comparisons to Hindus, Christians have a greater ability to function with emotions in high anxiety group and more encouragement of positive emotions in general. Jain (1993) noted that socio-economic status also affects emotional intelligence. In comparisons to high socio-economic status group, the late adolescents of low socio- economic status have more adequate depth of feeling in both Hindus and Muslims having moderate and low anxiety respectively. Sharma (1994) has found out that emotional competence affects different psychogenic needs of both the handicapped and non handicapped children. She observed that emotionally competent children have more need for introspection, succorationally incompetent ones. Among visually handicapped children, the emotionally intelligent children, have a greater need for order, autonomy, interception, succorence, muturance and endurance as compared to the emotionally incompetent children. Bharadwaj and Chauhan, (1993) in comparison to chemical dependent people, the non-dependents have greater emotional competence. Unlike academic intelligence, Emotional Intelligence can be developed. In this study is on parental inducement of emotional intelligence. SELF ESTEEM Self esteem is a concept used to describe a personality variable that captures the way a person generally feels about herself, or the way a person may evaluate her abilities and attributes. The term self esteem is used to describe a persons overall sense of self-worth or personal value. Self esteem is often seen as a personality trait, which means that it tends to be stable and enduring. Self esteem can involve a variety of beliefs about the self, such as the appraisal of ones own appearance, beliefs, emotions and behaviors. Self esteem is the concept that one have of ones worth and it is based on ones thoughts, feelings, sensations and experiences that one has been collecting throughout live one believes that one is clever or silly, people like him/her or not. The thousands of impressions, evaluations and experiences are all reunited into a positive feeling towards ourselves or on the contrary, in an uncomfortable feeling of not being what we expected to be. Self esteem is generally considered a personality trait that reflects a persons overall sense of value and self-worth. Self esteem involves how one generally feel about oneself, ones abilities, appearance, emotions, attributes and behaviors. Some people have very high self-esteem while others may have very low self-esteem. It is a very important aspect of our personality. It helps us to achieve our identity and to adapt to society. In other words, the degree in which individuals have positive or negative feelings about themselves and the degree in which individuals value themselves. The original normal definition presents self esteem as a ratio found by dividing ones successes in areas of life of importance to a given individual by the failures in them or ones success I pretensions. Problems with this approach come from making self esteem contingent upon success this implies inherent instability because failure can occur at any moment. In the mid 1960s, Morris Rosenberg and social-learning theorists defined self esteem in terms of a stable sense of personal worth or worthiness. Nathaniel Branden in 1969 defined self-esteem as the experience of being competent to cope with the basic challenges of life and being worthy of happiness. According to Branden, self esteem is the sum of self-confidence (a feeling of personal capacity) and self-respect (a feeling of personal worth). It exists as a consequence of the implicit judgment that every person does about, on one side, his/her ability to face lifes challenges, that is, to understand and solve problems, and, on the other side, his right to achieve happiness, or, in other words, to respect and defend his own interests and needs. This two-factor approach, as some have also called it, provides a balanced definition that seems to be capable of dealing with limits of defining self-esteem primarily in terms of competence or worth alone. Components of self esteem According to Braden (1969) there are three key components of self-esteem 1. Self-esteem is an essential human need that is vital for survival and normal, healthy development. 2. Self-esteem arises automatically from within based upon a persons beliefs and consciousness. 3. Self-esteem occurs in conjunction with a persons thoughts, behaviors, feelings and actions. Self esteem can be broadly defined as the overall evaluation of oneself in either a positive or negative way. It indicates the extent to which an individual believes himself or herself to be competent and worthy of living. Simply put, self esteem is essentially ones felling of self competence and self-worth (Malhi and Resoner, 2000). According to Tesser (2000) self esteem is a global evaluation reflecting our view of our accomplishments and capabilities, our values. our bodies, other respond to us and events or occasionsand our possessions. Self esteem as defined by Aronson, Wilson and Akert (2005) is the extent to which people view themselves as good. competent and decent. It is a complex concept that has multiple variables, each of which can serve to enhance or hinder an individuals concept of him/her self. Characteristics of self esteem People who struggle with their self esteem are often advised to seek out people who are successful, confident and have high self esteem. Of course its not as simple to just watch someone who is outwardly comfortable and hope that will rub off and improve your own self esteem. However, it is useful to spend some time with people you know with high self-esteem and observe some of the specific characteristic that are common with people who are confident and comfortable in their own skin. The major characteristics of self esteem as follows. Belief in themselves People who have high self esteem have confidence in their own abilities. This isnt a case of false self confidence. They recognize what theyre good at, are confident that they are able to improve where necessary and unlike people with low self esteem, believe that they deserve to do better. The effect of this is that they are often ambitious in their chosen field and do well in their careers as they consistently strive for improvement and personal success. Know what they want or need People with high self-esteem generally have clear ideas about what they want or need and are able to communicate these needs and wants to others. Effective communication skills It is common for people with high self esteem to be good communicators. This includes having good listening skills which leave them open to taking advice, being open to change and new ideas. Drive to succeed Not surprisingly people with high self-esteem have the drive to succeed. Some people with low self esteem have similar drive, but the difference is that people with high self-esteem are generally more flexible and find it easier to overcome challenges and disappointments along the way. They dont worry about failure and even when they do fail, they have the inner resources to learn from the failure and then move on. Comfortable with change Because people with high self-esteem are comfortable with change, they enthusiastically seek out new opportunities and are open to embracing new ideas. They are also happy to learn new skills to support them with any new challenges. Enjoy healthy relationships With their good communication skills and their enthusiasm to succeed, people with high self esteem generally enjoy good healthy relationships and are able to accept constructive criticism, without letting it dent their confidence. Because of their confidence they are rarely competitive with others because they are comfortable with their own abilities Goal-orientated The almost inbred confidence that someone with high self esteem has, means that they are very focused on self-improvement and success and are often good at planning and setting goals in a methodical way, as well as achieving them. Researchers have shown that the high self esteem is largely associated with good mental health, social skills and high achievement. Some positive outcomes of high self esteem may include healthy social relationships, positive perceptions by peers, academic achievement and persistence and improved coping skills. On the contrary, low self esteem has been associated with depression, antisocial behavior, drug and alcohol use and criminal behavior (Bae and Brekke, 2003). Types of Self Esteem Explicit self esteem- Often defined as conscious feelings of self liking, self worth and acceptance (Kemis, 2003). It may be a product of the cognitive system, which is based to some extent on logical analyses of self relevant feedback and information. Implicit self esteem- Typically believed to consist of non conscious, automatic and over learned self evaluations. It may have its origins in the experiential system and be derived primarily from the automatic and holistic processing of affective experiences (Bosson, Brown, Zeigler-Hill and Swann, 2003). Several factors such as heredity, physical characteristics, early training and experience, family group, peers, personal, cultural and socio-economic factors, current physical and mental conditions and life situations may affect the physical and emotional development of a person. These may affect ones self esteem. Factors Affecting Self Esteem Self esteem is an important factor in an adolescent in their social life and mental growing time. In their adolescent period, they grow the base of self esteem for life. We may be known that there are many factors that affect adolescent self esteem. Children begin to develop self esteem while very young. Parents, friends, teachers and the television contribute a lot, without knowing, in their mental development. The important factors affecting the self esteem are given below. Physical Image factor One of the major factors that affect the childhood and adolescents self esteem is the concept of beauty. Children from very childhood and onwards may feel the preferences of some people in dealing with better looking children. It is true for the kids themselves, kids at the same age prefer to associate with better looking kids rather than those with deformities or physical problems. Teasing and bullying can be huge harmful for adolescent self esteem. Family Support Family support and encouragement can actively shape adolescent self esteem. It may looks like adolescents are embarrassed by displays of affection from their family and relatives but these displays actually play a vital role in keeping them well grounded and confident in themselves. A great deal of open communication from parents and some members of the family can help provide a sounding board for rants and expressions of emotional feelings like grief, sorrow and anger. Giving children the necessary love and caring that they need and seek will prevent them from looking for this somewhere else. Include oneself in activities that are good at or like to do Taking part or having an active role outside of lessons is good for building adolescent self esteem. This encourages them to interact and mingle with other adolescents. This also gives kids a chance to stand out in something, which can be very good for adolescent self esteem. Find something that interests you and try it out to see if you can excel in it and we should remember not to be easily discouraged by initial failures. Get an Idea of Who You Are It may be hard job for adolescents as they are just figuring how to deal with adolescence but you can get an idea of your goal in life and start from there. In adolescent time, you may have definite likes and dislikes as well as some clear idea of what you want to be or which field interests you. Having a clear goal in life is great benefit for adolescent self esteem. Social Experiences A teenagers home and school life will both affect his/her self-esteem. If ones raised in a loving and nurturing home and has a close-knit group of supportive friends at school, his/her self-esteem may be higher than that of a teen that is being raised by critical parents and has few friends. Being teased or shunned by classmates or criticized by teachers can also damage an adolescents self-esteem. Performance Beyond school performance, the activities an adolescent participates in will also affect his self-image, sometimes for better and sometimes for worse. Not being chosen for a team can make a teen feel shame, while being chosen and becoming part of a team can make him feel important and valued. Finding a hobby that he enjoys and is good at can have a powerful effect on a teens self-image. Peers Since every teen is changing, many times the most self-conscious teens of all pick on their friends and classmates to feel better about them. If an adolescent constantly finds oneself put down by his friends it can be very easy for him to become self-conscious and even depressed. Comparison to Siblings If an adolescent constantly feels that she is being compared to an older brother or sister, it can put a huge dent in her self-esteem. Even if no one in the family is intentionally trying to hurt the adolescent. Media Movies and programmes of silver screen can play a big role in how an adolescent thinks that he/ she should look like the celebrities. When all above these feelings are being put in ones life it will surely helps him/her to self esteemed person. The level of self esteem also influences the well being of individuals as self esteemed person becomes independent, self sufficient and accept responsibilities. All of these serve as the psychological indicators of well being. Self esteem can lead to better health and social behaviour and the poor self esteem is associated with a broad range of mental and social problems. Self esteem is not only seen as a basic feature of mental but also as a protective factor that contributes to better health and positive well being. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY INTRODUCTION Research methodology is a way to systematically investigate the research problem. It gives various steps in conducting the research in a systematic and a logical way. It is essential to define the problem, state objectives and hypothesis clearly. The research design provides the details regarding what, where, when, how much and by what means enquiry is initiated. Every piece of research must be planned and designed carefully so that the researcher precedes a head without getting confused at the subsequent steps of research. The researcher must have an objective understanding of what is to be done, what data is needed, what data collecting tools are to be employed and how the data is to be statistically analyzed and interpreted. There are a number of approaches to the design of studies and research projects all of which may be equally valid. Research is a systematic attempt to obtain answers to meaningful questions about phenomenon or events through the application of scientific procedures. It an objective, impartial, empirical and logical analysis and recording of controlled observation that may led to the development of generalizations, principles or theories, resulting to some extent in prediction and control of events that may be consequences or causes of specific phenomenon. Research is a systematic and refined technique of thinking, employing specialized tools, instruments and procedures in order to obtain a more adequate solution of a problem than would be possible under ordinary mean. Thus, research always starts from question. There are three objectives of research factual, practical and theoretical, which gives rise to three types of research historical, experimental and descriptive. Research design has been defined by different social scientists in a number of ways. All these definitions emphasize systematic methodology in collecting accurate information for interpretation. Selltize et al. (1962) expressed their views as, Research designs are closely linked to investigators objectives. They specify that research designs are either descriptive or experimental in nature. Research design tells us how to plan various phases and procedures related to the formulation of research effort (Ackoff Russell, 1961). Miller (1989) has defined research design, as the planned sequence of the entire process involved in conducting a research study. Kothari (1990) observes, Research design stands for advance planning of the method to be adapted for collecting the relevant data and the techniques to be used in their research and availability of staff, time and money. In this way selecting a particular design is based on the purpose of the piece of the research to be conducted. The design deals with selection of subjects, selection of data gathering devices, the procedure of making observations and the type of statistical analysis to be employed in interpreting data relationship. RESEARCH METHOD It is not infrequent to find the terms method and procedure used interchangeably in research literature. It is so because both the terms generally used to understand the tools and techniques, adopted in research study. Research studies are distinguished on the basis of their different purpose and approaches and that is why it may technically be called deference in methods. Research studies adopting different methods however do not differ significantly in their procedures. Selection, formulation and definition of the problem survey of related literature collection, analysis and interpretation of new data and reporting of the work done are the steps of procedure common to all types of methods of research. Hence it can be held that steps of procedure in educational research are an element common to all educational investigations, while methods of research in education are broad distinguishing features of different researches. To success fully complete any research work the method selected should always be appropriate to the problem under investigation feasible preplanned and well understood it also depends upon the type of data required to be explored. After careful study and analysis of problem under investigation and observation of related literature the investigator has arrived to the conclusion that descriptive survey method is appropriate because this problem is related most to the survey method. HISTORICAL METHOD This provides a method of s to discover, describe and interpret what existed in the past. This type of research describes what was ,the process involve recording ,investigation, analysis and interpretation of the event of the past in order to make generalization, these generalization are helpful to understand the past, building a perspective about present to a limited extent understanding the future. The main purpose of historical research is to arrive at exact account of the past, this research help us partially to control future. DESCRIPTIVE METHOD This method is one of the important methods in education because it describes the current position of the present research. The terms survey suggest the gathering of evidence relating to current conditions. The term descriptive survey is generally used for type of research which proposes to as certain what is the normal or typical condition or practice at the present time. Descriptive survey method is one of the most common methods in research work. It is a method of collecting and analysis data obtained from large number of respondents representing specific population collected through highly structured and detailed questionnaire or interviews. It follows studying local, as well as state classification, evaluation and generalization all directed towards a proper under standing and solution of significant educational problems. Three types of information are collected by this method these are- 1. Information of what exists by studying and analyzing important aspects of present situation. 2. Information of what we want by clarifying goals and objectives possible through a study of the conductions existing. 3. Information of how to get these through discovering the possible means of achieving the goals on the basis of the experience of other or the opinion of experts. The investigator in her present study has attempted to study the personality traits of children of working and non-working mothers. Due to large number of women taking to professional jobs, such a study is relevant to present and current conditions. MAIN STAGES OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a vital term in which a research is conducted through various stages beginning with the planning and ending with the writing of the final report. Following are the different stages of research methodology- 1. Selecting the Research Problem. 2. Specification of the sources of information 3. Determination of the survey technique. 4. Designing the research project. 5. Census and sample investigation. 6. Collection of data. 7. Analysis of data and methods of analysis. 8. Arriving at the generalization. 9. Preparation of the report of the thesis. METHODOLOGY OF THE PRESENT STUDY Research Design A correlation design was adopted to study the relationships between mental health and self esteem of adolescents. Population The population of the study was comprised of male and female adolescents currently studying in the 11th standard of Srinagar. Sample The sample of the study was comprised of 100 students from the classes of 11th in the senior secondary schools of Srinagar, affiliated to CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education). Out of this 50 students were male and 50 students were females. Sampling techniques As the proposed study comprises of two sub-groups, a stratified random sampling method was employed. Tool used for data collection The following tools were used in the present study. MENTAL HEALTH SCALE (M H S) Description The mental health scale (MHS) developed by Jagdish and Srivastava (1995) constituted 60 items. The scale includes both positive and negative statements in each component. The details are given in Table No. 1. Table 1 Items Distribution of Mental Health Scale SL No Components Positive statements Negative statements Total 01 Emotional stability E S 4,35,29,48 7,16,24,43,59 09 02 Overall Adjustment OA 1,19,26,39,44,51 14,36,49,54,56 11 03 Self concept SC 2,5,21,31,46 10,13,37,55 09 04 Integration of personality IP 15,17,20,32,60 9,27,38,40,52,58 11 05 Perception of reality IR 8,11,34,41,57 3,25,30,45 09 06 Environmental competency EC 6,12,18,22,28,53 23,33,42,47,50 11 Total 31 29 60 Major components Mental Health scale Emotional Stability It refers to experiencing subjective stable feelings which are positive or negative values of individuals. Individuals steadiness of mood, their ability to withstand minor setbacks, failures, difficulties and other stresses without becoming upset emotionally. Emotionally stable person tolerate minor stresses and strains of day today living without becoming emotionally upset, anxious, nervous, tense or angry. They are able to maintain composure under minor emotional stress. They are fairly constant in their basic mood and they generally revert quickly to that state following those occasions. When they have experienced considerable stress or have been exceptionally provoked. The unstable person, on the other hand is subject to fairly wide, frequent and often unpredictable mood shifts that may swing from pole to pole. b. Overall Adjustment It refers to individuals achieving an overall harmonious balance between the demands of various aspects of environment such as home, school and society on the one hand cognition on the other hand. The relationship which involve the accommodation of the individuals to circumstances in his social environment for the satisfaction of his needs or motives. It frequently involves coping with new standards and values. In the technical language of philosophy, getting along with the members of the society as best as one can call overall adjusted. Psychologist uses the term adjustment of various conditions of social and interpersonal relations in the society. Thus we see that adjustment mean s reaction to the demands and pressures of the social environment imposed upon the individual. c. Self concept The self-concept is the accumulation of knowledge about the self, such as beliefs regarding personality traits, physical characteristics, abilities, values, goals, and roles. Beginning in infancy, children acquire and organize information about themselves as a way to enable them to understand the relation between the self and their social world. This developmental process is a direct consequence of childrens emerging cognitive skills and their social relationships with both family and peers. During early childhood, childrens self-concepts are less differentiated and are centered on concrete characteristics, such as physical attributes, possessions, and skills. During middle childhood, the self-concept becomes more integrated and differentiated as the child engages in social comparison and more clearly perceives the self as consisting of internal, psychological characteristics. Throughout later childhood and adolescence, the self-concept becomes more abstract, complex, and hierarchically organized into cognitive mental representations or self- schemas, which direct the processing of self-relevant information. d. Integrated personality It indicates balance of psychic forces in an individual and includes the ability to understand and share others emotions, the ability to concentrate at work and show interest in several activities. The moral condition of a person, whose various faculties and powers are united in to a harmonious whole, resulting in easy and effective adjustment to the changing circumstances of life. e. Perception of reality It related to perception free from need distortion, absence of excessive fantasy and a broad outlook on the world. When we perceive any subject of a familiar kind, much of what appears subjectively to be. Immediately given is really derived from past of its real shape. We have the impression of something circular, not of something elliptical. In learning to draw, it is necessary to acquire the art of representing things according to the sensation, not according to the perception and the visual appearance is filled out with feeling of what the object would be like to touch and so on. f. Environmental competency It includes efficiency in meeting situational requirements. The ability to work and play, the ability to take responsibilities and capacity for adjustment. It is the ability of an individual to perform his duties in different situations. A competency is a set of defined behavior that provides a structured guide enabling the identification, evaluation and development of behaviors in individuals. Environmental competence is a combination of knowledge of his surroundings, skills and behavior used to improve performance. Reliability and Validity of Mental Health scale The reliability and validity coefficient were found significant as the value of the split-half reliability coefficient was r 0.73 and validity coefficient i.e. construct validity was r 0.54 which confirm the standardization of the scale. ROSENBERG SELF ESTEEM SCALE The Rosenberg self esteem scale was developed by Morris Rosenberg (1965). The Rosenberg self esteem scale is a 10 item self report of global self esteem. It consists of 10 statements related to overall feelings of self acceptance. The items are answered on a four point scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The scale can be used with children and adolescent children in clinical and general population. Higher scores indicate a higher level of self esteem. The internal consistency of this scale is 0.78 and Cronbach alpha is O.77. DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study was delimited to the adolescents of Srinagar only. The study was further delimited to 100 students only. The study was delimited to the students of 11th class currently studying in the the senior secondary schools of Srinagar, affiliated to CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education only. The study was further delimited to the age group of 15 – 17 years only. METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS Statistical Tools and Techniques The data was analyzed by descriptive statistical analysis and coefficient of correlation by Pearsons product moment method.. CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS Introduction The research work is not completed merely by the collection of the data, in fact analysis and interpretation of data is also an important step of research work. Tabulation is simply the recording of the number of the types of responses in the appropriate categories. It is truism and weighty statement that the raw scores hardly carry any significant results unless they are interpreted and generalized in a proper way. The objective of the investigator remains unrealized without the interpretation and the analysis of the bars facts and material collected through the tools used for the study. Since it is only through generalization and interpretation that the researcher can reach certain conclusion, the objective of the chapter is the analysis of the data, which implies the study ofthe tabulated material in order to determine the inherent factors or meaning. It no doubt helps in breaking down the existing complex factors into simple parts and puts the part together in new arrangement for the purpose of interpretation. S.P. Sukhia Interpretation of the qualitative data is more dependent on the researchers research skills, research background, intelligence, creativity and biases. Need of Interpretation It is through interpretation that the researcher can well understand the abstract principle that works beneath his findings. Interpretation leads to the establishment of explanatory concepts that can serve as a guide for future research studies. Research can better appreciate only through interpretation what are his findings and can make others to understand the real significance of his research findings. The interpretation of the finding of exploratory research study often results into hypothesis for experimental research. Technique of interpretation The technique of interpretation often involves the following steps (i) Researcher must give reasonable explanations of the relations, which he has found, and he must interpret the lines of relationship in terms of the underlying processes. (ii) Extraneous information must be considered while interpretation the final results of research study it may prove to be a key factor in understanding the problem under consideration. (iii) It is advisable before reaching upon final interpretation to consult expert someone, which will lead to a result in correct interpretation and thus will enhance the utility of research results. (iv) Researcher must accomplish the task of interpretation only after considering all relevant factors affecting the problem to avoid false generalization. Classification Most research studies result in a large volume of raw data which must be reduced into homogenous group, if we are to get meaningful relationships. This fact necessitates classification of data which happens to be the process of arranging data in groups or classes on the basis of common characteristics. Data having common characteristics are placed in one class and in this way the entire data get divided into a number of groups or classes. When a mass of data has been assembled, it becomes necessary for the researcher to arrange the same in some kind of concise and logical order. This procedure is referred to as tabulation. Thus, tabulation is the process of summarizing raw data and displaying the same in compact form for further analysis. In a broader sense, tabulation is an orderly arrangement of data in columns and rows. Tabulation is essential because of the following reasons 1. It conserves space and reduces explanatory and descriptive statement to a minimum. 2. It facilities the summation of items and the detection of errors and omissions. 3. It facilities the process of comparison. 4. It provides a basis for various statistical computations.. Objective 1 To study the level of mental health and self esteem of adolescents.. In order to find the level of mental health of adolescents, the total scores obtained were classified in to three categories namely High, moderate and low. Table 4.1 The range of scores for each levels of mental health Sl Level of Mental Health Range 1 High 220-300 2 Average 140-219 3 Low 60-139 Table 4.2 The percentage of students having high, moderate and low levels of mental health Variables Levels Percentage Mental health High 14 Moderate 72 Low 14 Total 100.0 From the Table 4.2, it is evident that 72 of students were found to be having moderate mental health. Only 14 of them were having high level of mental health and 14 of them show low level of mental health. Table 4.3 The range of scores for each level of Self Esteem Sl Level of Self Esteem Range 1 High 129-175 2 Average 82-128 3 Low 35-81 Table-4.4 The percentage of students having high, moderate and low Levels of Self Esteem Variable Levels Percent Self Esteem High 16 Moderate 68 Low 16 Total 100.0 From the Table 4.4 it is found that 16 of students were found to be having high level of Self Esteem, 68 of students had low level of Self Esteem and 16 of students found to be moderate level of Self Esteem. Objective 2 To study the relationship between mental health and self esteem among adolescents. H01 There is a significant relationship between mental health and self esteem among adolescents. Table 7 Correlation between mental health and academic achievement of adolescents mental healthSelf esteem Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed)-0.389 0.000 In overall, mental health and self esteem are negatively correlated (-0.389, 0.000) at 0.01 level of significance (2-tailed), signifying that the more the mental health the less is the self esteem among adolescents and vice versa. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS SUGGESTIONS INTRODUCTION The contemporary world is facing and surfacing unimaginable and unending changes that are flooding into various aspects of human life. Education, with no exception is also undergoing innumerable changes in the society. These changes are posing a great confusion both to people and pupil. The secondary school level is an important stage in the academic life of any individual. During this stage the students come under the influence of various psychological aspects which contribute a lot in the success and shape of their future. Noticing this conspicuous reason, efforts should be made to meet the requirements of the students and provide proper direction. There is increasing evidence that education is a powerful instrument to improve all types of well-being of a nation. It is also an established fact that the degree of education and the technical competence but not the amount of nature and natural reserves determine the economic welfare of any country. So progress of a country can be measured with the quality and quantity of its schools. There has been a rapid change of vast magnitude in all spheres during the recent past. Technological changes, industrial changes, occupational changes, and revolution of rising expectations from all walks of people with all these social changes, it is important that the educational system should change itself to the needs of the day. During the secondary school stage the student develops some attitudes, aspiration, achievement targets, adjustments, achievement motivation, creativity and such other important factors which play an important role in his future life. A secondary school in India comprises a great lot of students, but the present educational scenario is ringing alarm bells with a very poor standard of performance owing to many reasons. To perform and restructure the secondary education, number of committees has been set up. Soon after independence these important bodies examined the problems of Secondary Education. The Tarachand Committee (1948), the University Education Commission (1948-49) and the Secondary Education Commission (1952- However a dearth in the area of researches with respect to study the relationship among mental health and self esteem of adolescents become the motivation factor for the researcher to undertake the present study. CONCLUSIONS 72 of students were found to be having moderate mental health. Only 14 of them were having high level of mental health and 14 of them show low level of mental health. 16 of students were found to be having high level of Self Esteem, 68 of students had low level of Self Esteem and 16 of students found to be moderate level of Self Esteem. Mental health and self esteem are negatively correlated (-0.389, 0.000) at 0.01 level of significance (2-tailed), signifying that the more the mental health the less is the self esteem among adolescents and vice versa. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS The study shows that there is a negative relationship between mental health and self esteem of adolescents. More the mental health the less is the self esteem among adolescents and vice versa. So, the school should adopt suitable curricular and co-curricular practices to cater to mental health and self esteem of the students. The parents and members of the community should also take care to help students maintain their mental health and enhance the self esteem of adolescents. National policy of education 1986 (NPE) recommended that our instructional practices should be designed for all round development of the children. Our class room practices should not be concentrated only on cognitive development alone, rather fullest development of all the capacities. Teachers have to give individualized instruction and pay attention to the students. Although teachers play a crucial role in the schools they cannot act alone on their own. High quality of education needs to be supported by the head of the institution, government, NGOs, parents and community. Teachers job satisfaction, job security, and infrastructural facility, provision for professional development, private schools, or otherwise there will be a gap between the quality of education between government and private institutions. The government has to introduce some policies and programmes to enhance mental health and self esteem of students as well as teachers in turn students will be free from psychological problems and as result students will show higher level of academic performance. Therefore, the teachers should be oriented by experts to improve mental health and self esteem components through in-service programmes like special methods of teaching, knowledge of adolescence psychology, guidance and counseling aspects. There is a need for generating awareness and attitude development programme for teachers with regard to importance of mental health and self esteem of adolescents. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH STUDY The similar study can be conducted on students of different age group. A study can be under taken to develop package for developing mental health and self esteem of adolescents.. 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Sl.No Statements SA A UC D SD 1 I easily mingle with my parents. 2 I have confidence in my abilities. 3 I feel I am in secured. 4 If I fail in an examination, I dont feel disappointed. 5 I can take quick decision about any matter. 6 I adjust myself according to situations. 7 The sight of a snake, lizard, or any other such reptile makes me fearful. 8 I respect by my fellow beings 9 I am not worried about my responsibilities 10 I cant perform well in adverse situations. 11 I feel that my friends are helpful during crisis. 12 I accept frequent changes in class room activities 13 I feel that situations are not in favor of me 14 I dont like to share my work with my friends. 15 I am very flexible while taking decisions. 16 I get happiness by Criticizing my friends. 17 I behave in such a way that my friends respect me. 18 I always try to express my opinion when any decisions are taken at home. 19 I help my friends by offering my own books. 20 I always seek help from others to solve my personal problems 21 I feel that my relation with others is satisfactory. 22 23 I always feel that my decision should be, final in the class. 24 I get upset, when my teacher scolds me for being in disciplined. 25 I expect the situation should be the same always. 26 In case of any quarrel at home, I try to solve it. 27 I am afraid of imaginary situations. 28 I always accept the challenges in completion of any task assigned. 29 I am not worried about my future. 30 I feel jealous of others performance. 31 I can solve problems quickly. 32 I feel that my intimacy with my friends is increasing gradually. 33 I dont take responsibilities of my family in the absence of my parents. 34 I work to accomplish my expectations. 35 I myself feel that I am a short tempered person. 36 I dont like to share my lunch and other eatables in the school. 37 I am doubtful of meeting my expectations. 38 I like dont share my happiness with my friends. 39 I am ahead of other friends in various activities of the school. 40 I am not satisfied with my physical appearance. 41 I frequently evaluate my progress. 42 I find it difficult to concentrate fully on my work till its completion 43 I hate my parents, when they are not providing my favorite items 44 If I am absent to the school, I follow it up on next day. 45 I always find fault with others for not performing better. 46 I can face any type of obstacles in reaching the goal. 47 I get disappointed with the common worries of life. 48 I do not blame others when I get angry. 49 I dont like to discuss with my teachers, when I do not understand the subject taught in the class. 50 I feel uncomfortable, when all my teachers give assignment at the same time. 51 I ask excuse, when I commit mistakes with others. 52 I dont accept the suggestions given by others to improve my health. 53 I fully cooperate with people during the important functions of my community. 54 I dont like to share good experience of the class with my parents. 55 I am not able to list my strengths and weakness. 56 I never like to attend social functions and parties. 57 I accept changes in the social relationships. 58 I cant find any reason for my tension. 59 I do not plan my daily activities. 60 I trust my friends. 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