Psychological disorders involve abnormalities in the cognitive and affective process, make reference an alteration of the mental health
At present, this type of affection is common in society since with both technological and thought evolution, it predisposes the person to suffer from this types of diseases. in the XXI century this problem is increasing and some treatments are not very clear and many of them have secondary effects. the fact that an individual suffers or not an emotional disorder is a subjective judgment. Mental health professionals define abnormal behavior as maladaptive functioning in life, as a serious personal discomfort or as both. There are different types of mental disorders, and can be classified according to their etiology, according to the stage of life in which they appear, according to the main symptoms and signs that manifest, Among the different mental disorders, we can find psychotic disorders (schizophrenia, delusional disorder, psychotic disorder …), mood disorders (depression, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, cyclothymia …), anxiety disorders (anguish, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia …), somatoform disorders (somatization, hypochondria …), dissociative disorders, sexual disorders, eating behavior disorders (anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder, of the dream (disomnias, parasomnias), personality disorders (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, limit, narcissistic, by avoidance …)
historical background: psychiatry has been the last in medical specialties to be accepted, throughout history these diseases or disorders were attributed to magic or witchcraft through religion, attributing a diabolic origin. in ancient times or a social origin in today’s times.
For example in Mesopotamia- the first Babylonian doctors considered these disorders as demonic possessions and treated them with Magico-Religious methods, in Israel- the Hebrew doctors implored God, the field of lay physicians was restricted to consider them hidden actions. in the bible was described the mental illness of Saul , which ended in suicide and is interpreted as cause spirits sent by God, In the same way Egypt.- Before the Greeks, they recognized the brain as “localization of mental functions”. They described the emotional upheaval, denominated later like “hysteria” by the Greeks, attributing it to a bad position of the uterus, reason why they fumigaten the vagina like treatment, with the intention to return it to its original position.
during the history the psychological problems were treated in different ways and in the beginning of the decades were very painful and torturing, many people were treated badly and many reached death in the middle of the confinement and torture
Greece.- The Greeks were the first to study mental illness from the scientific point of view, separating the study of the mind from religion. Greek medicine sought universal laws that could form the basis of a real science of disease, thoroughly investigating the laws that govern disease and seeking the connection between each part and the whole, cause and effect.
Celso-local and general illiness, divided in delirium – madness. He considering confiment as necessary with restrictive procedures and control of violence ( hunger and chains)
Galeno- The Medieval obscurantism developed after his death, considering the brain as the core of the movement and sensations. He depict two types of souls ( animals or rational).
Feudalism- the intellectual decline of the west, in the Middle Ages. Demonology emerged studying the stigmas and sing of demonic possessions.
Renaissance offered the promise of a new spirit of humanism and knowledge, it turned into one of the chapters most disastrous in the histoty of psycology. they attributed the cause of all mental illnesses to the devil, denying any natural explanation of them, thus destroying all the scientific heritage of the classical period. The prescribed “treatment” for mental illness was torture, even if it came to death, and cremation as an act of mercy, to “liberate the soul” from the unfortunate.
mental health and its studies have changed over time, today is known in general terms the state of balance between a person and their socio-cultural environment affecting the way people think, feel and act dealing with life from their point of view. view managing stress and therefore making decisions. Psychological disorders are defined as abnormal behavior of individuals who in most cases intervene with their actions in their daily lives. aspects that can trigger a mental disorder. We are used to talking about different mental disorders depending on the symptoms that characterize them, but not so much how they develop, although it is equal or more important. Thus, a psychological disorder is not born out of nowhere nor its symptoms are random; on the contrary, any disorder forms a puzzle in which its elements are logical and understandable. In this way, we can ask ourselves, What happens so that a psychological disorder develops? What predispositions must there be in our mind?
Genetic: some disorders are genetically linked, this does not mean that if someone in the family has a disorder such as schizophrenia can be inherited but in some cases it is. In particular it can happen, more frequently, in disorders such as autism, deficit and hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, depression and schizophrenia.
Trauma: The first idea of the development of a psychological disorder is trauma. A traumatic event experienced in childhood (abuse, violence, abuse) can leave sequels, which last and affect adult life, not to say throughout life.
There is no specific age for the onset of a trauma, what we do know is that it can lead to eating disorders, panic or anxiety disorders or others. As Sigmund Freud said:
Environmental Factors :There are environmental factors that lead to the development of a psychological disorder. For example, the death of a loved one can trigger, through the stress that generates, a psychotic attack. Likewise, go through a divorce or drug abuse.
In young people, social or cultural expectations, what is expected of them, can cause disorders such as feeding. The constant publicity that dictates a canon of corporal perfection and of beauty causes that this problem is aggravated and that the incidence has increased and that the fork of risk age has been extended.
As we have seen, there are several factors that help develop a psychological disorder. There are others such as certain infections, brain damage or birth injuries that can promote the development of these types of disorders.
Most classification systems recognize childhood disorders as separate categories of adult disorders. Likewise, they distinguish between organic disorders, the most serious caused by a clear somatic, physiological cause, related to a structural lesion in the brain, and non-organic disorders, sometimes also called functional, considered milder. the ‘psychotic’ disorders are differentiated from the ‘neurotic’ ones. In general, psychotic means a state in which the patient has mislaid contact with reality, while neurotic refers to a state of distress and anxiety, but lacking losing contact with reality. At its extreme, as formulated by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, we are all “good neurotics”, while cases of psychosis are numbered. The most common are: schizophrenia, most of the neurological and cerebral disorders (dementia) and the extreme forms of depression (such as manic-depressive psychosis). Among the neuroses, the most typical are phobias, hysteria, obsessive-compulsive disorders, hypochondria and, in general, all those that generate a high dose of anxiety without there being a cessation with reality. Some mental disorders are demonstrated for the first time during childhood, puberty or adolescence. Some different psychological disorders
The cognitive deficit in childhood is determined by the inability to learn normally and become autonomous and socially responsible as people of the same age and culture.
Hyperactivity is a disorder that starts from a deficit in attention and concentration, making you unable to organize and finish your work, to follow instructions or persevere in your tasks, due to a constant and pathological concern.
infantile autism, a typical disorder due to the child’s apathy towards the world around him. Some behavior problems can also be childhood disorders: such as stuttering and other speech disorders, enuresis or encopresis.
This group of disorders is notable for the psychic and behavioral abnormality associated with temporary or permanent deficiencies in the functioning of the brain. The disorders present different symptoms depending on the area affected or the cause, duration and progress of the injury. The brain damage comes from an organic disease, the ingesting of a drug damaging to the brain or an illness that ramblingly changes its effects on other parts of the body.
Schizophrenia involves a group of thoughtful disorders, which usually begin in adolescence. The symptoms are the severe instabilities of understood, perception and emotion that affect relationships with others, together with a disturbed feeling about oneself and a loss of the wisdom of reality that declines social adaptation. The concept of ‘divided mind’, implicit in the word schizophrenia, refers to the dissociation between emotions and cognition, and not, as is vulgarly assumed, to a division of personality that, rather, refers to another type of disorders such as multiple personality or psychopathy, named after the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin.
disorders of effectiveness
disorders in which the alteration of the state of mind is predominant. One of the most common is depression: this is distinguished by sadness, guilt and despair, Mania is another state of mind that unlike the depression, the person feels in an exalted state, changing and irritable but always driving the person towards depression.
paranoid disorders: as the name indicates the person becomes paranoid, this feeling invades his personality believing his own ideas being many of them delirious, the most common is felt persecuted. the paranoid personality is defensive, rigid, distrustful and self-centered, so it tends to isolate itself and can become violently antisocial. This disorder usually begins in the middle or end of life, destroying social relationships, especially those of a couple
this disorder has two cases, panic and anxious generalized disorder; phobia, irrational fears without measure to something specific altering their daily life, among the most common are the agoraphobia (fear of open places), claustrophobia (closed places). on the other hand the obsessions, the hysteria and the compulsion.
There are several situations that have traditionally been considered neurotic, such as hysteria, conversion reactions (from a psychic conflict to an unreal organic disease), hypochondria and dissociative disorders. hysteria; It is a disorder more diagnosed in women than in men, it is presented in a theatrical way starting generally in adolescence continuing into adulthood, with neurotic disorders are also psychological amnesia and multiple personality. Personality disorders
personality disorders last a lifetime, causing in some cases work and social problems, people who deal with this disorder can cause harm to themselves and probably to someone. There are different types of personality disorders:
Symptoms a mental health or behavioral disorder is caused by a disturbance in the brain, mood or behavior that does not meet the normal circumstances. In most cases, the symptoms are accompanied by anger and interference with personal movements.
Mental disorders include symptoms that are noticeable for the affected person or the people surrounding them. Among them may include:
physical symptoms (pain, sleep disorders)
affective symptoms (sadness, fear, anxiety)
cognitive symptoms (difficulty thinking clearly, abnormal beliefs, memory disturbances)
behavioral symptoms (aggressive behavior, inability to perform everyday tasks, substance abuse)
Perceptual alterations (visual or auditory perception of things that other people do not see or hear)
The early signs differentiate from one mental disorder to another. Patients that show specific symptoms should go to a doctor if these symptoms continue, may cause significant pain or interfere with daily tasks.
Depression, substance abuse, schizophrenia, mental retardation, autism in childhood and dementia are examples of mental disorders. They can appear in men and women of any age and in any race or ethnic group. The causes of most mental disorders are unknown, it is believed that they depend on a combination of biological, psychological and social factors, such as stressful events, family problems, brain diseases, hereditary or genetic disorders and medical problems. In most cases, mental disorders can be diagnosed and treated effectively.