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STRYCHNOS NUX- VOMICA EEEDS
(Pharmacognostical standardization, extraction, and antidiabetic activity.)

INDEX
STRYCHNOS NUX- VOMICA EEEDS
(Pharmacognostical standardization, extraction, and antidiabetic activity.)
ABSTRACT:
INTRODUCTION:
OBJECTIVE
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
RESULT:
DISCUSSION:
CONCLUSION:
REFERENCES:
STRYCHNOS NUX- VOMICA EEEDS
(Pharmacognostical standardization, extraction, and antidiabetic activity.)
ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND:
The common name of Straychnos nux vomica is kuchla. the main constituents of kuchla are strychinine and brucine. And mainer alklualoids present in the seeds are protostrychnine, vomicine, n-oxystrychnine, isostrychnine,pseudostrychnine ,chlorogenic acide and a glycoside.the seeds of nuxvomica traditionally used to treat diabetes, asthma, aphrodisiac and to improve appetite.

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OBJECTIVE :
The aim of study nuxvomica seed is to evaluate the various pharmacognostical characters and anti diabetic activity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:
According to the WHO guideline the pharmacognostical characters are performed there extraction were carried out in petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol ,aqueous ,hydroalcoholic ,and photochemical constituents present in extracs which are detected by different chemical tests .among these extracts like hydroalcoholic ,aqueous extracts were used for antidiabetic activity on the basses of extractive yield and phytocontituents,in alloxan included diabetic rats using gliclazide as standard.

RESULT:
S.nux – vomica extract were established by various analytical values phytocontituents present in S.nux – vomica extracts were detected.

In experimental animals the activity of S.nux – vomica extracts show as antihyperglycemic activity.
INTRODUCTION:
S.NUX-VOMICA:Strychnos nux-vomica,the strychnine tree, also known as nux vomica, poison nut, semen strychnos, and quaker buttons, is a deciduous tree native to India, and southeast Asia. It is a medium-sized tree in the family Loganiaceae that grows in open habitats. Its leaves are ovate and 2–3.5 inches (5.1–8.9 cm) in size.

FAMILY: Loganiaceae.

ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS:
S.nux – vomica seed contain 2.6% .3% total alkaloids out of which 1.25%.1.5 % is strychnine ,1.7% is brucine and the rest are vomicine and igasurine.Also contain some other minor alkaloids are ?-colubrine, ?-colubrine, 3-methoxyicajine, protostrychnine, novacine, n-oxystrychnine, pseudostrychnine, isostrychnine, chlorogenic acid, and glycoside, loganin.

Strychnine was identified and analyzed in detoxified kuchla seeds using liquid chromatography–electrospray mass spectrometry. Strychnine and brucine were separated and quantified in S. nux-vomica by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis.

USES & EFFECTIVENESS:
Crude drug kuchla is used in the treatment of anemia, lumbago, asthma, bronchitis, constipation, diabetes, malarial fever, skin disease, paralysis, muscle weakness ,appetite loss ,digestive tract, disorders of the heart and circulatory system, diseases of the eye, and lung disease.
It is also used for nerve conditions , depression, migraine headache,  symptoms of menopause, and a blood vessel disorder called Raynaud’s disease. Other uses include treatment of “tired blood” (anemia), as a tonic, and as an appetite stimulant. Men use nux vomica for erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence).In manufacturing, nux vomica is used as rat poison. That’s because it contains strychnine and brucine, two deadly chemicals . Suppressive effect of S. nux-vomica was observed on induction of ovalbumin-specific IgE antibody response in mice.

KEY WORDS: , protostrychnine, isostrychnine, brucine, loganin.

OBJECTIVE:
This study was aimed to establish pharmacognostical parameters and explore antidiabetic potential of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts prepared from the seeds of S. nux-vomica. The antidiabetic activity was determined in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, and gliclazide was used as a positive control.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
PLANT MATERIAL:
From market of Jodhpur, the seeds of S. nux-vomica were purchase. Dr. S. N. Mishra were authenticate this plant material and senior scientist, medicinal and aromatic plants project, K.N.K. College of Horticulture, Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh, India, and deposited at the Department of Pharmacognosy, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, India.
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL PARAMETERS:
S. nux-vomica were estimated as per WHO guidelines  for Pharmacognostical parameters, namely, powder characteristics, ash values, loss on drying (LOD), extractive values, and fluorescence analysis.

EXTRACTION AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION:
The powdered drug was packed in Soxhlet extractor and extracted using solvents like petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, ethanol (50%) and water. The plant material was ground in mixer. The crude drug powder, passed through sieve no. 10 and retained on sieve no. 60, was used for extraction. Different ash values were determined to find the inorganic content in the sample.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1: Different ash values were determined to find the inorganic content in the sample 
Total ash
4.23+,-0.25% w/w
Acid –Insoluble ash 3.06+,-0.05% w/w
Water –soluble ash 0.93+,-0.05% w/w
Loss on drying 7.83+,-0.28 % w/w
Swelling index 53.3+,-11.54% v/v
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2:Fluorescence analysis of S. nux-vomica seeds powder was done
Drug +solvent visible Short UV LONG UV
Drug
Drug+ ethanol
Drug+ ethanolic sodium
Hydroxide solution
Drug+dil.nitric acid Drug+dil.hydrochloric acid
Drug+dil.sulfuric acid
Drug+petroleum ether
Drug+ chloroform
Drug+potassium hydroxide solution
Drug+acetic acid
Drug+water
Drug+sodium hydroxiode solution NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
GREEN
NO
NO
GREEN NO
NO
GREEN
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
GREEN
GREEN
NO
GREEN GREEN
GREEN
GREEN
NO
NO
NO
GREEN
NO
NO
NO
GREEN
NO
NO
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 3:Solvents of different polarity were used to find out the extractive value for seeds and rhizome of of S. nux-vomica.
SOLVENT
PETROLEUM ETHER CHOLOFORM
ETHANOL
ETHANOL (50)%
WATER
S.NUX VOMICA
SEEDS
S.NUX VOMICA RHIZOME 1.1+0.10%W/W
1.16+0.12%W/W 1.10+1.6%W/W
4.5+5.6%W/W
2.2+0.51%W/W
2.8+0.54%W/W 9.1+0.50%W/W
21.65+0.58%W/W 8.4+0.34%W/W
24.03+0.40%W/W
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 4:Phytoconstituents present in extracts were detected bydifferent chemical tests
PHYTO
CONSTITIUENT CHEMICAL TEST OBSERVATIION
PRTROLIM ETHER EXTERCT CHOLOFOM EXTRACT ETHANL EXTRAT ETHANOL
(5)% EXTRACT WATER EXTACT
CARBOHYDRATE
Molisch’s test
Fehling test
+
– –
– –
– –
+ –
+
ALKOLIDE
Dragendroff’s test
Myers test
Tannic test

– +
– –
– –
+ –

STERIOD
Salkowski test – – –
– –
PROTION
Biuret test
Ninhydrin test

– –
– –
+ –
– –
+
RESINE
HCL test
FeCL test

– –
+ –
– –
– –
+
STRYCHE
BRUCINE
Sulphuric acid + potassium dichromate
Nitric acid

– –
+

– –
– –

FATS AND OILS
Filter paper spot test + – – – –
SAPONIN GLYCOSIDES
Foam test
– –
– + +
TANNIN AND
5%Fecl
– – – – –
PHENOLIC COMPOUND Lead acetate
– – – + –
(-) = ABSENT (+) = PRESENT
KEY WORDS: pharmacognostical parameters, antidiabetic potential.

RESULT:
The powder characteristics show the presence of lignified trichomes, aleurone grains, oil globules, and endosperm with plasmodesma. (Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1)
Various analytical values and fluorescence analysis are presented in ?Table 1 and ? 2 respectively .Extractive values and extractive yields of S. nux-vomica seeds in solvents of different polarity are reported in Table 3. Carbohydrate, protein, oil, steroid, alkaloid, resin, strychnine and brucine were detected in phytochemical screening Table4.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2:Powder characteristics. (a) Aleurone grain; (b) vessel; (c) Fiber; (d) Starch grains; (e) Endosperm.

Thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis with chemical controls may be conducted in ongoing studies for thorough phytochemical investigations.

ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF PLANT EXTRECT:
The hydroalcoholic and aqueous extract of S. nux-vomica (3.6 mg/kg) had shown significant reduction in blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, The percent reduction of blood glucose levels in groups III, IV, and V at day 4 and 10 showed significant difference (P<0.01) when compared with percentage of blood glucose reduction at day 0 within the same group. Groups IV and V showed a significant difference in reducing blood glucose level when compared with standard control group III at P<0.05.

KYE WORDS: phytochemical, plasmodesma, hydroalcoholic, oil globules.

DISCUSSION:
Medicinal plants have been widely claimed useful and found effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine. Various species of Strychnos have been reported traditionally for the treatment of diabetes.  Considering these facts, the present study deals with the evaluation of diabetic activity of the aqueous and hydroalcoholic (50% ethanol) extract of seed powder of S. nux-vomica in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Earlier reported literature suggests that the glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, and alkaloids are responsible for antidiabetic activity. Preliminary phytochemical studies revealed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, and glycosides in hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts of S. nux-vomica (strychnine, brucine, vomicine, loganin, and others).

The antidiabetic effect produced by the extract of S. nux-vomica may be due to the presence of these active ingredients. In our studies, significant reduction of blood glucose was observed on day 4 and 10 of treatment in groups III, IV, and V, which proved significant antidiabetic activity with the gliclazide, 50% ethanolic extract of S. nux-vomica, and aqueous extract of S. nux-vomica when compared with group II. Both the extracts were found effective and significantly (P<0.05) superior in reducing the blood glucose when compared with standard (gliclazide) control drug on day 10.  S. nux-vomia possesses antioxidant property, which prevents lipid peroxidation that leads to protein modification and damage.

The serum insulin and cholesterol levels were not significantly modified upon treatment with the plant extract, suggesting that the hypoglycemic activity of S. potatorum is independent of insulin secretion.

KEY WORDS: hydroalcoholic, antidiabetic, phytochemical, loganin.

CONCLUSIONS:
S. nux-vomica seeds were estimated for Pharmacognostic parameters. which are helpful in identification and standardization. The aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, and glycosides in S. nux-vomica seeds. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts were superior to positive diabetic control in controlling blood glucose level on day 10. In conclusion, the present study indicates that hydroalcoholic and aqueous  S. nux-vomica seed extracts, are effective in controlling diabetes.

KYE WORDS: Pharmacognostic parameters, identification and standardization.

REFERENCES:
Warrier PK, Nambiar VP, Ramankutty C. Vol. 5. Hyderabad: Orient Longman; 1996. Indian medicinal plants: A compendium of 500 species; p. 202.

Tyrberg B, Andersson A, Hakan Borg LA. Species differences in susceptibility of transplanted and cultured pancreatic islets to the beta-cell toxin alloxan. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 200.

Elsner M, Gurgul-Convey E, Lenzen S. Importance of cellular uptake and reactive oxygen species for the toxicity of alloxan and dialuric acid to insulin-producing cells. Free Radi Gruenwald J. 2nd ed. Montvale: Thomson Healthcare; 2000. PDR for herbal medicines; p. 548.

Duddukuri GR, Brahmam AN, Rao DN. Suppressive effect of Strychnos nux-vomica on induction of ovalbumin-specific IgE antibody response in mice. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2008.

Young H, You-min S, Chul YK, Kwan YO, Jinwoong K. Analysis of strychnine from detoxified Strychnos nux-vomica seeds using liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. Ethanopharmacol. 2004.

Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998. WHO. Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials.

Mukherjee PK. 1st ed. New Delhi: Business Horizons; 2002. Quality control of herbal drugs: An approach to evaluation of botanicals
Mathuram LN, Samanna HC, Ramasamy VM, Natarajan R. Studies on the hypoglycemic effects of Strychnos potatorum and Acacia arabica on alloxan diabetes in rabbits. Cheiron.

Dhasarathan P, Theriappan P. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Strychnous potatorum in alloxan induced diabetic rats. J Med Med Sci.

Tyrberg B, Andersson A, Hakan Borg LA. Species differences in susceptibility of transplanted and cultured pancreatic islets to the beta-cell toxin alloxan. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 
Elsner M, Gurgul-Convey E, Lenzen S. Importance of cellular uptake and reactive oxygen species for the toxicity of alloxan and dialuric acid to insulin-producing cells. Free Radical Biol Med. 
Koti BC, Biradar SM, Karadi RV, Taranalli AD, Benade VS. Effect of Bauhinia variegate bark extract on blood glucose level in normal and alloxanised diabetic rats. J Nat Remedies.

GROUP ASSIGMENT MEMBER:
ASMA KOUSAR
BISMAH SAJID
SAIMA KOUSAR
NIDA GULSHAR
MARUKH ZAIDI

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