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Tests for Central Nervous System
• Reflex Hammer: the reflex hammer is a conventional medical instrument used for the detection of abnormalities in the central nervous system. It is used to test the deep tendon reflexes, and the strength of the reflex is used to gauge the disorders of the central nervous system. The reflex hammer also checks the integrity of the spinal cord. It can detect the presence and location of injury of the spinal cord. The body of upper motor neuron resides in the brain, and any problem of the central nervous system can be identified by the use of a reflex hammer on the location of motor neurons. The patient’s body does not react in response to the reflex of hammer stimulus which indicates that there is some problem with the central nervous system.
• Tuning fork: tuning fork is another tool used to identify the problems of the central nervous system. It is helpful in the identification of axonal damage. Axon is damaged in a wide range of central nervous system disorders. The tuning fork should be placed appropriately on the mastoid bone to identify and determine the disorder and abnormality of the central nervous system. The only portion of the central nervous system visible from the exterior is retina, and its injury can also cause problems and defects of the central nervous system which can be detected with the help of tuning fork by placing it on the cranial nerve. Slight sensations are normal after conduction of test. The patient feels pain as the tuning fork set at the mastoid bone which indicated the presence of a problem.

Tests for peripheral nervous system
• Pinwheel
Pinwheel is used for sensory testing of the problems of the peripheral nervous system. It is used to check the working of sensory receptors of the peripheral nervous system. Sensory receptors detect specific stimuli which are generated with the help of pinwheel. If there is no response, it indicates the abnormality and problem in the peripheral nervous system.

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• Ophthalmoscope
The peripheral nervous system contains 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves along with its branches. The problems of cranial and spinal nerves can be detected with the help of ophthalmoscope. It checks the pressure on the nerves and detects the abnormality or problem in the peripheral nervous system. Peripheral examination of the retina can also be done with the use of an ophthalmoscope.

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