The Elkonin-Davydov system.
Another system that has become popular in Moscow schools is the theory of educational activities and methods of primary education. Elkonin and V.V. Davydov. The Elkonin-Davydov system was developed from 1958 on the basis of the experimental school No. 91 of the Russian Academy of Education.
The peculiarity of this psychological and pedagogical concept is a variety of group discussion forms of work, during which children discover the main content of educational subjects for themselves. Knowledge is not given to children in the form of ready-made rules, axioms, schemes. Unlike the traditional, empirical system, the basis of the courses taught is the system of scientific concepts. Children do not put a mark in primary school, the teacher, together with the students, evaluates the learning outcomes at a qualitative level, which creates an atmosphere of psychological comfort. Homework is kept to a minimum, the learning and consolidation of the teaching material takes place in the classroom. Children do not overwork, their memory is not overloaded with numerous, but insignificant information.
The Waldorf system.
This training system, based on the principles of Waldorf pedagogy, is the most different from the traditional one. It was developed about a hundred years ago in Germany by adherents of the spiritual science of anthroposophy. The process of teaching the child is closely associated with the age features of its development and is constructed in such a way that knowledge of an object is received at the time when it is most prepared for it.
The program is designed for 11 years of training, from the 1st to the 8th grade all the main subjects are taught by one teacher, trained at the Waldorf Center. Assessments to students are not exhibited, they are replaced by pedagogical characteristics. In primary school, much attention is paid to the development of small motor skills in the child, which is closely related to the development of the speech centers of the brain. Children learn to embroider, sculpt, carve wood, stone, and they deal exclusively with natural materials. Even in the extended day group, you will not see a plastic doll, let alone electronic games.
Another important component of the training is eurythmy (artistic musical movement), a variety of physical exercises improve interhemispheric coordination. Compulsory for musicians from Waldorf schools are music lessons: from the 1st grade children learn to play the block-flute as the instrument most appropriate to this age, later on stringed instruments and pianoforte.
Another of the training systems that has become widespread in recent years is the Howard system, used primarily for learning English. This is a technique that has existed for more than a quarter of a century and is recognized in many countries of the world, it is called “English is my second language”.
From the first grade, a number of subjects are taught in English: word formation, natural sciences, social sciences, mathematics and English proper. Since Howard’s method is designed for the American educational standard, which does not coincide with the Russian one, subjects like mathematics or natural science are studied at the same time in the amount provided for by the Russian program in Russian.
In English lessons, the teacher speaks exclusively to children in English, marks are not displayed, the student’s knowledge is evaluated on a multi-point system, and while the student does not fully master the material of any section, he does not pass to the next stage of training – the classes are of the individual type. English is taught using biblical texts, which is not regarded as religious education, but aims to familiarize the student with the world’s cultural heritage.