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The issue of health and safety culture first gained the interest and attention of worlds management practitioners and academicians during the late 1980s only. This was due largely to investigations done on the Chernobyl accident about the causes of the catastrophic disaster. This further set the precedent for many investigations on safety culture about the causes of major catastrophes across the world and in these investigations among others strongly suggested poor safety culture as the causes of these disasters.
According to the International Labour Organization (2003), about 317 million people had accident annually on job performance, almost 6,300 people die every day through accident on job performance, and at least 2.3 million deaths per year occur due to poor health and safety policies at work. These significant human losses affect productivity of companies or organization, the economic burden of the victims and nation at large. Globally, poor health and safety measure results in the loos of 4 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which is associated with the direct cost unsafe and unhealthy work environment. Empirical it’s believed that Indirect cost is about two to three times the direct cost associated with these unsafe and healthy work practices which thus affect global percentage of GDP lost to countries and institutions (ILO, 2003).
The International Labour Organization (ILO, 2003) argue that adequate protection of workers from injuries and sickness arises as a results of good working environment through occupational health and safety. The ILO is of the view that workers need to be heed and given equal status with those of other stakeholders in the workplace to ensuring effective and efficient business development. Workers health and safety culture is very important element that protect workers from been harmed during work, and the loss of life and suffering of workers is avoided. The ability of organization and institutions to enhance occupation health and safety by enabling workers to live longer and happier by improving their economic activity through the reduction in the demand of health and social services that are associated with injuries and illness on the community and individual bases (Cudjoe, 2011).
ILO argues that improving the worker occupational health and safety should be in the interest of all stakeholders and the formulation of policies on occupational safety and health needs the concern of all employees. In the past employers were only concern with profits and productivity of their workers and not the health and safety needs of their workers (Cudjoe, 2011). Employers use not to put more emphasis on Safety and health policies and most of the employees sustain some degrees of injury during working activities. The ILO in 1959 however, recommended the establishment of occupational safety and health service in all firms to promote the health and safety concerns of employees.
The Ghana labour Act (Act 651, 2003) gives protection to workers in Ghana in terms of their health and safety at the work place. Through the labour Act management of organization are supposed to protect the workers from injuries and to ensure that all employees work under satisfactory condition. The act fails to address the issue of appointment of safety and health officers in all organizations in Ghana hence most firms do not have safety directors to monitor and evaluate hazards that threaten the health of workers.
The Volta River Authority/Northern Electricity Distribution Company as an institution in Ghana has an objective of taking health and safety initiatives of employee unions within the organization to improve on the quality of working life of all the employees. The VRA/NEDCO which is a very high risk organization influences occupational safety and health outcomes in several ways through the safety rules which provides job hazard information to employees. It frowns on employees who refuse to go by the Safety Rules of the Company since in the event of injury and death at the work place will affect the financial stability of the family. If individual families lose their ability to support or provide for their families then becomes dependent on the services of government for public assistance for their health care, food and housing. Costs which are direct such as medical bills and replacement of lost wages are insured and are well documented. However, the indirect cost such as opportunity costs, lost hours of production, years of work, ability to earn and the hardship placed on the injured employee are great and are not measured.
Kirsten, (2010) added that the health of an employees is considered by health economists as a business factor both in terms of cost and from an assets perspective. Productivity of workforce is very crucial in sustaining all organizations and firms; hence health of employees should be incorporated into goals and mission set by managers in organizations since it is a factor in productivity (Koopman, 2002). For this reason, Ezzedine, (2008), argue that countries of ILO should make a point to have health and safety systems that management will protect and promote the health of workers in other to minimizes injuries and protect workers.
Since human capital is very important in the productivity of a firm, the safety and health of all employees should not be overlooked in the determination of productive of workers. It is therefore important that safety and health legislation, change in attitude of both employer and employee towards the issues of safety and health in an organization will improve productivity, since safe business means safe work (ILO, 2003).

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