The primary structure of life can be traced to cells. all living things like plants and animals are all made up of cells. All living things have many characteristics and functions in common. Order, Reproduction, Response to the environment, Regulation, Growth and Development, Homeostasis, and Energy processing are all characteristics and functions of all living things. Characteristics and function are what determine the structure of life. The eukaryotic and the prokaryotic are two major categories of cells. Eukaryotic cells are what make up all, plant, fungi, and animals. These are withal kenned as eukaryotes. Prokaryotic cells can be found in organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea. More primitive Prokaryotic cells are different from Eukaryotic cells because Eukaryotic cells have an organelles membrane a nuclear membrane and chromosomal proteins. Structures perform specific functions in the organelles membrane. The nuclear membrane is in the eukaryotic cells and this is where most of the eukaryotic cell DNA is held and controls all the activity within the cell. DNA replication and transcription take place in the nucleus of a cell. In the Ribosomes is where transcription of the mRNA takes place, and then carries out protein synthesis for the cell. Ribosomes start their work inside the cytoplasm. In the nucleus is where Ribosomes are made and conveyed through the pores of the nucleus into the cytoplasm. The cytosol is where ribosomes are suspended, and the production of protein remains in the fluid of the cell. There are also ribosomes that are attached to the outside of the nucleus or an organelle, which is also known as the endoplasmic reticulum, where producing proteins that are corporate into the membranes or secreted by the cell. The endoplasmic reticulum has two major types: Smooth and Rough ER. The responsibility of the smooth ER is for lipid synthesis and processing metabolic process like drug detoxification and lack of ribosomes. The rough ER is responsible for protein synthesis because of the presence of ribosomes. Ribosomes are essential for protein assembly, including enzymes which are consequential for cellular functions. Cell membrane are withal consequential and cell walls are found in plant cells. Both are responsible for regulating the ingression and the exit of substances and particles maintaining an internal balance. The Golgi Apparatuses has a primary function to process and package the macromolecules such as protein and lipids that are synthesized by the cell. The Golgi Apparatus is responsible for shipping vessels distributed from the smooth ER. A cell is mostly dihydrogen monoxide but does have carbon predicated molecules. Carbon skeletons of molecules that are obligatory for life functions. Astronomically immense molecules are called macromolecules. Macromolecules are polymers. Polymers are composed when more minute molecules called monomers are strung together. Cells link monomers together to compose through a chemical reaction that abstracts a molecule of dihydrogen monoxide. This chemical reaction is kenned as dehydrated reaction. Each monomer integrated to the chain of a polymer a dihydrogen monoxide molecule is relinquished, and the polymer becomes more sizably voluminous. When you digest macromolecules, which then reconstitute the monomers into the macromolecules that make up your body. Chloroplast are only found in plant cells and use sunlight to engender energy via photosynthesis. Plants and other organisms convert light energy into chemical energy that can then be later relinquished to then fuel the organism’s activities, this is a process called photosynthesis. Chemical energy is then stored in the carbohydrates molecules, like sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and dihydrogen monoxide. During the process when sugar is being made, plant cells withal lock some of the energy they amassed from sunlight into the sugar molecules. Inside an animal or plant cells is where you will find Mitochondria and is the site for cellular respiration. Metabolic reaction takes place inside the cells organisms then it converts biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that releases out waste products, this process is known as cellular respiration. Hydrolysis is where lysosomes digest organelles, which break down macromolecules in the cell. For a cell to survive, it requires selective isolation from its environment, which is done through the plasma membrane and energy through ATP and cellular respiration. The cell membrane is composed of the phospholipid bilayer which supplementally has proteins embedded in it. Proteins inside the plasma membrane have a responsibility to maintain homeostasis through convey by acting as a receptor site in the immune system from cell to cell appreciation. There are two phases in cellular respiration: one is glycolysis, where glucose is broken down to pyruvic acid and second where oxidation of pyruvic acid becomes carbon dioxide and dihydrogen monoxide. In the eukaryotes, glycolysis occurs in the cytosol and the rest of the process in the mitochondria. Cellular reproduction is another consequential process for the cell and is how incipient cells are composed. Mitosis and Meiosis is the process where cells reproduce. Meiosis only occurs for gamete cells or sex cells whereas mitosis occurs from the rest of the cell. The process of cellular reproduction is where cells duplicate their contents and transfer them to their daughter cell. Cellular reproduction is essential for day to day activity and human magnification. Mitosis engenders two identical daughter cells and has the responsibility of reproduction of the somatic cells or non-sex cells. Mitosis is withal responsible for sexual reproduction. Meiosis engenders 4 genetically different daughter cells and leads to the engenderment of germ cells or sex cells, which is additionally paramount for sexual reproduction and is a source of genetic diversity through crossing over. The reason humans can sexually reproduce is because of Meiosis.