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The revised scales to measure improvement implementation are depicted in Table 6.26. Based on the factor analysis results, these possess high construct validity which implies that the questions actually measure what they are designed to measure,( Hair et al., 2010; Stangor, 2011).

Revised Scales Item List
Shop floor performance (SFP) • Over1: Overall, the performance of my improvement activities was a success in my company
• Over2: Overall, my improvement activities were vital in my company
• Cont1: My improvement activities have a positive effect on the shop floor area
• Cont2: This shop floor area improved measurably as a result of my improvement activities
• Cont3: My improvement activities have improved the performance of this shop floor area
• KSk9: Overall, the improvement activities helped me and my colleagues work together to improve performance
Shop floor skills
(SFK) • KSk5: I can communicate new ideas as a result of participation in improvement activities
• KSk6: I gained new production skills as a result of participation in improvement activities
• KSk7: In general, the participation in improvement activities motivated me to perform better
Sense of participation
(Sens) • Sp1: I like taking part in the current improvement activities
• Sp2: I would like to take part in the improvement activities in the future
• Sp3: In general, I am comfortable working with others to identify improvements on my shop floor area
• KSk8: Overall, the improvement activities increased my work interests
Improvement Knowledge (IpKn) • KSk1: Overall, the improvement activities increased my knowledge of what CI is
• KSk2: In general, the improvement activities increased my knowledge of how CI should be applied
• KSk3: Overall, the improvement activities increased my knowledge of the need for CI
• KSk4: In general, the improvement activities increased my knowledge of my role in CI
Table 6.26 The revised measures for improvement outcomes

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Summary

This chapter elaborated the data collection and screening procedures. The data were collected from 10 Indo-Japanese automotive joint ventures. A questionnaire was derived from pretested and validated questions. It was distributed using the self-administered method. 1000 questionnaires were distributed of which 527 were returned. However, 25 (6.8%) contained missing values, so 502 were valid samples, giving a response rate of 50.0.2%. SPSS was used to assess the construct validity and summarise the patterns of the collected samples.

In the subsequent chapter, the theoretical model will be developed. Thereafter, structural equation modelling with path analysis will be used to analyse the data, shape the proposed theoretical model, and test the hypotheses.

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