University of Sharjah
College of Arts, Humanities and Social SciencesDepartment of English Language and Literature- DELL
Ahmad S.H Ramadan – U16104720
Houzifa Mohamed Taib – U16104647
Instructor: Dr. Abdul Latif
Technical Writing (0202207) – Spring Semester 2018
Contact: [email protected] , [email protected] date: 30th May, 2018
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Abstract PAGEREF _Toc512878906 h 41-Introduction: PAGEREF _Toc512878907 h 52-The History of Disaster Management: PAGEREF _Toc512878908 h 63-Types of Disasters: PAGEREF _Toc512878909 h 73.1- Natural Disaster: PAGEREF _Toc512878910 h 73.1.1- Tornados: PAGEREF _Toc512878911 h 83.1.2- Earthquake: PAGEREF _Toc512878912 h 83.1.3- Floods: PAGEREF _Toc512878913 h 93.1.4 – Tsunami: PAGEREF _Toc512878914 h 103.2- Human Disasters: PAGEREF _Toc512878915 h 103.2.1- Oil Spill: PAGEREF _Toc512878916 h 114-Disaster Management Cycle: PAGEREF _Toc512878917 h 125-Stages of Disaster Management Cycle: PAGEREF _Toc512878918 h 125.1- Mitigation: PAGEREF _Toc512878919 h 135.1.1- Types of Mitigation Activities: PAGEREF _Toc512878920 h 135.2- Preparedness: PAGEREF _Toc512878921 h 135.3- Response: PAGEREF _Toc512878922 h 145.4- Recovery: PAGEREF _Toc512878923 h 146-Emergency Management System: PAGEREF _Toc512878924 h 156.1- Tracking system: PAGEREF _Toc512878925 h 156.2- Telemedicine: PAGEREF _Toc512878926 h 156.3- Advanced ACN: PAGEREF _Toc512878927 h 156.4- Early Warning System: PAGEREF _Toc512878928 h 157-The Role of Technology in Disaster Management: PAGEREF _Toc512878929 h 167.1- GIS: PAGEREF _Toc512878930 h 167.2- Remote Sensing in Disaster: PAGEREF _Toc512878931 h 167.3- GPS: PAGEREF _Toc512878932 h 178-Conclusion and Recommendations: PAGEREF _Toc512878933 h 189- References: PAGEREF _Toc512878934 h 1910- Appendix: PAGEREF _Toc512878935 h 20
List of Figures:
TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1: Selected Notable Disasters Throughout History. PAGEREF _Toc512796730 h 7Figure 2: Natural types of disasters PAGEREF _Toc512796731 h 8Figure 3: The deadliest earthquakes in history PAGEREF _Toc512796732 h 10Figure 4: Deadliest natural disasters since 1900. PAGEREF _Toc512796733 h 11Figure 5: Man-Made and Technological Types of Disasters PAGEREF _Toc512796734 h 12Figure 6: The disaster risk management cycle. PAGEREF _Toc512796735 h 13
AbstractThe disaster is the occasion that happens without any expectation. The term ‘Disaster’ is freely utilized to allude to as any occurrence, artificial mishap, or normal event that may influence the operation of the venture in whatever way. ‘Disaster management can be characterized as “The organization and administration of assets and obligations for managing with all compassionate perspectives of crises, in specific readiness, reaction and recuperation in arrange to reduce the effect of disasters”. There are two sorts of disaster Human and Natural disaster. Disasters have influenced not only people but animals as well and any living thing on earth. It causes mass harm of development or misfortune of economy. It gives exceptionally awful effect on the economy of the nation. Crisis administration can be encourage characterized as the teach and calling of applying science, innovation, arranging and administration to bargain with extraordinary occasions that can harm or murder huge numbers of individuals, do broad harm to property, and disturb community life. The disaster management cycle Consists of four stages and they are mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. Each stage is like a step that could help people when a disaster happens. Also, technology plays a great role in disaster management. There are some technologies or tools that can be very helpful in reducing the impact of the disasters. The GIS is one of those tools that are used in disaster management.
Introduction:Disaster management is the discipline of avoiding and managing each natural and semisynthetic disasters. Disasters are Extraordinary harm, misfortune, devastation and annihilation to life and property are the comes about of disaster. The limitless harm caused by catastrophe changes with the geological area. Unfavorably disasters influenced people since the first light of our presence. In reaction, individuals and societies alike have made a few makes an endeavor to diminish their presentation to the comes about of those disasters, developing measures to handle beginning affect, still as post-disaster reaction and recovery needs. despite the approach received, all those endeavors have a comparative objective: disaster management. The propelling concepts that direct catastrophe management—the lessening of hurt to life, property, and the environment are the same all through the world. In any case, the capacity to carry out this mission is by no implies uniform. Whether due to political, social, financial, or other reasons, the disastrous reality is that a few nations and a few districts are more able than others at addressing the issue. No country in any case of its riches or impact, is progressed sufficient to be fully immune from disasters’ negative impacts. Moreover, the development of a worldwide economy makes it more and more troublesome to contain the results of any disaster inside one country’s borders.
The History of Disaster Management:center446722500Hazards, and the disasters that usually result, haven’t continuously existed. To qualify as a hazard, an action, event, or object should maintain a positive probability of poignant man or presumably have a consequence that may adversely influence man’s existence. Neither the probability nor the consequence factors of hazards were calculable till humans existed on the earth, so their presence is negated. With the looks of man, however, followed the incidence of hazards and disasters. Anthropology discovery has shown that our prehistoric ancestors Janus-faced several of similar risks that exist today: starvation, inhospitable components, dangerous life, violence at the hands of different humans, disease, accidental injuries, and more. These early inhabitants didn’t, however, sit lazily by and become simple victims. Evidence indicates that they took measures to cut back, or mitigate, their risks. The mere incontrovertible fact that they selected to inhabit caves is testament to the current theory. In the past, a huge number of people died from disasters as shown in figure (1) because the disaster can happen anytime. Nobody knows when a disaster will happen or where but with the time being and using technologies disasters can be predicted.
508002313305Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: Selected Notable Disasters Throughout History.Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: Selected Notable Disasters Throughout History.
Types of Disasters:The types of disasters are classified in two categories: natural and human-made disasters.
3.1- Natural Disaster:center233807000This type of disaster is dangerous which are caused since of normal phenomena (hazards with meteorological, geographical, or even organic beginning). Cases of natural hazards are tornados, tsunamis, earthquake and volcanic emission which are exclusively of common root. Landslides, floods, dry season, fires are socio-natural hazards since their causes are both natural and man-made. For illustration flooding may be caused since of overwhelming downpours, landslide or blocking of channels with human squander. Figure (2) show some other examples of natural disasters:
center4445Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: Natural types of disastersFigure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: Natural types of disasters
3.1.1- Tornados:Tornadoes are storms that strike as a capable turning blend of wind and electrical storm clouds, amplifying from the clouds to the ground in a pipe shape. They are known to be the foremost effective and damaging climatic produced wonders (wind frameworks), and are exceptionally common within the USA, especially from the center belt extending to the east coast. Every year, there’s a normal of 800 tornadoes that hit different parts of the USA. Indeed, although numerous of them are exceptionally mellow and can be seen as fair solid winds, there has been several tornadoes that have been very devastating and straightened many homes, schools and structures along its way. Tornado episodes are dispersed all year through, shaping especially in late spring with the foremost occurrences happening within the summer and diminishing in numbers and qualities within the drop.
3.1.2- Earthquake:When two blocks of earth suddenly start moving and slip past one another it will cause a huge shake and that is called an earthquake. Earthquake occurs mostly on faults and faults is the part where one of the tectonic plate slip on the other plate. The plate boundaries are the edges of the plate and those edges are rough. When plate start moving the whole plate will move except the edges they will get stuck since they are rough. When the plate keeps moving for a certain of time the edges will unstick and start moving and there is an earthquake. This type of disasters has killed a large number of people especially in China in January 23,1556 where 830,000 people have been killed at that day. Also, in many other countries the same thing happened like Syria and Indonesia as shown in figure (3).
619125304165Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: The deadliest earthquakes in history0Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: The deadliest earthquakes in history
3.1.3- Floods:Floods are normal events where a land that’s ordinarily dry suddenly gets to be submerged in water. In basic terms, surge can be characterized as a flood of huge amounts of water onto an ordinarily dry land. Flooding happens in numerous ways due to flood of streams, streams, lakes or seas or because of over the top rain. Numerous conditions result in flooding. Storms, clogged drainages, dam breakage Lakes and Coastal Flooding are a few of the conditions that have driven to flooding in different locales over the globe. When flooding happens, there’s the plausibility of misfortune of life, hardship to individuals, and significant damage to property. Typically, since flooding can carry bridges, cars, houses, and indeed individuals. Flooding moreover devastates crops and can wipe absent trees and other imperative structures on land. A few floods happen suddenly and recede quickly while others take a few days or indeed months to make and to retreat since of variety in measure, length, and the zone influenced.
3.1.4 – Tsunami:85725341376000right4770120Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: Deadliest natural disasters since 1900.Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: Deadliest natural disasters since 1900.Tsunami is an arrangement of waves with long wavelength and period ordinarily created by a collision of two lands under the sea or movement close the coast or within the sea. When a sudden relocation of a huge volume of water happens, or if the ocean floor is all of a sudden raised or dropped by an earthquake, huge waves can be shaped. The waves travel out of the range of root and can be very unsafe and harming when they reach the shore. Those waves can assault the shoreline and be perilous for hours. Every 5 to 60 minutes there is a wave. The primary wave may not be the biggest. Regularly it is the 2nd, 3rd, 4th or indeed afterward waves that are the greatest. Tsunamis can cause a huge damage to buildings and houses. Also, many people have died from tsunamis especially in china where more than one million people have died from a tsunami that happened in 1931 as shown in figure (4).
3.2- Human Disasters:Disasters moreover can be caused by people. Unsafe materials crises incorporate chemical spills and groundwater defilement. Fires are more common and can cause critical property harm and misfortune of life. Some other examples like oil spill, airplane crash and cyber-attack as shown in figure (5) Communities are moreover helpless to dangers postured by radical bunches who utilize viciousness against both individuals and property. High-risk targets incorporate military and civilian government offices, worldwide airplane terminals, huge cities and high-profile points of interest. Cyber-terrorism includes assaults against computers and systems done to threaten or coerce a government or its individuals for political or social goals.
7239001963420Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5: Man-Made and Technological Types of DisastersFigure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5: Man-Made and Technological Types of Disasters16383002984500
3.2.1- Oil Spill:Defilement of ocean water because of oil pour, as a result of a mischance or human blunder is named as oil spill. Oil is among the foremost important vitality sources within the world and since of its uneven conveyance, it is transported by ships over the seas and by pipelines over the lands. This has come about in a few mishaps within the past whereas exchanging the oil to vessels, amid transportation, breaking of pipelines, as well as whereas penetrating within the earth’s hull. Whereas gigantic and disastrous spills get most of the consideration, littler and persistent ones happen on a standard premise. These spills sully the coasts and estuaries and can cause genuine wellbeing issues to human creatures. Oil is a blend of hydrocarbon compounds, which are the rotted remains of marine creatures and plants that died and stayed in the depth of the sea. these remains changed into petroleum which is a complicated hydrocarbon. Unrefined oil is a blend of gas, naphtha, lamp fuel, light gas, and residuals, which causes dangerous wellbeing impacts if devoured by any life shapes.
Disaster Management Cycle:The disaster management cycle is a cycle that has stages to cut back or halt disasters. It could be a cyclic strategy which it means that the end of a stage is that the beginning of another stage, although next stage may begin sometime before the completion of previous stage. Sometimes numerous stages happen at the same time. In each stage, preparing well and taking time in making decisions will leads to greater planning, higher notices, and halt any disasters. The disaster management cycle incorporates the forming of open arrangements and plans that addresses the causes of disasters and alter their impacts on people, property, and framework.
Stages of Disaster Management Cycle:The disaster management cycle consists of four different stages. Those stages are mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. Figure (6) shows a brief description for each stage.
9334503387725Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6: The disaster risk management cycle.Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6: The disaster risk management cycle.center3492500
5.1- Mitigation:Mitigation is that the effort to scale back loss of life and property by diminishing the impact of disasters. it refers to all or any actions taken before a disaster to reduce its impact. As for mitigation to be effective some actions should be done before any coming disaster to cut back human and monetary consequences later. It is important to understand that disasters will happen at anytime and anyplace and without preparations, consequences will be fatal. As the results are difficult to predict and the number of disasters is expanding each year. Public education and building codes and zoning are example for mitigation. It includes implementing preventive health measures, reviewing building codes, and zoning and land-use management.
5.1.1- Types of Mitigation Activities:There are two types of mitigation activities, structural and non-structural mitigation. The structural mitigation is about constructing projects to cut back social impacts and economic. The non-structural mitigation is about the arrangements which raise consciousness of risks. Non-structural mitigation activities empower improvements to reduce disaster impact.
5.2- Preparedness:Preparedness indicates the measures taken to plan for and decrease the impacts of disasters. That’s to anticipate, where possible, stop the disasters, relieve their effect on population, react to and adapt with their results. It includes system of early warning, emergency exercises, preparedness plans and public education. Through early warning systems people can react fittingly once any early warning is issued. preparation actions rely upon the incorporation of appropriate measures for development plans at national and regional level. To save lives and minimize disaster injury, people, government and organization develop plans and this all is finished in preparation stage. “We cannot stop natural disasters, but we can arm ourselves with knowledge: so many lives wouldn’t have to be lost if there was enough disaster preparedness” (Petra Nemcova, 2002, p.10).
The main goal of Response is to offer instant help to keep up life, improve health and hindrance the morale of affected population. Reaction addresses quick menace bestowed by the disaster, as well as saving lives, meeting humanitarian desires, cleanup and harm assessment. restoring utilities, repairing, establishing operations for public services, and finishing the cleanup method are the main focus of this stage. This stage includes assisting refugees with transport, give temporary shelter and food and repairing damage infrastructure.
Recovery is that the restoration of all aspects of the disaster’s effect on a community and the comeback of the native economy to some sense of normalcy. By now, the compact region has achieved a degree of physical, environmental, economic and social stability. The recovery part of disaster is divided into two parts. The short-run part usually lasts from six months to a minimum of one year and involves delivering immediate services to businesses. “While natural disasters capture headlines and national attention short-term, the work of recovery and rebuilding is long-term” (Sylvia, 2004, p.140). The long part, which might vary up to decades, needs thoughtful strategic designing and action to deal with a lot of serious or permanent impacts of a disaster. Investment in economic advancement capability building gets to be basic to enhance economic broadening, attain new resources, build new partnerships and implement effective recovery methods and techniques. Communities should access and deploy a variety of public and personal resources to change long economic recovery.
Emergency Management System:The EMS can simplify the efficient management of disaster. It is a technological tool that can enhance the system of disaster management and bolster all the stages of the disaster management cycle.
6.1- Tracking system:The advance Vehicle-mounted instrumentation is able to track the cargo of disaster management and once cargo carrying Unsafe materials goes wide from its course centers of disaster management problems notification to management centers.
6.2- Telemedicine:It is an association between emergency medical facilities that are obtainable very near and ambulances. By exploitation telemedicine doctors will provide advices to medical personnel for the treatment of people who are on the way to the hospital.
6.3- Advanced ACN:The advanced ACN stands for Advanced automated collision notification. The function of the ACN is to inform the emergency personnel about incidents like collision through vehicle mounted sensors. The location and characteristics of the incident will be provided as well.
6.4- Early Warning System:The early warning system is provided using different kinds of sensors in transportation infrastructure. Large scale disasters, human disasters and emergencies can be detected using the early warning system
The Role of Technology in Disaster Management:The Advanced Information Technology is considered to be an important part in planning for reducing the effect of disasters. It includes different types of technology like GIS, remote sensing, satellite communication and internet. Those tools are used and useful in the management of any disaster.
7.1- GIS:GIS stands for ‘Geographic Information System’. GIS is basically kind of information system that can store, analyze, integrate, share, edit and display geographically referenced information. It can simply provide the consequences of some operations that are created by GIS like interactive queries, edit data and different maps. GIS is a way to improve the quality and power of analysis of assessments of natural hazards. There are some useful applications for GIS like it can create a hazard inventory map where the study of the developmental project’s pre-feasibility can be done by GIS very efficiently. Also, it can locate some important facilities like shelters, physical locations of drains and other physical facilities. It can provide an accurate and reliable information about the location of the incident so, it saves a lot of time. When there is an issue in an area the GIS gives a fast response to that area. It can also provide a summary about the affected area like the number of people who got injured or affected, what has been damaged and where. This type of information system plays a great role in the disaster management.
7.2- Remote Sensing in Disaster:Remote sensing is a successful tool in disaster management. It contains a recording device that uses electronic magnetic waves radiations to get the information about any object or incident. Also, it contains human-made sensors that are connected to aircrafts and satellites. It can provide a large and clear image about any area and detect features at invisible wavelengths which it helps professionals in mapping the high and low risk areas. This type of technology saves a lot of time because the data and information can be recorded without being in the site. The remote sensing can be useful in hurricanes where it can help in including drainage and density in the watersheds and amount of water it can contains from rains associated with the storm. Using remote sensing will help the experts in figuring out the change in landscape and observing the recovery progress. Moreover, it can predict future landslide incident so, people will be prepared well to deal with this kind of incidents.
7.3- GPS:The GPS is one of the important tools that are used in disaster management. This kind of technologies can be helpful in predicting some disasters like earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding etc. It can measure the size of an earthquake and detect structural problems in roads and buildings. Moreover, GPS is helpful in monitoring the height of tsunami waves and the deformation of the ground that can be done by a volcanic activity.
Conclusion and Recommendations:Different ways of minimizing the impact of a disaster have been covered in this report. Many people are dying and suffering from disasters. Many countries like India or USA are exposed to disasters every year. The disaster can happen any time anywhere and some actions should be done to mitigate the damage that could be done by any disaster. Many countries like India or USA are exposed to disasters every year. They take a lot of damage where many houses, buildings and cars can be destroyed due for example a hurricane. A variety of tools and technologies can be used in disaster management like GIS, GPS, early warning system, remote sensing etc. The uses of each tool have been discussed in the report. Those tools can help experts and professionals in dealing with disasters where they basically provide very accurate information about any area that is damaged or the coming disaster. The disaster management system has developed and became an intelligent system. Those tools and technologies were not available in the past but after years of researching, exploration and studying, everything changed. People discovered new things that can change our lives into a better life. Those Tools are one of the things that are discovered lately so, using them will help us to know how to deal with disasters and how to decrease the impact or the damage that can be done by disasters.
9- References:- Brassard, C. Giles, D.W. Howitt.A.M. (2014). Natural disaster management in the Asia-pacific. Tokyo: Springer.
– Bumgarner, J, B. (2008). Emergency management California, US: ABCCLIO.
– Canton, L, G. (2006). Emergency management concepts and strategies for effective programs.
– Coppola, D. (2006). Introduction to international disaster management. British, BH: British library cataloguing –in-publication data.
– Duncan, K. Berbbia, C.A. disaster Management and Human Health Risk. Boston, Southampton WITpress.
– Kieschenbaum, A. (2003). Chaos organization and disaster management.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Retrieved from Restore your economy : http://restoreyoureconomy.org/disaster-overview/types-of-disasters/
– Schneid, T. Collins, L. (2000). Disaster management and preparedness. CRC Press, Taylor ;Francis Group.
– Staff, L. S. (2005, March 27). Retrieved from Livescience: https://www.livescience.com/6932-deadliest-earthquakes-history.html
10- Appendix: The tsunami consists of multiple waves. After one wave inundates, or surges inland, it subsides toward the ocean frequently as distant as an individual can see so the seafloor is uncovered. The next wave at that point surges aground inside minutes and carries with it numerous coasting flotsam and jetsam that were crushed by past waves. When waves enter harbors, exceptionally solid and perilous water streams are produced that can effortlessly break dispatch moorings, and bores that travel distant inland can be shaped when tsunamis enter waterways or other conduit channels.
When an earthquake happens, a large amount of energy gets released and that energy is called aftershocks but there is also a large amount of energy that get released before the main quake happens which is called foreshocks. When one plate slips on the other plate, the rocks will start breaking and, in this point, where the breaking rocks occurs is called focus. The epicenter is located directly above the focus. The strongest shake happens in this part of earth’s surface. The waves of energy that are in the epicenter start traveling outwardly towards the focus so, this point is like the central point of shaking. Most of the damage happens in the epicenter since the strongest shake occurs in that point.