Yanbu Industrial College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Cooperative Training Report
Prepared by: –
Moath Yahya Al-Faifi
Supervised by: –
Eng. Mohammed Pasha
First of all, I would like to thank Allah for his blessing and protection that he gives them to me throughout my scientific and practical life and for helping me to finish my coop final report and for completing most of my courses successfully.
In addition, I would like to give a big thank to Yanbu Industrial College especially Department of Mechanical Engineering for giving to me this great opportunity to get an experience in dealing and communicating with other people from different nationalities and cultures to be able to work in field and also for supporting me during the 14 weeks of my coop training period. A special thanks to Engr. Mohammed Pasha and Engr. Mohamed Kasmuri for their support and help throughout all my training period.
Also, I would like to thank Petrochemical Industrial Company (NATPET) and all the employees that are working there for having me with them as training student. Huge thanks to the people who are working in the Reliability and Engineering Department sech as Condition Monitoring Section, Inspection Section and Technical Section. They were very supportive and helpful during the training. Of course, I cannot forget my supervisor Engr. Abdulrahman Safer for helping me a lot and giving me such a support.
At the end, I am particularly grateful my friends for their support and helping during my studies. I would also like to thank my parents and a special goes to my roommate for their kindness and support throughout my educational life.
Table of Contents
Chapter I 1
Chapter I: Introduction 2
About NATPET 2
NATPET’s Product and Its Uses 2
Plants of NATPET 2
PDH – Propane Dehydronation 2
PP- Polypropylene 3
NATPET Raw Material and Sources 3
Department of NATPET 4
MATPET Vision, Mission and Goals 4
Chapter II 5
Chapter II: Safety 6
General Safety Rules that should be Followed in NATPET Company 6
Work Permits 7
Hot Work Permit 7
Cold Work Permit 7
Confined Space Enter Permit 7
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 8
Head Protection 8
Eye Protection 9
Hearing Protection 9
Hand Protection 9
Body Protection 10
Foot Protection 10
Chapter III 11
Chapter 2: Theoretical Background 12
Inspection Section: 12
Code ; Standard: 13
ASME Section II is about materials: 13
ASME Section V 14
ASME Section VIII: 15
ASME Section IX: 16
Inspection Tools and equipment: 16
Borescope Camera: 16
Videoscope System: 16
XRF Alloy analyzer-XMET 8000 SMART: 17
UT Thickness Meter, 38DL plus with accessories: 17
Hardness tester (Equotip-3): 17
MPI Kit: 18
DPT Kit including Cleaner, Penetrant ;Developer: 18
Samsung Galaxy Camera (SM-C101): 18
Fillet Welding Gauge: 19
Multi Check Welding Gauge: 19
Filler Gauge: 20
Dr. Trap: 20
Chapter IV 21
Chapter IV: Training work: 22
Work Number 1: Witness Recalibration of Relief Valve Test. 22
Work Number 2: Wall Thickness Check by using Ultrasonic Thickness Gage and External Visual Inspection. 26
Work Number 3: Welding Inspection by Using Penetrant Examination (PE) and identify defect 29
Work Number 4: Visual Examination to inspect the Boiler through Peep door and thermography camera. 34
Work Number 5: Visual Examination to inspect the Outer and Inner Screen in Laydown Area: 36
Work Number 6: Using Borescope to inspect the pipe line choke: 36
Chapter V 37
Chapter V: Conclusion 38
Chapter I: Introduction
National Petrochemical Industrial Company (NATPET) is a joint stock Saudi company. NATPET was founded in 1999. Its locution is on Saudi Arabi’s west coast in Yanbu Industrial City 320 kilo mater north of Jeddah. NATPET company produces a large quantity of Polypropylene (PP) that is suitable for different application. NATPET produces a capacity of 400 kilo ton per year of PP and Propylene since 2008. The company is divided into two plants that are Propane Dehydrogenation plant (PDH) and Polypropylene plant (PPP). In the PDH plant, the company uses the technology of UOP’s Oleflex in order to convert Propane gas to Propylene gas. In the PPP plant, the company uses the technology of the state of the art Lyondell Basel’s Spheripol to convert Propylene gas into PP pellets.
NATPET’s Product and Its Uses
NATPET produces many different grades of PP product that are mixed of chemistry compounds such as Random Terpolymers, Homopolymers, Random Copolymer, and specialty Impact Copolymers and then selling these products under name of Teldene.
PP product is a thermoplastic crystalline. It is the lightest in weight polymer compared to the other thermoplastic. When this PP is ignited, it burns with an acidic smell and non-smoky flame. Actually, this product is tasteless and non-toxic. PP has different properties, such as rigidity, light weight, high surface gloss, heat resistance, toughness and chemical resistance.
PP product has different application, such as food packing house ware, cosmetic, medical, hosiery, sheets and films, fiber, caps and closures, engineering parts and tools, and automotive.
Plants of NATPET
PDH – Propane Dehydronation
PDH plant uses UPO’s Oleflex technology to produce 400 kilo ton per year of propylene gas from propane gas that is received from Aramco
PP plant uses Basell’s Spheripol technology to produce 400 kill ton per year of PP pellets from Propylene gas that is received from PDH plant.
NATPET Raw Material and Sources
Raw Material Sources
Propane Saudi Aramco Refinery
Ethylene SABIC – YANPET
Water Royal Commission for Yanbu
Power (Electricity) SABIC – MARAFIQ
Hydrogen Own Generation
Nitrogen SABIC – GAS
Catalyst and Chemical Global Vender
The process starts with Propane and sales Gas (from ARAMCO) combine together is some chemical process to give Propylene in PDH plant then is sent to PP plant combined with Ethylene (from SABIC – YANBET) is some chemical process to produce the final product which is PP. It is preferring for dry or wet process and easily fabricated. After PP convert from liquid to solid (pellets) it stored in silos for packing.
Department of NATPET
1- PDH Department
2- PP and Utility Plant
3- PP – Product Section
4- PDH Logistic
6- Reliability and Engineering Department
7- Process Engineer and Technology
8- Technical Project and Inspection Department
MATPET Vision, Mission and Goals
To be known as one of the major universal players in producing and selling the best top quality and quantity of PP product.
NATPET militates and strives to be a company of best and preferred choice in relation to its society, employees, suppliers, customers and stakeholders.
• To meet development needs of the Saudi’s society.
• To make the community richer throughout each activity.
• To become the employer of choice.
• To provide opportunities for learning and growth to all the employees.
• To operate and work at the highest safety standers for assets, employees and environment.
• To exceed the expectation of our customers.
• To add value to the needs of the shareholders.
Chapter II: Safety
In any company safety is the top priority because when incidents happen it will destroy employ life, company property and the environment. Mostly accident happen because of care lessens of people. The company employ most have winning attitude to work with all safety practice otherwise the employ will not fallow the safety standards and incident will happen. The aim of Safety Department in NATPET to reach zero incident inside the plant because they know that accidents cause financial burden and reputation destroy for the company and their employment. Basic safety standards are the make the place of work safe for you and your coworker.
General Safety Rules that should be Followed in NATPET Company
? Ensure your own safety and healthy at work.
? Avoid putting any other person in danger.
? Respect the traffic signs inside the plant.
? Mobile phones are not allowed inside NATPET Company.
? Don’t forget to put on your seat belt while driving.
? Smoking is prohibited, except in demarcated and allocated smoking areas.
? Eating and drinking inside the plant is not allowed, excepted in allocated areas.
? Response to plant emergency alarm.
? You must have permit to perform any activity inside the plant.
? Full body herness with lanyards must be worn when working at height.
? Proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) must be worn for the required work.
? Follow proper and safe techniques when lifting heavy objects.
? Use the right tool for the job.
Permit to work in NATPET is a written document authorizing a person or a group of persons to perform specific task as identified on the Work Permit and subject to specific conditions and precautions. There are a number of different permits used on different jobs that are:
1. Hot Work Permit
2. Cold Work Permit
3. Confined Work Permit
Hot Work Permit
Any heat source that is capable of creating and cussing spark or ignition. Examples of works that needs this type of Permit: Welding, Grinding, Grilling, Burning, Chipping, Sandblasting, all open Flames, Soldering and Brazing.
Cold Work Permit
Any type of work activity that does not creates and cause spark or ignition. Examples of work that needs this type of Permit: Scaffolding, Painting, Insulation work, Use of hand tools, Housekeeping, Lock-out and Tag-out
Confined Space Enter Permit
Any type work that involve entering into a confined, deep or small area that does not have enough ventilation. Example of works that needs this type of permit: working inside Tanks, Vessels, Reactors, Tower, Drums, Excavation areas, Pipes and Boilers.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Personal Proactive Equipment is used to prevent or reduce injuries to workers. It can protect us from different workplace hazards (Mechanical, Electrical, Chemical). The PPE requirements Head Protective, Eye Protection, Hearing Protection, Hand protection, Body Protection, Foot Protection, Breathing Protection.
Hard Hat is used to protect the workers from impact that can injure them. It can product our head from falling objects, fixed objects, and sharp edge. It must be at a good conduction and must be worn all the time when you are in the field or the workshop.
Safety Glasses and Safety Goggles are used to protect the worker’s eyes from any chemical splashes, dirt, small chips and flying particles that may exist in the air. In addition, face shield must be used when dealing with hot work activities, such as welding, to protect the eyes from flam’s radiation. These protections are used to protect or reduce injuries to the worker’s eyes. They must be worn at all the time when working inside the plant.
Earplugs or Earmuffs are used to protect the worker’s ears from being damaged by high sound of machines and equipment. The must be used at all times inside the field especially at high noise situations.
Safety gloves are used to protect the worker’s hands from injuries. By wearing gloves, you will be able to handle sharp edges, hot parts, and chemicals without injuring your hands. These gloves can be different material, such as cotton, cloth or lather.
It is used to protect the worker’s body from any danger or hazards. It can be whether as a one piece (coverall) or as two pieces. It must be worn all time inside the company.
Safety shoes or boots are used to protect the worker’s feet from any hazards that can injure them. These hazards can be in the form of electrical shocks, filling of heavy tools or equipment over your feet, injuries from splashes liquids.
Chapter 2: Theoretical Background
This chapter include Engineering Fundamentals and Tools (software or hardware) I have learned by using or observing during the training period.
This department is support section which is part of Engineering and reliability. The top priority of inspection is to make sure that any static equipment. Like, Pipelines, tanks, vessels, structural supports, Heaters and Boiler are in safe working condition by using different technique with minimum interruption and allocated time frame.
There are two types of perform activities in Inspection Section:
On stream inspection: any test or repair done while the plant at work condition. Such as
Pressure Safety Valve (PSV) Testing.
Internal Inspection: Visual, UT Thickness and NDT as required
External Inspection: Visual, Thickness check and UFD as required
Piping Inspection Program: Piping Corrosion Loop.
Cathodic Protection Monitoring program: CP Survey of the tank and pipe.
Area Walk through Inspection: Visual Inspection General Observation.
Fire Proofing Inspection Program (Equipment and Structures): Visual and Hammer check.
Painting Inspection Survey of Piping and Structural: Visual and DFT (if required).
Inspection of Hose Pipe: Visual, Monitoring and replacement.
Inspection of Steam Trap: Visual, Monitoring or Maintenance.
Turn around inspection: any test or repair done while the plant in shutdown condition. type:
Code & Standard:
Every employ in inspection section should be with well conversant about American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and American Petroleum Institute (API) codes.
ASME is Society of Mechanical Engineers sharing career enrichment, skill development, and knowledge with all Mechanical engineering in the world to reach a goal of develop solution for helps the global engineering community develop solution to real world challenges.
ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL is an international code consist of twelve different sections and major related to inspection section are Section II Part A/B/C/D, V, VIII and IX.
ASME Section II is about materials:
? Part A- related to ferrous material specifications which provide a date for different solid round bar.
? Part B-related to nonferrous material specifications which provide date for different alloy element.
? Part C- related to Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals which provide information about consumable material (any material that change after using)
? Part D-related to properties (metric) which provide specification data for physical properties, yield stress, tensile stress and allowable stress.
ASME Section V
ASME Section V Is About Non-destructive Examination (NDE) which is various techniques to check surface and internal discontinuities in material weld, fabricated part and components in ways that do not impair future usefulness and serviceability.
Visual examination (VE):
It is used to observe the surface of a test object, shape, alignment of mating surfaces and evidence of leaking.
Radiographic examination (RE):
This activity is a dangerous and hazardous because it works by producing X-ray or gamma radiation. However, it is useful to identify detects. Thus, it is used for safety critical items shush as pressure vessels, lifting equipment and high-pressure pipe work
Ultrasonic examination (UE):
It works by producing a high-frequency sound waves called ultrasonic pulse waves. It is using to observe the corrosion loss of thickness in static equipment by measuring the thickness of the equipment.
Magnetic particle examination (ME):
It is working by producing magnetic fields in the surface of the part to locate surface or sub surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials. It is used to detect the discontinuities on the surface like, cracks, seams, laps, laminations and cold shuts.
Liquid penetrant examination (PE):
It can be color contrast (visible) or fluorescent depend on the dyes. Also, it is used to observation the discontinuities such as, cracks, seams, laps, porosity, laminations and cold shuts. It works by using simple principle capillary action which done by applying a liquid with low viscosity (penetrant) on the surface which will go inside any voids. Once the excess penetrant is removed, then by using of developer the penetrant trapped in those discontinuities will creating an indication.
Eddy Current examination (ECE):
It works by observing the change in the eddy current density which used to characterize the discontinuity causing that change. It used to detect and characterize surface and sub-surface flaws in conductive materials.
Leak examination (LE):
It used to observation the leakage in the system by using different type of fluid which depend in the surface of the system. The test shall be hold for minimum of 30 min (soak time).
ASME Section VIII:
ASME Section VIII Div.1 is about RULES FOR CONSTRUCTION OF PRESSURE VESSELS. Also, provides specific requirements data which apply to serval classes of material used in pressure vessel construction.
ASME Section IX:
ASME Section IX is about Welding and Brazing Quali?cations which provides Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) and Procedure Qualification Record (PQR).
Inspection Tools and equipment:
It is used when the area to be inspected cannot be accessible because the area unapproachable. Also, the device manufacture by OLYMPUS company. It is used for Visual examination (VE) by remote method.
It is used when the area to be inspected cannot be accessible. Also, the device manufacture by VIZAAR. It is used for Visual examination (VE) by remote manual at unapproachable location.
XRF Alloy analyzer-XMET 8000 SMART:
It is used to determine the chemical composition of a wide variety of material sample types including solids, liquids, slurries and loose powders.
UT Thickness Meter, 38DL plus with accessories:
It is used to measuring the thickness of the equipment using ultrasonic waves. Also, the device manufacture by OLYMPUS. It is used for Ultrasonic examination (UE).
Hardness tester (Equotip-3):
It is used to measure of how resistant solid matter is to various kinds of permanent shape change when a compressive force is applied. Also, the device manufacture by PROCEQ. It is used for Ultrasonic examination (UE).
It is used to detect the sub surface discontinuities by using Kit for Magnetic Particle examination (ME) or Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI).
DPT Kit including Cleaner, Penetrant &Developer:
It is used to locate surface-breaking defects in all non-porous materials. Kit for Liquid penetrant examination.
Samsung Galaxy Camera (SM-C101):
Samsung Galaxy Camera is used to take picture inside the plant
Fillet Welding Gauge:
Fillet Welding Gauge is the most used measuring device in the welding inspector’s kit.
Multi Check Welding Gauge:
Multi Check Welding Gauge is intended for dimensional inspection of welded fabrications where close tolerances are not expected.
Filler Gauge used to measure gap widths in fit up inspection.
Dr. Trap used to check the work condition of steam trap. Also, it is used for creating survey lists, an analysis summary (failure rate details and project steam leak…etc.).
Chapter IV: Training work:
In this section of the report I will include the work done during training period, the important of the work, the reason behind the job, procedure, related documents, knowledge learned, observation and recommendation if it required.
Work Number 1: Witness Recalibration of Relief Valve Test.
Pressure safety valve (PSV) is the first defense in the plant. It is important because of it capability to work at all condition by release excess pressure to surrounding. There are many types of PSV such as pressure Relief valve and safety valve.
Because NATPET have a contract with AL SAMAMAT company so we went to witness the recalibration of relief valve test and give the acceptance. Also, we only give the acceptance depend in the result of some tests such as leak test and pop test.
Some information about Leak test and Pop test, if the fluid inside the valve liquid we use water or oil and if it gasses we use nitrogen. Pop test done at set pressure (the pop pressure) whereas, leak test done at 90 % of set pressure. There is some sign indicate the test went in wrong direction such as sudden drop in the pressure gage unless the test accedes the set pressure. For leak test when we see some water or oil come out of the valve while in case of using nitrogen we use a small pipe into small bottle of water to check if there are pops or not.
PSV check lest, we use it to check the certifications of the part to make sure they did the right thing for more information see figure 17 (data lest of 1-PSV-1408-S) which include PSV tag number, service fluid, set pressure, Over pressure …etc. Figure 18 and 19 will show the Certificate of AL SAMAMAT and NATPET Company.
Work Number 2: Wall Thickness Check by using Ultrasonic Thickness Gage and External Visual Inspection.
Corrosion is the major failure in static equipment (Fixed Equipment). Therefore, observing the corrosion in static equipment is very important.
For inside inspection using Ultrasonic Thickness Gage to observe the corrosion loss of thickness in static equipment by measuring the thickness of the equipment. External Inspection using the check list (Visual Inspection).
Checking thickness is one of the routine inspection work done by 38DL plus with accessories, step block for calibration and two type of couplet (gel). Moreover, the type of gel depends in the equipment temperature. One of them with equipment’s have temperature above 150 degree and the other with equipment’s have normal temperature. For more information see figure 20 (External Inspection check list).
Block material calibration is the first before starting the Ultrasonic test. Also, it depends in the material of the equipment. Also, we used Equipment thickness measurement which include the nominal pipe size (NPS) for comparting NPS with the test resulted. Figure 21 is an example of Equipment thickness measurement.
Figure 32:( External Inspection check list).
Work Number 3: Welding Inspection by Using Penetrant Examination (PE) and identify defect
Welding is the process of joining two materials like steel, aluminum, brass, stainless steel, plastic or polymer and fusing them. Detect welding defect is one of inspection routine work. Also, they check any new welding by using penetrant examination. To perform DPT three solutions are used, a cleaner to clean the surface of the test from dust, a penetrant which applied to the surface of the component to go inside any voids and a developer that applied to the surface of the component to help detect any discontinuities. Figure 22 show a picture of test three solutions. After doing the test, the inspector does the report. Figure 23 is an example of liquid penetrant test report.
Figure 35:( liquid penetrant test report).
Work Number 4: Visual Examination to inspect the Boiler through Peep door and thermography camera.
A boiler is an equipment used to produce steam by heating the water. One of the important thing in this plant is availability of steam because of as, a source of heating in various Equipment and piping of plant.
In this section to secure the boiler the use Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code which is standards and regulation codes developed by ASME as a reference. Thus, they did routine External Inspection every three months by using thermography for temperature monitoring and external high temperature zone. Figure 36 show thermography picture.
Also, through peep door (figure37) to check internal condition of fire box. Figure 38 show the component of a fire box. To perform this, open the pipe door of the fire box to check the burner, tube, refractory and bricks. First open the peep door to check the burner 1,2;3 for any bulges, detached and any other abnormality. Then check the tubes for any bulging, scales and any other abnormality to more reachable extent only. include check of refractory for peel off, broken or fallen pieces, cracked and wide gaps. Finally close the peep door.
Work Number 5: Visual Examination to inspect the Outer and Inner Screen in Laydown Area:
After replacement of the reactor screens (inner and outer) in last shutdown on 2017 removed one available in laydown area to investigation the performance of the screens and if they can fix it. To perform this test, we went to the laydown area to inspect Reactor screen component i.e. Seal screen, Blank off plate, Screen wire, Bottom ring of inner Screen, and Lifting lug of inner Screen for inner screen. Also, we check lifting lugs, top and bottom ring plates, perforated plate, base metal, gasket support ring. We found that in the outside of inner screen some scale chips and rust were observed on the screen, Seal screen and blank off plat. Whereas, in the inside of the inner screen some Catalyst remains, scale chips, rust accumulation …etc. for more information see figure (inner screen in laydown area). For outer screen we found that tack weld Broken of Seal screen at 04 different location longest detached length 500 mm approximately and maximum area of seal screen found convex. Also, Longitudinal cracks found (100 mm approx.) between blank off plate to screen wire. Intermittent cracks found in base metal at 06 locations, 47 out of 84 bolts were found Broken and not removed from nuts and Rust mark found on the screen surface. Moreover, Leopard Corrosion mark on screen, Catalyst pills found trapped in between screen wire, Screen wire found dislocate and lift up at 01 locations (middle of screen). Longitudinal cracks found on the base metal of ring at 07 location and longest Crack length = 160 mm approximately and Mechanical damages found on the ring grinding marks, dent mark.
Work Number 6: Using Borescope to inspect the pipe line choke:
Confirmation of pipe choke or not is one of inspection routine work because they need to know the specific condition of the line after de-choked to be sure they did the best repair.
To perform this test the pipe line, need to be isolated and open so the Borescope camera go inside it with the help of the support wire (if it required). Record the test either by picture or video. Figure 37 show borescope screen during the internal inspection of pipeline of R-401.
Chapter V: Conclusion
To sum up, in this report I mention a brief introduction about NATPET Company and the process they use in the plant. After that, I talk about the safety in two main part which are PPE and the work permit. Then, I describe inspection section and it is important and the references which they use to perform their job such as ASME and P;ID. Finally, I mention the work I had done during training period.
I would like to thank Allah for his blessing to accomplish my training program and finshing my final coop report successfully.
I hope that you enjoyed reading my report and it gained your interest.
• Website of NATPET http://www.natpet.com/
• Book of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee on Power Boilers 2015 Edition
• Book of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee on Welding, Brazing, and Fusing 2015 Edition
• Book of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee on Nondestructive Examination 2015 Edition
• Book of ASME Code for Pressure Piping 2010 Edition
• Book of Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings 2009 Edition
• My progress reports
• My daily logbook